TEACHING AND LEARNINGBehavioural and Interactive Approaches
By the end of the day you should be able to:Use behavioural and interactive approaches in your teachingUse SMART and SCRUFFY targets
Approaches to Teaching and Learning
Learning is explicit
Operant ConditioningThe response following the behaviour makes that behaviour likely to be repeated
Behavioural approach to learning
Observable behaviourChange the behaviourPositive reinforcementNegative reinforcement (removal of a reward)PunishmentExtinctionMeasurementIndividualised learning
Tangible rewardsHow do you use behaviouralapproaches in your life?
Skills-based approachTask/ functional analysisChaining (backwards and forwards)PromptingFadingShapingGeneralisation
Precision TeachingShort energetic practice sessionsCollect data to showprogressSupport from coach
Errorless LearningHer mum used flashcards with the word on one side and picture on the other.If Bryony didnt know the word then she flipped over to let her name the pictureBryony learned to readusing errorless learningShe was taught usingflashcards
We can use SMART targetsin education
I can walk away from people when I am feeling angryI can statements
SMART targetI can count 1-5 when pulling each object towards me. I will count like this every day for the next 6 weeks.
SMART targetJohn will take the spoon from an adult once it has been loaded with food and put it in his mouth. He will be prompted by the adult open hand held out to hand the spoon back to the adult. He will do this for at least the first 2 spoonfuls of his first course and all but the last spoonful of his pudding. Review in July.
You write a SMART targetWrite a SMART target for a child who is learning to drink from cup. Select a small step within this general aim suitable for a learner you know.
Task AnalysisTake toothpaste in one handUnscrew the top with the otherPut the top downPick up the toothbrushSqueeze toothpaste onto the brushPut the toothpaste downTurn on the tapPlace the brush under the tapTurn off the tapScrub the teeth front and back top and bottomTurn on the tapRinse the brushPut the brush downReplace the cap on the toothpastePut both brush and toothpaste away
You do a task analysisWrite out the steps for putting on a coat
Write out the steps for finding a favourite game on the CBeebies website
Small steps learningForward-chaining (start at the first step)
Backward-chaining (start at the last step)
Intensive InteractionChildren (& adults) with PMLD need lots of that early interaction given to typical infants if they are to learn how to communicate with other people
Interactive approaches are essentially about having fun!
offer wonderful contexts for learning interactively
How can we to get learners to think?sabotage to encourage thinkingincreasing memorylearning from mistakesquestioning the unusualasking questionspredicting
How can we challenge learners to think and solve problems during the routines of the day?and in lessons?
Interactive approaches can help learners to generalise their skills and understanding
Writing targetsSMART for products of learning eg: coat that has been put on or box full of shapesSCRUFFY for processes eg: listening or being sociable
StrengthsWhat the child can do wellWhat the child seems to be just starting to learnWhat the child likes/ what motivates him or herHow, where and with whom the child learns best
NeedsWhat the child needs right now (eg: to run about the classroom or 2 minute activities or a choice of 3 pictures or .)What the child needs to learn next (based on what the child is beginning to learn - see strengths list)What support/ environment the child needs to learn best (Be careful to stick to the childs needs and not the adults needs nor what comes next in the curriculum)
SCRUFFY targetSam will show through his responses that he likes some stimuli and dislikes others(not Sam will blink his eyes rapidly to show he dislikes lemon juice and a loud clap, 3 out of 4 times 3 days consecutively)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31NameKey TargetDateAnticipated fan on faceAnticipate fan on handsNeeded fewer repetitionsMary SmithRoutes 14 Anticipates repetitively presented stimuliMay 2011
How do your targets /learning objectives enable your learners to:Explore the world around themTake control of their lives and learningLearn from mistakesDemonstrate their understandingUse strategies to improve their learningLearn from social interactionSolve problemsTake responsibilityNegotiate their own learningAchieve as much independence as possible?
Write a SCRUFFY process target for one of your pupils