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teachT yourselflatviantereze svilane bartholomew

Launched in 1938, the teach yourself series grew rapidly in response to the world's wartime needs. Loved and trusted by over 50 million readers, the series has continued to respond to society's changing interests and passions and now, 70 years on, includes over 500 titles, from Arabic and Beekeeping to Yoga and Zulu. What would you like to learn? be where you want to be with teach yourself

The publisher has used Its best endeavours to ensure that the URLs for external websites referred to in this book are correct and active at the time of going to press. However, the publisher and the author have no responsibility for the websites and can make no guarantee that a site will remain live or that the content will remain relevant, decent or appropriate. For UK order enquiries: please contact Bookpoint Ltd,130 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, 0X14 4SB. Telephone: +44 (0)1235 827720. Fax: +44 (0)1235 400454. Lines are open 09.00-17.00, Monday to Saturday, with a 24-hour message answering service. Details about our titles and how to order are available at For USA order enquiries: please contact McGraw-Hill Customer Services, PO Box 545, Blacklick, OH 43004-0545, USA. Telephone: 1-800-722-4726. Fax: 1-614-755-5645. For Canada order enquiries: please contact McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd, 300 Water St, Whitby, Ontario, L1N9B6, Canada. Telephone: 905 430 5000. Fax: 905 430 5020. Long renowned as the authoritative source for self-guided learning with more than 50 million copies sold worldwide-the teach yourself series includes over 500 titles in the fields of languages, crafts, hobbiesbusiness, computing and education. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data: a catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number, on file. This edition published 2009. The teach yourself name is a registered trade mark of Hodder Headline. Copyright 2009 Tereze Svilane Bartholomew In UK. All rights reserved. Apart from any permitted use under UK copyright law, no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information, storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or under licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited. Further details of such licences (for reprographic reproduction) may be obtained from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited, of Saffron House, 6-10 Kirby Street, London, EC1N 8TS. In US'. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Typeset by Transet Limited, Coventry, England. Printed in Great Britain for Hodder Education, an Hachette UK Company, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH, by CPI Cox and Wyman Ltd, Reading, Berkshire, RG1 8EX. Hachette UK's policy is to use papers that are natural, renewable and recyclable products and made from wood grown in sustainable forests. The logging and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin. Impression number Year 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2012 2011 2010 2009

loti patikami nice to meet you you will learn some some common greetings and goodbyes, to say who you are, how to introduce someone, about asking questions and to talk about nationality vai jus runajat latviski?

do you speak Latvian?you will learn more about introducing people to each other, to say which languages you speak, to say where you live and work and to exchange personal information iepazTsimies! let's get acquainted you will earn how to catch someone's attention or open a conversation, to ask for someone's name, address and telephone number, to spell something, to express incomprehension and ask for clarification and the numbers 1-20 mes dzivojam netalu no stacijas

we live not far from the stationyou will learn to say where you are from, to find out where someone else is from, to talk about proximity, how to address

someone (Mr or Mrs) and more numbers: counting up to 100 05 T ir mana gimene this is my family you will learn to talk about members of the family, age, marital status, to ask how much or how many, to express having something and about parts of the body and how to describe people's appearance 64


naciet ciemos come and visit us you will learn the days of the week, about ordinal numbers, to describe where you live (rooms, furniture) and about accepting and declining invitations



labu estgribu! bon appetit! you will learn to order food and drink in a restaurant or bar, about requesting things, how to describe food and what is on the table and to say what you like or dislike about food or drink



ejam iepirkties! let's go shopping! you will learn about buying quantities of things, about buying clothing (asking about prices and sizes), to express necessity and to talk about likes and dislikes (not food)



cikos vi zvanlja?

at what time did he ring?you will learn to talk about time, about making telephone calls and to make arrangements 10 taisni uz prieku straight ahead you will learn about travelling and transport, asking for directions, obtaining travel information and buying tickets




par naudu nevar nopirkt vesefibu

money can't buy healthyou will earn to describe health problems, to buy medication from a pharmacy and about dealing with other services (hairdresser, bank, post office) 12 vai, cik skaisti! oh, how nice! you will learn about the weather and the seasons of the year, about festivals and personal celebrations, how to say dates (months and years) and to describe how you feel 13 pastastiet par sevi tell us about yourself you will earn to chat about your educational background, to talk about your work and profession, to chat about your hobbies and pastimes and to talk more about yourself 14 laimlgu ce|u! have a nice trip! you will learn about using the car, travelling around Latvia, a bit about history and more on dates key to the exercises Latvian-English glossary grammar reference talcing it further





286 294 318 328

Welcome to Teach Yourself Latvian. This book is intended for learners with no previous knowledge of Latvian. It can also be used as a refresher course for those who have some knowledge of Latvian, and wish to revise and consolidate their language skills. Many people have contributedboth directly and directly, to this book. I would like to thank, firstly, my students who, over the years, have taught me so much. In addition, a big thanks and acknowledgement is owed to various colleagues for their advice and encouragement, as well as to Helen Vick and Ginny Catmur at Teach Yourselfwithout whose support this project would not have been realized. Thanks also to my husband Martin.

General remarks about the Latvian languageLatvian is an unusual European language, sometimes described as archaic, because over time it has changed less than other languages. Formally, Latvian belongs to the IndoEuropean branch of languages, however the only other language that is really similar to it is Lithuanian. Beyond that - a p a r t from Slavic and German influences the next kin language is Sanskrit. There aren't many Latvian speakers in the world and it is always a pleasant surprise for Latvians to discover that a foreigner is making an effort to speak their language. The chief difference from English is the absence of articles: there is no a and no the in Latvian.

Nouns (words for things, ideas and people) have gender: they are either masculine or feminine. Only living creatures, however, are referred to as he or she. If you want to refer to a feminine noun such as iela (street), or a masculine noun such as galds able"), you will have to say ta for iela and or tas for galds (tas and ta can mean either that or it). The Latvian language makes use of casesthat is, the endings of nouns, pronouns, adjectives and numerals will change not only because they are masculine or feminine, but also because of their function, the way they are used in a sentence. Lastly, whilst in English there are different forms of the verb in the present tense (for exampleI eat and I am eating)^ in Latvian there is only the one form es edu. This one form of present tense in Latvian has both indefinite and continuous meanings: it can express I eat meat (generally I do - I am not a vegetarian) or I am eating meat fright nowor currently).

How to use this bookRead the introduction in English at the beginning of each dialogue before vou read or listen to the dialogue. The sections marked with Q are on the recording which accompanies the book. We strongly recommend that you use the recording alongside the book. The dialogues attempt to reflect the language as it is really spoken in various everyday situations. See how much you can understand without consulting the vocabulary, because it is useful to learn to deduce or to guess the meaning of what is being said from the context - as you build up your stepping stones' of words. Getting the gist of the conversation without necessarily understanding every single word is what actually happens when you are learning to use a foreign language in real life. Then study the dialogue. The word list after the dialogue gives the meanings of new words and the main phrases. If you cannot find a wora in the vocabulary box, it will be in the glossary at the back of the book. There are also language points explanations about the grammar and about the way the language works. Because of the differences between languages, some of the points may not be immediately obvious. Allow yourself time to absorb the information. It's natural for things to fall into place gradually.

The Let's practise' sections are for practising your speaking skills by reading out loud, and also for listening to the recording, if you have it. Any reading out loud is extremely b e n e f i c i a l - i t helps you get used to the sounds and will help your confidence with speaking and pronunciation. There are also exercises at the end of each unit. These may help you to consolidate your knowledge before you move on to the next unit. These are only suggestions. Everyone has their own completely unique way of learning.

Symbols and abbreviationsQ This indicates that the recording can be used for the following section. Q Information about the country or a particular theme

Abbreviations used in this book are: masc. or m. masculine, fem. or f. feminine, sing. singular, pi. plural acc. accusative, dat. dativegen. genitive, loc. locative imp.imperative, dim. diminutive, coll. colloquial.

The alphabet and pronunciation guideThe Latvian alphabet is similar to the English, but it differs in two respects: there is no qw, x or yand there are three sorts of diacritical marks or accents, which modify the sound of the letter they are on or under. We give examples of all these accented letters in Listen and practiselater in this section. The first accent is a horizontal line, which sits on top of the vowels a, eI, and n. It extends the vowel sound, and makes it longer. That's why sometimes it is called a long. The other two work only with consonants. One is a tiny v (called a jumti^s, or 'little roofin Latvian). This sits on top of the letters cs, and z and gives the consonant sound a kina of crunch chsh and zh. The other is like a comma. It sits underneath the letters k9 1,and 9 and above the letter g. The effect is similar to adding a y, so n sounds like the ny of cawyon. When this y sound is added the sound of the original letter is slightly changed. This will all become clearer in Listen and practise'.

present, as in She gave me a present and I will present you to myfriend and other examples.

The accents or diacritical marks are very significant, because by altering the sounds they can completely alter the meaning of the word. A typical example would be the word V19Swhich means he. Change a few accents to obtain vins, and now it means wine. Another example is the word for wedding kazas. Lose the accent (kazas) and, instead of talking about a wedding, you may find yourself talking about goatsl In fact the same thing happens in English, except it is harder because the change in pronunciation is not shown with a written accent think of

l r Xm t o c u c t i o n

Word stressAs a general rulestress is on the first syllable. However some of the first words you will be learning, such as greetings and thank you are exceptionswith the stress on the second syllable. Just remember that this is unusual.

Q Listen and practise1

Latvian letter a a long b c c d

English equivalent sound like u, in cup as in aaagh

English Latvian example words meaning Anglija, galds mate, masa briti, brlis cilveks, cukurs 6etri, 5ipsi dividurvis

as ts' in rats like 'ch'

England, table mother, sister Brits (British people) brother person, sugar four, crisps two, door

e* e long* f 9 g h i i long j k k 1 1 m n

1)as 2) as 1)as 2) as

in in in in

bet cat air fan

as in gold

d+ y , as in dew as in sitas in feet as in yellow as in king

es ledus est, mes tevs, dels fotografija, filma gramata, gads imenekuis hallo, hokejs Igaunija, istaba trfs, Tret ja, jGs kafija, kresls ^iploks, rekins labs, laiks |oti, bijete menesis, maja ne, nedeja ijemt, astoni ola, koks

/ice to eatwe father, son photograph, book, year family, ship hello, hockey Estonia, room three, to rent / hire yes, you (plural) coffee, chair garlic, bill good, time / weather very, ticket month, house film

s introduction X

t+ y , as inTuesdayas in Latvia

T + y , as inmillionas in normal

no, week to take, eight egg, tree / wood waiter


'n' + y , like in new 1)round, asin whooa

2) open, like awe P r s rolled, like the Scots Yas in soft

oktobris, oficiants October, pilseta, pul

mans / mana {my, minem. / f.) tavs / tava (your, yours, m. / f.) vi^a (his) vi^ias (her, hers) musu (our, ours) (your, yours) jusu (their, theirs) vii^u (their, theirs) vinu

/V /V /IV

When together with a noun the possessive pronouns mans / mana and tavs / tava (or first and second person singular) follow whatever the noun is doing: whether it is masculine or feminine, singular or pluraland also whi ch case i t i s i n. We therefore can say that these possessive pronouns are always in agreement with the noun in gender, number and case. mans vards mana soma/

This is not always obvious. mans alus my beer mana adrese my address mans pui ksteni s my watch manas bi kses my trousers

Hence mans and tavs change together with the noun, but they are the only ones to do so. This does not apply to the other possessive pronouns musu, jusu, vina, vi nas and vinu which resolutely i gnore the noun and stay as they are. Compare the followi ng: mana bagaza mans vards manas atslegas mans li etussargs mani oerni my my my my luggage but: musu bagaza name jusu vards keys i v na atslegas umbrella i v llas lietussargs my children i v nu berni our luggage your name his keys her umbrella their children

Dialogue 3David has a few more questions for the receptionist of the hotel. David Receptionist David Sakiet, IGdzu, kur ir banka? Tepat viesnica, pirmaja stava. Vai banka tagad ir atverta?

e s ms3 >



\ /V /V /l\

s s >1a

my name my bag

mani dokumenti my documents manas atslegas my keys

Receptionist David Receptionist David Receptionist David Receptionist

Ja, noteikti. Paldies. Vai viesnica ir bars? Ja, protams. Kur tas ir? Kur ir bars? Redziet tas gaismas? Tur. Vai bara drikst smeket? Ne, diemzel nedrikst. leksa smeket ir aizliegts. Smeket var tikai ara, darza. pirmaja stava tagad atverts, atverta noteikti redziet (redzet) tur smelcet eka aizliegtson the first floor now open (m., f.) definitely see (imp.) there to smoke inside forbidden

e p a z f s i i e s ! m i

TranscriptDavid Receptionist David Receptionist David Receptionist David Receptionist David ReceptionistTell me please, where is the bank? Right here in the hotel, on the first floor. Is the bank open now? Yes, definitely. Thank you. Is there a bar in the hotel? Yes, of course. Where is it? See those lights? There. Is one allowed to smoke in the bar? No, unfortunately it is not allowed. It is forbidden to smoke inside. (One) can only smoke outside, in the garden.

Language pointsVaret To be ablegribet to want, drikstet to be allowedThese three verbs are parti cularly handy because you can use them together wi th other verbs (in the infinitive) without having to know how they work in detail, that is how they are conjugated:

Vai drikst smeket? Es gribu est. Es negribu dzert. Jus varat atstat. Here some other examples: Vai jus gribat sedet? Vai jus arl gribat nakt? Vai drikstu ienakt? Es gribu iet. Es nevaru gulet.

Is (one) allowed to smokef I want to eat. I don't want to drink. You can leave.Do you want to sit? Do you want to come too? May I come in? I want to go. I cannot sleep. (sedet to sit) (nakt to come) (ienakt to come in) (iet to go) (gulet to sleep)

Other verbs, even ones in the same family such as dzirdet (to hear) and redzet (to see)cannot be used i n the same way as varet, gri bet and dri kstet.

O Latvians and f l o w e r s Latvians have a special relationship with flowers. Flowers or ziedi -literally meaning blossoms are given on just about any occasiorv, to men as well as to women: flowers when invited to dinner, for a name day (varda diena), for a birthday (dzimanas diena), for any anniversary (jubileja), and no concert ends without the musicians muzi^i getting some ziedi. Riga may be one of the only cities in the world to have 24-hour flower shops (ziedu saloni). Those who have a garden (darzs) will be very proud of it. Those who don't have a darzs may make up for its absence with telpaugi (indoor plants). Even the most unprepossessing public buildings can house spectacular jungles of telpaugilovingly tended by the darbinieki (employees) themselves or by the apkopeja (cleaning lady). It is customary to give flowers in bunches of odd numbers. Even numbers are only for beres (funerals), so don't give anyone a dozen red roses (11 is preferable).

Dialogue 4David and Fiona are out with some local rriends. They are at a restaurant, and have just had dinner.

David Draugi Draugi David Draugi David Fiona Draugi Fiona Draugi David

Garslgas vakarinas. Sis ir labs restorans. Ja, restorans ir dargs, bet labs. Kada ir jusu viesnica? Skaista, erta, moderna ... Un istaba? Kada ir jusu istaba? Ja, ari laba.iela, saulaina ... bet... Bet es nevaru gulet. Kapec? Cieta gulta? Ne, gulta ir miksta un erta, bet... ara liels troksnis - cilveki, maslnas, tramvaji, satiksme... Bet jusu viesnica tacu ir klusa iela? Nakti ne. Blakus ir iru krogs. gargsgarga dargs, darga labs, laba ertserta modemsmoderna saulains, saulaina ciets, cieta mlksts, miksta troksnis (m.) tramvajs (m.) satiksme (f_) tadu kluss, klusa blakustasty (m.t f.) expensive (m.f f.) good (m., f.) comfortable (m.f f.) modern (m.f f.) sunny (m f.) hard (m.f.) soft (m f.) noise tram traffic (tag word) quiet (m.f f.) next to, beside

i e p a N I S i i e s ! 0 3 6 m

The friends want to find out all about their hotel.

TranscriptDavid Draugi

Tasty dinner. This is a good restaurant Yes, the restaurant is expensive, but good.

Draugi David Draugi David

What fs your hotel like? Beautiful, comfortable, modern ... And your room? What's your room like? Yes, that's good too. Large, comfortable



But I cannot sleep.Why? Hard bed?

Fiona Draugi David

No, the bed is soft and comfortable, but... there's lots of noise outside: people, carstrams, traffic ... But your hotel is in a quiet streetisn't it? Not at night Next (door) there's an Irish pub.

MQ i e p a N I S i i e s & m

Language pointsKads? What? What kind of?Kads is a question word which literally means what kind of / type of / sort of Often i t i s used for aski ng what's it like?: Kads laiks sodien? What's the weather like today? However, someti mesas i n the di alogue, i t i s used i n places where you would si mply use what i n English: Kads ir jusu vards? What's your name? Kads changes to match the thing or person which it is asking about: vards, numurs are masculine Kads ir jusu vards? What's your name? Kads ir jusu telefona numurs? What's your telephone number? adreseviesnica are feminine Kada ir jusu adrese? Whafs your address? Kada ir jusu viesnica? What's your hotel (like)? This question word changes not only with genderbut also wi th number and case. That means i t wi ll have a di fferent endi ng so as to match nouns i n the plural or nouns i n di fferent cases.

Q Let's practise!Kads ir jusu vards? Kads ir jusu uzvards? Kads ir jusu dzivoklis? Kada ir jusu adrese? Kads ir jusu telefona numurs? Kada ir jusu viesnica? ir?

Describing things: Kads tas ir? Kada ta useful adjectives

Adjectives are words that descri be nouns: an interesting booka small porti on, a large cheque, a tall tree and so on.

In the previous dialogue there was a tasty dinner, a good but expensive restaurant, the hotel room was beautiful, comfortable, modern, the room was large and sunny, and the bed was soft and comfortable. Here are some of the more commonly used adjectives:


gars / Iss (tall / short)

vecs / jauns {old / young)

skaists / negllts (beautiful / ugly)

The adjective jauns can mean either young or new. The adjective gars also has two different meanings: it can mean long (gara iela a long street, gars vi lci ens a long train) or tall (gars virietis tall man, gara meitene tall girl).

Adjectives always agreeLike the possessive pronouns mans and tavs, adjectives always agree with the noun they are attached toor are describing. Here are some examples: Londona ir skaista pilseta. London is a beautiful town. Viija ir skaista meitene. She is a beautiful girl. Rundale ir skaista pils. In Rundale there is a beautiful castle. A vital point to remember is that although in the nominative there are three different feminine noun endings (-a, -eand -s)

there is only the one ending for a singular feminine adjective (-a). So even if you have pilset-a, meiten-e or pil-s, the adjective with a feminine nominative noun will always be skaist-a. Similarly, there is only the one nominative masculine ending for adjectives (-s). Hence it will be liels virs, liels kugis, liels tirgns. The 'adjectives always agree(AAA) principle also applies to nouns in the plural: Parka ir skaistas pulses. Parka ir lieli koki. In the park (there) are In the park (there) are large trees.

e p a z f s _ i e s ! o o m i

beautiful flowers.

And in different cases, here in the locati ve Viesnica i r klusa iela. The hotel is in a quiet street. Mes dzlvojam maza maja. We live in a small house. Mes dzivojam liela dzlvokli. We live in a large flat.

Krasas Colourssarkans oranzs dzeltens za}s zils violets

red orange yellow green blue violet

bruns melns baits peleks roza

brown black white grey pink

When asking about colour, although the locative case is used: Kada krasa? (In what colour?)^ the tendency is to answer in the nominative.


So if the question is: Kada krasa ir vinas mati? (What colour is hair?)and the answer i s brown, the answer wi ll be bruni (the bruni referring to the mati (hair)).

Just as an adjective that describes the noun is always the same gender, number and case as the noun, colours also agree with the noun: sarkans abols oranzs apelsins dzeltens dzintars za{as lapas zilas acis bruni mati violetas vinogas peleki mako^i red apple orange orange yellow amber green leaves blue eyes brown hair purple grapes grey clouds sarkana pildspalva oranza aprikoze dzeltena saule za)a zale zila jura bruna govs violets krekls pelekas peles red pen orange apricot yellow sun green grass blue sea brown cow purple shirt grey mice


melns lietussargs black umbrella baits sniegs white snow

melnas usas baltas bikses

black moustache / whiskers white trousers

Because the word roza does not have a typical ending, it does not change to match the the noun it is describing. roza sampanietis pink champagne roza vaigi pink cheeks To modify colour adjectives you use the adverbs gaisi (light) (literally: lightly) and tumsi (dark) (literally: darkly).



D Dialogue 5Ilze is at an art gallery together with her colleague Karlis. llze Ta ir skaista glezna. lespaidlga. Man |oti patik krasas. Skaties - peleki makoni, dzeltena saule, baits ledus. Interesanta gaisma. Ka to gleznu sauc? Ezers ziema. Mmmm ... es domdju, ka ta glezna ir mazliet garlaiclga. Man labak patik i. Skaties - ir vakars. Svecu gaisma. Uz galda vaze baltas lilijas, sarkans abols un pudele vina. Romantiska glezna... glezna (f.) iespaidfgsiespaidiga man oti patlk (patikt) krasa (f.) skaties (skatlties) interesants, interesanta ezers (m.) garlaiclgs, garlaiclga svece (f ) vaze (f _) lilija (f.) abols (m.) pudele (f.) vlns (m.) romantisks, romantiskapainting impressive (m.f f.) 1 like very much colour watch, look (imp.) interesting (m.f f.) lake boring (m.f f.) candle vase lily apple bottle wine romantic (m.f f.)

Karlis llze Karlis





That's a beautiful painting. Impressive. colours. Look grey clouds, yellow Interesting light What is the painting called?

I really like the sun, white ice.


r J I


Lake in Winter.Mmm ... I think that that painting is a little boring. I prefer (lit I like better) this one. Look - evening. Candlelight On the tablewhite lilies in a vase, a red apple and a bottle of wine. A romantic painting.

Exercises1 Write down the following numbers as figures. a b c d e a b c d e f g septini cetrpadsmit divdesmit pieci septinpadsmit viens + tris = septini cetri = piecpadsmit + divi = divpadsmit + astoni = divi + sesi = astoripadsmit pi eci = vienpadsmit - devini = g devini cetri trispadsmit desmit vienpadsmit

Can you do these sums?

3 Listen to the telephone numbers of the following and write them down in figures. a b c d e f g h RestoransStaburags (Restaurant Staburags) Bernu slimnica (Children's Hospital) Rigas taksometru parks (Riga Taxi Depot) Nacionalais teatris (National Theatre) Skonto stadions (Skonto Stadium) Valsts opera (State Opera) Kafejnica PIrags" [Cafe Pirdgs) Lielbritanijas vestnieciba (British Embassy)

4i < p f i N I S i i ( ( o I > D D m

Which possessive pronoun would you use when talking about the following? a b c d e f g h i j k 1 your your your your your your your your your your your your name house street money flat keys chair luggage children map passport address m n o p q r s t u v our car the i r (m.) flat his children their (f.) keys his house her map our street his chair their (mixed group) passports your (pi.) money


Remember adjectives always agree. How would you say the following in Latvian? a {bad) laiks b (boring) gramata c (beautiful) darzs d (interesting) cilveks e (old) fotografija f (new) automasina g (good) kaimi^ii h (large) dzivoklis i (long) iela j (tall) koks k {short) bikses 1 ( s m a l l ) berni m (sunny) diena


Circle the correct form of the verbthat i s the one whi ch belongs to the pronoun. a es varu / varat / vararn b vi i js i gr bam / gri bu / gri b c mes i dr kstat / dri kstam / dri kstu d vi i jas var / varu / varat e jus i dr kst / dri kstat / dri kstam f tu i gr bat / gri b / gri bi


How would you say the following to someone?b

43i(Dpttzfs_miil.5"0) ( 0 c s

Or i t can have a meani ng si mi lar to the French chez, i .e. at the house o f someone or with someone: pie draudzenes pie arsta uz (on) at (a) girlf riend's at the doctor's (nom. draudzene) (nom. arsts) on the table / on the street behind the park / behind the opera without sugar / without milk under the tree / under the bed above the apartment / above the house

Other preposi ti ons whi ch take the geni ti ve are as follows: uz galda / uz ielas aiz {behind) aiz skapja / aiz operas bez (without) bez cukura / bez piena zem (under) zem koka / zem gultas virs (above) virs dzivokja / virs majas

Q Dialog ue 3l e sd N I V O J a e t a u m mn n o s t a c i j t t c o G ^ l

At a company party, Lai ma wants t o fi nd out more about David. She's heard a lot about hi m from her husband Karli s, but n o w she wants t o f i nd out for herself and also t o gi ve hi m a chance t o practi se hi s Latvi an. Laima David Laima David Laima David Laima David Laima David Laima David Laima No kurienes jus esat? Kuriene? Es nesaprotu. Kas tas ir - kuriene Es esmu no Rigas, no Latvijas. No kurienes jGs esat? No kuras vietas? Es esmu no Skotijas. Ak ta, no Skotijas. No kuras pilstas? Es esmu no Glazgovas, bet tagad musu gimenes majas ir Londona. Vai jusu virs Karlis ari ir no Rigas? Ne, vins nav ridzinieks, vins ir no Daugavpils. Mana vira gimene tevs, mate, bra|i visi dzivo Daugavpill. Atvainojiet, ka es nezinu, bet kur ir Daugavpils? Diezgan talu no Rigas - Latvijas austrumos, netalu no Lietuvas robeas. Vai ta ir liela pilseta? Ja, Daugavpils ir otra lielaka pilseta Latvija. Sakiet, kas tur ir? Tur ir Daugavas upe, veikali, cietoksnis un makslas muzejs. Gleznotajs Marks Rotko ir dzimis Daugavpill.

kur, kura vieta (f.( ka nezinu (zinat( austrumos (m. pi.( robeia (f.( otra lielaka cietoksnis (m.( maksla (f.( muzejs (m.( gleznotajs (m.(

which (m., f.) place that 1 don't know in the east border second largest fortress art gallery painter

TranscriptLaima David Laima

Where are you from? Kuriene? I don't understand. What's that, kuriene I am from Riga, from Latvia. Where are you from? From which place?

David Laima David Laima David Laima David Laima David Laima

I m from Scotland. Oh I see, from Scotland. From which town? l,m from Glasgow, but now our family home is in London. Is your husband Karlis also from Riga? No, he's not a Rigan, he's from Daugavpils. M y husband's family father, mother, brothers - all live in Daugavpils. Pardon me that I don't know, but where is Daugavpils? Rather far from Riga _ in the east of Latvia, not far from Lithuania's border. Is it a large town? Yes, Daugavpils is the second largest town in Latvia. Tell me, what do you have there? What's there? There's the River Daugava, shops, a fortress and an art gallery. The artist Mark Rothko was born in Daugavpils.


l l z v o j t t e t i u T msd mn n o s t a c i j t t o ) d

Language pointsKurS? Which?The question word kurs? (masculine form) means which f Like the question word kads, this too changes according to gender number and case. When used together wi th the preposi ti on no, the word kurs or kura also takes on geni ti ve case endi ngs (no kumno kuras). This i s how i t works: Kura pi lseta? (nominative) + no pilsetas No kuras pilsetas?

Which town?

from town

(no + genitive)

From which town?

Kuriene, turiene un Sejiene and jhere' as a place


(no + which + genitive)

When the questi on word kur i s used together wi th a preposi ti on (from or to), i t becomes a ki nd of unnamed place and behaves like a noun, hence no kuri enes. From here as a place i s no sejienes^ si mi larly f rom there wi ll be no turi enes.

There are always exceptions - the unusualnounsIn Latvi an, as you knowmasculi ne nouns i n the nomi nati ve singular have three types of endings: -s (-s), -is and -us. There are only a few words wi th the latter endi ng:


ledus lietus klepus

ice i t rgus rain i v dus cough

market middle

alus medus

beer honey

i s dNTVOJam n e t s u n o stacija C H

Feminine nouns also have three possi ble endi ngs: -a, -e and -s. T h e thi rd endi ng i s not very prevalent, but appears i n some commonly-used words: pils acs govs pllts

castle eye cow stove

valsts auss zivs

state ear fish

nakts sirds krasns

night heart oven

It helps t o learn and practi se these. N o t e that i n the si ngular these all retai n the same form both for the nomi nati ve and the geni ti ve case.

O Latvian revolutionaries The notion of 'hot-headed Latvian' seems a contradiction in terms, but over the centuries there has been a fair number of Latvians passionate about a cause, including the riflemen who fought to protect Lenin at the Winter Palace in 1917. In the early twentieth century, when Latvia was under the rule of Tsarist Russia, supporters of left-wing ideas were forced to seek refuge outside the country in Switzerland, Norway and elsewhere. The debate and distribution of sympathies amongst Latvian writers of the time about the 1905 revolution is the subject of a separate essay, although it was not only intellectuals who supported revolutionary causes, naturally. More often than not, these political refugees ended up in England. The activities of East European revolutionaries in London has been the theme of several fictional works, notably Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent and more recently, Ken Follett's The Man from Leningrad. The tales of the colourful exploits and adventures of Latvian revolutionaries are not all fiction, however. In the book Latviesi Lielbritanija (Latvians in Great Britain) various authors describe some of the more visible rebels not all of them rogues - who populated London in the early years of the last century. Perhaps the most prominent is Peter the Painter, who figured in the socalled Siege of Sidney Street in London's East End. Peter the Painter aka Peter Piatkow may not be a personality other Latvians would be most proud of, nevertheless his escapade certainly hit the headlines in 1911and even involved Winston Churchill, then Home Secretary in Lloyd-Georqe's government.

O Dialog ue 4J o h n has been i nvi ted t o a football match. H e i s on the way to the stadi um, but i sn't qui te sure where i t i s, so he asks a passer-by. ohn asser-by ohn asser-by ohn ohn Sakiet, ludzu, vai jus zinat kur ir Skonto stadions? Diemel es nezinu. Es neesmu no sejienes. Es neesmu vietejais. Es esmu no Zviedrijas. Es ari esmu arzemnieks. Kura viesnica jGs dzivojat? Es nedzivoju viesnica, es dzivoju pie drauga Saulkrastos. Bet tas ir talu no sejienes. Ne, ne parak talu. Ar vilcienu 30 minGtes. Mana drauga maja ir tuvu pie dzelzceja stacijas. Bet kur jGs dzivojat? Mes dzivojam veca dzivokli Teatra iela, Rigas centra aiz kanala, netalu no operas. Vai jGs zinat, kur tas ir? Ja, es zinu. Vai tas ir jusu dzrvoklis? Ne, tas ir mGsu draugu dzivoklis. Ziema vini dzivo laukos. Kas notiek Skonto stadiona? Futbola macs? Ne, ledus hokejs. Ledus hokeja spele. jOs zinat (zinat) ejiene (f.) vietejais (m.) arzemnieks (m.) parak minute (f.) tuvu dzelzce| (m.) stacija (f_) kanals (m.) lauki (m. pi.) Kas notiek? futbols (m.) mads (m.) ledus hokejs (m.) spele (f.)

53o s t f i ) c i j f i ) o > C 4

5mesl l a d I O J V ^ N e t t t u^ mn

ohn asser-by ohn

you know here, this place (see note) local foreigner too, overly minute near railway station canal countryside What's happening? football match (coll.) ice hockey match, game

TranscriptJohn Passer-by

Tell me, please, where is the Skonto stadium? Unfortunately, I don't know. I'm not from here. I'm not a local. I'm from Sweden.

ohn asser-by ohn asser-by ohn

I'm a foreigner too. Which hotel are you staying (lit living) in? I'm not living at a hotel, I'm living at my friend's in Saulkrasti. But that's a long way away from here. No, not too far. Thirty minutes by train. My friend's house is near the railway station. But where are you living? We're living in an old apartment in Teatra iela, in the centre of Riga behind the canal, not far from the opera. Do you know where that is? Yes, I do know. Is it your flat? No, it's our friends' flat In the winter they live in the country. What's happening at the Skonto stadium? A football match? No, ice hockey. It's an ice hockey match.

^ 30s t a c i j t t C D G 4 I


l l d z v o j t t e s . u mn

Language points'Plural-only' nouns and the locative caseSome 'plural-only' nouns that you have already seen are: durvis (door), bikses (trousersbr i lles (spectacles), i z ^as (news) brokastis (breakf ast, pusd i enas (lunch), vakari ^as {dinner) and kazas [wedding). These are all feminine. If you want to say that you are at breakfast, at lunch, at dinner or at a weddingyou use the locati ve: brokastis pusdienas vakarinas kazas at break f ast at lunch at dinner at a I the wedding

The poi nts of the compass or di recti ons are also plural nouns but they are mascul i ne: z i emel i (north)^ d i env id i (south)^ austrumi (east) and ri etumi (west). Just as in Englishnortheast wi ll be expresed as zi emelaustrumi , northwest i s zi emejri etumi southeast i s di envi daustrumi and southwest i s di envi dri etumi . To express that somethi ng i s in a certai n di recti on, the locati ve case i s used. Hence in the south wi ll be di envi dos, in the north ziemelos, in the southeast w i ll be di envi daustrumos and so on.

ziemeli' l o sd z < o j a m mnetttllu31^ n o s t a c i j t t c o C J .




Similarly the word for countryside i s lauki , another masculi ne plural noun, and i f somethi ng i s in the countryside, or si mply country^ you say laukos. Mes dzi vojam pi lseta, bet musu draugi dzi vo laukos. We live in town, but our f riends live in the country.

Tuvu un talu Near and farVery often the adverbs near (tuvu) and far (talu) wi ll be placed with the preposi ti ons by (pi e) and from (no): tuvu pi e and talu no. Thi s i ndi cates whether i t i s near or far i n relati on to something else: tuvu pie staci jas near the station netalu no operas not f ar f rom the opera talu no seji enes f ar f rom here If you want to know whether somethi ng i s near or far i n a general sense you can say: Vai tas i r tuvu? Vai tas i r talu? Is it near? Is it f ar?

Let's practise!tuvu pi e talu no Vai tas i r tuvu? Vai tas i r talu? tuvu pie staci jas talu no staci jas tuvu pie Doma laukuma talu no Doma laukuma


tuvu pie parka talu no pilsetas

tuvu pie juras talu no darba

l ^ e t a u^ msdNIVOjttm n n o s t a c i j o ) M c ^ *

Zinat to knowlasft to read' and other verbsThe thi rd large family of verbs could be called the zinat ormore conveniently, (so that we don't mi x them up wi th the runat family) the lasi t fami ly of verbs: es zi n-u, las-u mes zi n-am, las-am tu zi n-i , las-i jus zi n -at, las -at vii^s / vi na / viiji / vinas zi n-alas-a This group i ncludes often-used verbs such as stasti t (to tell or to relate"), dari t (to do), rakst i t (to write), ga id i t (to wait), and meginat (to try). There are many verbs i n thi s fami ly. Some more are zvani t (to ring, p i ezvan i t (to call up, parad i t (to show)^ skai ti t (to count), sutit (to send), apskati t (to look at)9 mai ni t (to changeturp i nat (to continue) and atbalsti t (to support). It may not be practi cal to try to learn of these all at once. Howeverdo keep them for reference.

Dialog ue 5Tija and Arvi ds have just arri ved i n Ri ga from Canada. They have had a long day, settli ng i nshoppi ng, vi si ti ng relati ves and friends. Ti ja i s now looki ng for her travel bag.Tija Arvlds Tija Arvlds Kur ir mana adas ceja soma? Nezinu. Vai tu nevari atrast? Ne. Nav zem galda, nav uz gultas, nav aiz skapja. Baidos, ka varbGt to atstaju lidosta. Soma varetu but daudzas vietas: lidosta, pie tantes, dzelzceja stacija, Matisa tirgu, puku veikala, draugu dzivokll Kas tur ieksa? Soma? Viss: dienasgramata, saulesbrilles, kontaktlecas, lupu krasa, Rigas karte, latviesu valodas gramata, pildspalva, zobu birste, lietussargs, naktskrekls ... Naktskrekls ari? Ja, tu tacu zini ka ir, kad cilveks ce|o. Un kur ir pases un lidmasinas bijetes? Tas ir mana rokassoma. Naudas maks ari.


ArvTds Tija Arvlds Tija

Some minutes


Tija Arvids Tija

Atradu! Kur bija? Vannas istaba!

l l C I s d N V O j a e t t t u 9m T D mn 5 30 s t a c i j t t

ada (f.( atrast baidos (baidfties( lidosta (f.( dzelzceja stacija (f.( dienasgramata (f.( saulesbrilles (f. pi.( kontaktlecas (f. pi.( lupu krasa (f.( karte (f.( naktskrekls (m.( lidmaTnas bijete (f.( rokassoma (f.( naudas maks (m.( atradu (atrast( Kur bija? (but( vanna (f.(

skin, also leather to find 1 fear at the airport at the railway station diary sunglasses contact lenses lipstick map nightdress plane ticket handbag purse, wallet 1 found (it) Where was it? bath

o ) C J

TranscriptTija ArvTds Tija



ArvTds Tija ArvTds Tija***

Wheres my leather travel bag? I don't know. Can't you find (it)? No. It's not under the table, it's not on the bed, it's not behind the wardrobe. I fear that perhaps I left it at the airport. The bag could be in many places: at the airport, at aunt's, at the railway station, at the M atisa market, in the flower shop, in our friends' flat What's inside it? In the bag? Everything: diary, sunglassescontact lenses, lipstick, a map of Riga, Latvian language book, pen, toothbrush, umbrella, nightdress... Nightdress too? Yes, you know how it is when a person travels. And where are the passports and plane tickets? Those are in my handbag. Purse also.


I found (it)!


Where was (it)?In the bathroom!

SI ir Riga This is RigaThis i s a story about Ri ga. Fi rst read i t wi thout looki ng at the vocabulary li st, and see if you can work out the meanings of the words you don't know from the context. Latvijas galvaspilseta i r Riga. Riga i r sena pilseta. Ta i r di bi nata 1201. gada. Pasrei z Ri ga dz i vo gandri z 1 mi ljons c i lveku. Pilsetas centra i r skai sti parki un darzi operas namsvai raki teatri, uni versi tate, bi bli otekas, daudzas bazmcas, v i esnlcas, restorani un ari kanals. Rigas sirds ir Vecriga. Vecriga ir pilsetas vecaka dala. Ri ga atrodas Daugavas krasta. Pi e upes i r Ri gas pils. Ta i r Latvi jas valsts prezi denta darba vi eta. Ri ga atrodas tikai dazus ki lometrus no juras. Netalu no centra i r Rigas osta, dzelzcela staci ja un autoosta. Ai z staci jas i r ti rgus. Ri ga i r 7 kalni. Ri ga un tas apkartne i r ap 90 ezeru. sens, sena dibinat gandriz nams (m.( vairaki biblioteka (f.( baznlca (f.( da|a (f.) krasts (m.) atrodas (atrasties) kilometrs (m.) osta (f.) autoosta (f.) kalns (m.) apkartne (f.)ancient (m.f f.) to establish almost house, building several library church part bank is located kilometre port coach or bus station hill surroundings

8 mesl d z V O J a sn e t a u T

30 s t a c i j C D a ) c ^

Exercises1 Put the names in the brackets into the genitive case to complete the sentences. Example: Karla uzvards ir Ozolins. (Karlis) a b c d (Deivids) uzvards ir Brauns. (Fiona) virs ir Deivids. (Deivids) sievas vards ir Fiona, (Karlis) drauga vards ir Deivids.

Kads ir (Ilze) uzvards? Harijs ir (Millija) bralis. Millija ir. (Harijs) masa. Harijs un Millija ir (Fiona un Deivids) berni. Karlis ir (Laima) virs. 2 Match the written-out numbers in the left-hand column with the correct figure from the right-hand column. a b c d e f g h 3 septi^ipadsmit deviiidesmit asto^i divdesmit tris cetrdesmit sesi asto^padsmit divpadsmit septindesmit viens trlsdesmit pieci i ii iii iv v vi vii viii 71 18 12 35 46 98 23 17

l o s dNTVOjam n e f f i l u 3 ^ 1m M c t 6 nostacija

Comprehension. In the dialogues you have met a number of characters. Read or listen to the following statements and then say whether they are correct (pareizi) or wrong (nepareizi). If neither, then say we don't know (mes a b c d e f g h Deivids un Fiona ir virs un sieva. Pasreiz viiji abi dzivo Riga, Fiona strada viesnica. Laima daudz strada. Deivids ir skots. Karja sieva ir Dzeina. Deivida un Fionas berni dzivo Lietuva. Millija un Harijs ir gudri berni.


Practise using prepositions with the noun in the genitive case. Fiona Brauna ir no (Glazgova). Mes neesam no (sejiene). Es dzivoju pie (draugs). Drauga maja ir tuvu pie (stacija). Daugavpils ir talu no (Riga). Musu dzivoklis ir netalu no (opera). Dzivoklis ir aiz (kanals). Bijetes ir uz (galds). Soma ir zem (gulta). Pie (muzejs) ir parks.a facd e ( s h i

5 You are in a social situation and are introduced to the following people. How would you address them? Example: Marta Rasupe Rasupes kundze a b c d e f g Mara Dzounsa Dzordzs Klunijs Fiona Brauna Nikola Kidmena Peteris Vilci^s Dzeks Tomsons Gundega Eglite h i j k 1 m n Ilze Baltina Dzeimss Bonds Dzermeina Grira Naidzels Vaits Deivids Brauns Karlis Ozolins Laima Ozoliija

The verbs zinat, lasit, rakstit, darit, meginat, gaidit are all in the same family. Give the correct form of the verb for each pronoun given? a b c d e f es (zinat) mes (meginat) vi^s (gaidit) jus (darit) viija (rakstit) tu (lasit)

Change the place names in the brackets to indicate where? Which part will be in the locative case? a b c d e f g h i j a b c d (Brivibas iela) ir daudzi veikali. Turisti ir (Rigas lidosta). (Matisa tirgus) ir aboli un apelsini. Deivids strada (Latvijas Banka). Fiona stude (Londonas Universitate). (Latvijas lauki) ir slikti ceji. (Doma laukums) ir laba kafejnica. Musu viesnica ir (Kaleju iela). Vi^s dzivo (draugu dzivoklis). Dzivoklis ir (Teatra iela). How would you ask someone for their telephone number in Latvian? How would you tell someone that you live not far from the station in Latvian? If asked Kads ir jusu uzvards?, what do they want to know? Someone tells you Es esmu arzemnieks. What does this mean?

Answer the following questions.

50 miles


N V O j a e t u T msd mn m n o s t a c i j t t M C 4

Here you have a map of Latvia. Look at the map and answer the questions about where some of the major towns are located. Example: Kur ir Bauska? Bauska atrodas Latvijas dienvidos. a b c d e Kur Kur Kur Kur Kur ir ir ir ir ir Rezekne? Valka? Kuldlga? Daugavpils? Aluksne?

In this unit you will learn to talk about members of the family, age and marital status to ask how much or how many to express the notion of having or possession about parts of the body and to describe people's appearance

D Dialogue 1Ilze and Laima meet at the market. llze Laima llze Labdien! Ka jums iet? Paldies, labi. Un jums? Ka jums iet? Ari labi.

6 5 mana3


Apgerbs Clothingbluze cepure

krekls svarki bikses zekes

uzvalks azemperis krekls bikses zel^es apaksbikses sorti vejjaka zabaki josta cepure zakete kazoks papezi kabatas

suit (man) jumper shirt trousers socks underpants shorts windcheater boots belt hat jacket fur coat heels pockets

kostlms jaka bluze svarki zel^ubikses krusturis tops metelis kurpes salle cimdi abas kaklasaite, sjipse

suit (woman) cardigan blouse skirt tights bra top coat shoes scarf gloves slippers necktie

3 ejttml_epirktjes!oan

Dialogue 4It's a Saturday. David and Fiona are going shopping at one of the large shopping centres. On the way there they run into one of David's colleagues, Karlis. Karlis David Karlis Fiona Ko jus sodien darisit? Mes iesim uz lielveikalu iepirkties. Ko jus pirksit? Delam pirksim dzemperi. Man vajag kurpes, un Deividam vajag jaunu kreklu un jaunas bikses.

At the department store David tries on a shirt. David Vai man der sis krekls? Pardeveja Es domaju, ka tas jums ir mazliet par lielu. Piedurknes ir par garu, un redziet te par platu. VarbGt sis bGs labaks? Meanwhile Fiona is at the shoe shop. Es gribetu uzlaikot tas kurpes. Kuras? Tas tur, skatloga, kreisaja sturi. Kads ir jGsu izmers? Man liekas, ka izmers bus 38 (trisdesmit astotais). Vai tas ir adas? Pardevejs Ja, adas. Fiona Pardevejs Fiona Pardevejs Fiona The shop assistant brings the shoes and Fiona tries them on.

Pardevejs Vai der? Fiona Ne} neder. Nav pareizais izmers. Mazliet par mazu. Pardevejs Tad jums drosi vien vajag 39. (trisdesmit devlto). Acumirkli, es atneslu 39. izmeru. He brings a larger size. Pardevejs Fiona Pardevejs Fiona Vai der? Ja, tiesi laika! Sis ir joti ertas kurpes. Cena an |oti laba. Izskatas labi. Jums piestav. Vai pemsit? Krasa gan man nepatlk. Sis melnas tadas ... iedodiet man, IGdzu, tas baltas. iepirkties man der par lielu piedurknes (f. pi.) par garu par platu uzlaikot skatlogs (m.) kreisaja stun izmers (m.) neder pareizais par mazu atnesTu (atnest) tie laik cena (f.( jums piestav to shop (it) fits me too large sleeves too long too wide to try on shop display window in the left corner size doesn't fit the correctright too small I will bring just right price suits you


Language pointsKa tas izskatas? How does it look?Izskatas labi. Man der. Man piestav. Tiesi laika! It looks good. It f its me. It suits me. Just right!

Problemas Problems with clothingnepareizais izmers Man neder. Man nepiestav. par lielu par mazu par garu par Isu par platu parsauru the wrong size It doesn't fit me. It doesn't suit me, too large too small too long too short too wide too narrow

3.jfi>3 i e p i r 5 : i e s ! o o o

Dialogue 5Laima admires Gundega's shoes. Man patik tavas sarkanas kurpes. Vai tas ir jaunas? Ne, tas ir pavisam vecas. Skaties - papezi jau nodilusi. Bet tev piestav. Ar to sarkano kleitu izskatas |oti labi. Kur tu pirki? Gundega Vairs neatceros. Man skiet, ka varbGt kaut kur Barona iela. Tur atrodas dazi labi kurpju veikali. Parasti es ieperkos tur. Laima Tsteniba es tagad mekleju zabakus. Nak ziema, un man nav ko vilkt kajas. Gundega Ja, man ari vajag zabakus. Un siltu biezu meteli. Perc kazoku. Kad krit sniegs, kazoks ir vislabakais. Laima Gundega Drosi vien. Bet man skiet, ka soreiz es pirksu vilnas meteli. Man jau ir kazokadas cepure. Laima Gundega Laima pavisam nodilui vairs neatceros (atcereties) man kiet ieperkos (iepirkties) Tsteniba vilkt biezs, bieza krlt (krist) oreiz vilna (f_) kazokada (f_) quite (completely) worn away 1 don't remember anymore it seems to me 1 shop actually to wear thick (m.f f.) falls / is falling this time wool fur

Language pointsMan vajag siltu, biezu meteli I need a warm, thick coatHere are some description words to describe clothing: silts biezs plans adas svitrains rutains warm thick thin leather striped checked vilnas kazokadas kokvilnas pul^ains spilgts woollen fur cotton flowery vivid

Man vajag ... I need...One way of expressing necessity is the structure man vajag. This is unusual in that it requires the accusative case: Ko tev vajag? Man vajag zabakus. What do you need? I need boots.

When speaking about the future, you simply change the verb part to vajadzes. Maisi^u vajadzes? Will (you) need a bag? Similarly, when speaking about the past, the verb part changes to vajadzeja: Deividam vajadzeja jaunu kreklu. David needed a new shirt.

Dialogue 6Karlis and Laima are getting dressed and ready to go out to a party. They are not impressed with each other's choice of clothing. Tu tacu nevilksi to violeto kreklu. Es gribeju vilkt balto, bet tas ir netlrs. Kapec tu to neaiznesi uz ve|as mazgatuvj? Vai tev nav cita? Ne, tas ir mans vienigais baltais krekls. Starp citu, tas sarkanas kurpes nepiestav tai kleitai. Un ta balta rokassoma ... ta ir sausmlga! Laima 1 pukaina kleita ir mana mljaka kleita! Laima Karlis Laima Karlis

Karlis Laima Karlis Laima Karlis

Kleita nav slikta, bet tev vajag citas kurpes. Citu kurpju man nav. Tikai tie brunie zabaki. Tos brunos zabakus gan nevelc! Es domaju, ka man vajadzes jaunas kurpes. Es jau zinu. Jaunas kurpes ... jaunu rokassomu dzivokli... jaunu vlru ... kur tas viss beigsies? you won't wear dirty (m.t f.) (you) didn't take / carry horrible (m., f.) favourite (m.f f.) already Where will it all end?


" O m

i is

nevilksi (vilkt) netlrs, netlra neaiznesi (aiznest) ausmlgs, ausmlga mljakais, ml)aka jau Kur tas viss beigsies? (beigties)

Language pointsPatfk / nepatlk - expressing like and dislikeThe verb man patik behaves the same way as the verb man garso, and they both mean to like, but they are not exactly the same. The latter, man garso, is used only when talking about things which are eaten or drunk. Man patik can be used for everything or anything that you like or dislike: clothes, hobbies, booksfilmspeople, activities, the weather and so on.

as sarkanas kurpes Those red shoesThe def inite ending on adjectives is used when speaking about something def inite or known, or something that has already been mentioned previously. It is also used af ter demonstrative pronouns (sistas, etc.) or possessive (mans, jusu, etc.) pronouns. In the previous dialogues we saw def inite adjectives in the accusative case: sis melnas kurpes to sarkano kleitu to violeto kreklu es gribeju vilkt balto ... tos brunos zabakus these black shoes that red dress that purple shirt I wanted to wear the white those brown boots


Nominative Locative Singular Plural masc. fem. masc. fem. baltais balta baltie baltas baltaja baltaja baltajos baltajas

Accusative balto balto baltos baltas

40OWB iepirktieslOOQ

To summarize, f or the accusative of def inite adjectives: The singular ending f or both masculine and f eminine is -o. The plural endings are -os (masculine) and -as (f eminine). balto kreklu, meteli, kleitu, bluzi, cepurikostimu, uzvalkusalli baltos zabakus, svarkus, cimdus baltas kurpes, bikses, ze^es

For example: Sodien es vilksu :

Dialogue 7Elita bought a new suit, but on getting home discovered that there were a few problems with it. She has returned to the shop to complain. ita Es gribu sudzeties! Pardeveja Ja, IGdzu, kas par lietu? ita Es vakar te nopirku kostimu, bet velak majas pamanlju, ka zaketei ir notrukusi poga un svarkiem ir sapllsis ravejsledzejs. Pardeveja Ka tas var but? Vai kostlms ir jauns? ita Ja, kostlms ir pavisam jauns. Vakar pirkts, tacu! Pardeveja Vai jums ir cekii^s? ita Ja, te ir jusu veikala kvits. Pardeveja Paradiet! sudzeties Kas par lietu? pamanlju (pamanft( notrukusi (notrukt( poga (f.( saplisis (sapUst( ravejsledzejs (m.( 5ekip (m.( kvits (f( paradiet (paradit( to complain What's up? 1 noticed has come off button has come apart, torn zip receipt receipt show (imp.)

Language pointsKo tu sodien vilksi? What will you wear today?Another way of asking what someone is wearing is Kas vinam / vinai mugura?, literally What has he / she got in (on) their back?. This f orm of expression is typical when talking about clothing. There are a number of similar metaphorical expressions which describe how things are worn don't take them too literally: Galva es vilksu cepuri. On my head I will wear a hat. Ap kaklu salli. Around my neck a scar f. Rokas cimdus. On my hands gloves. Pirkstos gredzenus. On my f ingers rings. Kajas bikses. On my legs - trousers. Kajas - kurpes, zel^es. On my f eet - shoes socks. Mugura - krekludzemperikleituzaketisvarkus. On my back - a shirt a jumper a dress, a jacketa skirt.

4 ejamiepirkties!coo

Exercises1 Change the following into the plural. Be aware of when you are talking about quantities, and when you are using adjectives. There is a difference! Example: (2) paciija sviesta divas pacinas sviesta a b c d e f g h i j k 1( m 2 (6) gatavs banans (4) suligs apelsins (10) svaiga ola (5) zaveta aprikoze (9) salds abols (7) kupinats lasis (2)liela zivs (3) mazs kukulis maizes (100) grami cukura (3) kilograms ga)as (2) glaze vina 6 ) %ele desas (8) tase kafijas

Match the appropriate measurements or containers and the following items (in the genitive case, of course): a b c kilograms (cepumi) gabalins (siers) puslitrs (piens)

d e f g h i j k 1 m 3

trauci^s (ievarijums) gabals (gaja) pudele (ejja) kukulis (maize) paci^a (garsvielas) paka (milti) litrs (mineraludens) 200 grami (makaroni) sl^ele (desa) pusotrs kilograms (tomati)


lO _ p i i O Q s e e

Now let's go into reverse. Do this exercise in three steps:1) Change the nouns in column A to the genitive. 2) Combine with the word in column B and then 3) Use the phrase in the sentence Iedodiet manludzu ...What happens to the f ood items in column B? Example: Step 1:apelsini apelsinu Step 2: apelsinu sula Step 3: Iedodiet man, ludzu, apelslnu sulu. A a b c d e f g h apelsini senes plumes l^iploki ga)a siers slpoli vista B sula merce ievarijums desa salati maize zupa karbonade


Where do you need to go to if ...? Find the correct answer in the right-hand column. a b c d e f you need a hair dryer? you need to repair your watch? you need a new dictionary? your suit needs dry cleaning? you wish to buy some flowers? you need a new pair of shoes? i gramatnlca ii ziedu salons iii apavu, somu un pulksteiju remonts iv kurpju veikals v kimiska tiritava vi elektrotehnika


Here are some specialist shops and some items of shopping you need. Answer the questions in Latvian. a b c d e f Ko var nopirkt tirgu? f ( ruit) Ko var nopirkt apgerbu veikala? (a jacket) Ko var nopirkt avizu kioska? (a newspaper) Ko var nopirkt gramatnica? (a map of Riga) Ko var nopirkt lielveikala? f ( ood) Ko var nopirkt davanu veikala? (a painting) a checked skirt a stripy shirt com f ortable shoes a warm coat a woollen scarf a leather handbag

l r 4 j t t e p i k t i e s m i We


How would you say the f ollowing in Latvian? a b c d e f


Match the descriptions to the articles of clothing using the definite f orm of the adjective. a b c d e f g h tas (sarkans) kurpes tas (baits) krekls tie (rutains) svarki sis (dzeltens) dzemperis tas (svitrains) bikses si (pulpins) kleita ta (biezs) cepure ta (spilgts) kaklasaite


Problems with clothing. Look at the illustrations and say what the problems are.

Transcriptsj a e m iepirkties!ooo

Dialogue 1llze Tell me, is that bread fresh? Pardevejs Yes, of course it's fresh. llze Give me, please, a half loaf of bread. How much will that cost? Pardevejs 52 centimes. And what else? llze One bottle of mineral water. Pardevejs What else? llze Please give me 1 kilogramme of apples. Pardevejs Which apples do you want? llze Those red ones, please. And that will be all. Pardevejs That will be 76 santims. Together it comes to 2 lats and 53 santims. llze That's not cheap. Pardevejs It's more expensive elsewhere.

Dialogue 2Karlis Do you have dairy products? Pardeveja Of course. What would you like? Karlis I would like, please, a packet of butter and 2 litres of milk. Pardeveja And what else? Karlis A piece of cheese, please. Pardeveja Which cheese? Karlis That (one), there. Pardeveja How much? Karlis About 200 grammes.

Pardeveja Karlis Pardeveja Karlis Pardeveja Karlis Pardeveja Karlis Pardeveja Karlis

There you are. Will that be enough? Too much. Less, please. There you are. Will that be enough? Too little. A little moreplease. There you are ... and now? Thanksthat will be enough. Will that be all? Yes, thanks. Will you need a carry bag? No, thanks, I've got a bag.

Dialogue 3Ilze Pardeveja Ilze Pardeveja Ilze Pardeveja Ilze Pardeveja Ilze Pardeveja Ilze Pardeveja Do you sell tram tickets? Yes, how many do you want? Give me five tickets, please. And what else? A newspaper, please. Which newspaper? Diena There you are. Will that be all? These winter nights it's dark. I also need a reflector. A reflector? Haven't got any more. All sold out Where could I buy one? Try at the supermarket.

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Dialogue 4Karlis David Karlis Fiona What are you doing (lit will you do) today? We are going shopping to the supermarket What will you buy? We'll buy a jumper for our son. I need shoes, and David needs a new shirt and new trousers.

David Does this shirt fit me? Pardeveja I think that it's a little small for you. The sleeves are too long and see here it's too wide. Perhaps this one will be better?

Fiona Pardevejs Fiona Pardevejs Fiona Pardevejs

I'd like to try on those shoes. Which ones? Those over there, in the window, in the left corner. What's your size? I think that the size will be 38. Are they leather? Yes(of) leather.

Pardevejs Do they fit? Fiona No, they don't fit It's the wrong size. A little too small. Pardevejs Then you probably need a 39. Just a moment, I'll bring you a 39. Pardevejs Do they fit?

Yes, just right! These are very comfortable shoes. Good price too. Pardevejs (They) look good. They suit you. Will you take (them)? iona I don't like the colour. These black ones are kind of... please give me those white ones.


4 ejamiepirktieslox

Dialogue 5aima Gundega aima Gundega I like your red shoes. Are they new? No, they're quite old. Look - the heels are already worn. They suit you. They look great with that red dress. Where did you buy (them)? I don't remember anymore. I think (lit it seems to me) that it was somewhere on Barona iela. A few good shoe shops are located there. Usually I shop there. In fact I'm now looking for boots. Winter is coming, and I don't have anything to wear on my feet Yes, I need boots too. And a warm, thick coat Buy a fur coat When the snow is falling, a fur coat is the best Probably. But I think that this time I'll buy a woollen coat I already have a fur hat

aima Gundega aima Gundega

Dialogue 6Laima Surely you're not going to wear that purple shirt [are you]? Karlis I wanted to wear the white one, but it's dirty. Laima Why didn't you take it to the laundry? Don't you have another? Karlis No, its my only white shirt. By the way, those red shoes don't go with that dress. And that white handbag ... it's horrible! Laima This flowery dress is my favourite! Karlis The dress isn't bad, but you need other shoes. Laima I haven't got any other shoes. Only those brown boots. Karlis Don't wear those brown boots! Laima I think that I'll need new shoes. Karlis I know. New shoes ... new handbag ... new flat ... new husband. Where will it all end?

Dialogue 7Elita I wish to complain! Pardeveja Yes, please, what's up?


I bought a suit here yesterday, but later at home I noticed that a button had come off the jacket and the zip fastener was broken on the skirt. Pardeveja How can that be? Is the suit new? Elita Yes, quite new. Bought yesterday. Pardeveja Do you have a receipt? ita Yes, here is your receipt Pardeveja Show me!

4 ejii e p i r k t i e s ! co o

i k o s vmo) cIn this unit you will learn to talk about time to make telephone calls to make arrangements how to talk about things in the past

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tw t time a a hdid

e hring?

Dialogue 1Fiona is out shopping. Suddenly she realizes that it may be later than she thought, so she asks a passer-by the time. Fiona Garamgajejs Fiona Sakiet, IQdzucik pulkstenis? Cik ir pareizs laiks? Divpadsmit un 20 minGtes. Ne, atvainojiet, tagad ir pusviens. Jau? Driz bGs pusdienu laiks! Tikko vel bija rits ... pareizs, pareiza garamgajejs (m.) tagad ir pusviens driz tikko bija (but) correct (m f.) passer-by itf$ 12.30 now soon just now it was

4c i k o s< i 3

z v a n q t t ?

Language pointsCik ir pulkstenis? What's the time?Tagad (pareizs) laiks ir: devi^i devi^i un 15 minutes deviiji un 25 minutes pusdesmit pusdevi^i astoni un 45 minutes Now the (right) time is: 9.00 9.15 9.25 9.30 8.30 8.45

Cikos? At what time?

Kad} meaning when? is used to find out about time in a general sense (tomorrow, yesterday, soon, next week, in a certain month or season). When someone wants to know more specifically at what time?, they will ask cikos? This is a kind of locative form of the question word cik?, so the answer also will be in the locative. In additionthe plural f orm is used (as if time was thought of in hours). Even at one o'clock is expressed as vienos. It logically follows that: at 2 o'clock is divos

at at at at at at at at at at

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

o'clock o'clock o'clock o'clock o'clock o'clock o'clock o'clock o'clock o'clock

trijos cetros piecos sesos septi^os astoijos devi^os desmitos vienpadsmitos divpadsmitos

5c i k o wv i 3 < z v a n q Q ? M

The half hour is spoken of 'in advance', so 5.30 effectively becomes half six': pussesos. 9.00 13.00 10.30 pulksten devinos pulksten vienos (trispadsmitos) pulksten desmitos trisdesmit minutes or desmitos trisdesmit pulksten divdesmitos divdesmit cetras minutes or astonos divdesmit cetras111111

Dialogue 2A domestic conversation. Cikos tu busi majas? Es nezinu. VarbGt piecos, varbut sesos. Mes sodien ejam uz koncertu. Vai tu to zinaji? Ne, es domaju, ka mes sovakar spelejam bridu kopa ar vecmaminu? Mara Ne, tas ir parit. Sovakar astonpadsmitos tridesmit mes ejam uz koncertu. Brauni ari bGs. Pec koncerta iesim uz vieslbam. Mes esam ielugti pie Ozoliem. Dions Ak ja! Labi, ka tu atgadinaji! Es biju aizmirsis. Nu labi, tad es busu majas mazliet agrak. Vai Brauni edis vakarinas kopa ar mums? Mara Ne, mes satiksimies operas nama. Sovakar edisim vakarinas agrak. Dzons Labi, bet pirms vakarinam es vel gribesu nomazgaties un pargerbties. Mara Un tullt pec vakarinam - uz koncertu. Mara Dzons Mara Dzons

sk sk s k FF p

plkst. 20.24

tt t


cikos ejam (iet( bridzs (m.( parlt pec mes es'tam ielugti (ielugt( atgadinaji (atgadinat( es biju aizmirsis (aizmirst( agrak ((peras nama (m.( pirms nomazgaties par\erbties tullt

at what time we are going bridge day after tomorrow after we are invited you reminded 1 had forgotten earlier at the opera house before to wash to change (clothing) immediately

5c i k o sV 5


Language pointsPirms un pec Before and afterWhen using the prepositions pirms (bef ore) and pec (af ter) with plural nouns such as brokastis, pusdienas and vakarinas, the noun is in the dativeas always: pirms pec brokastim, pusdienam, vakari^am brokastim, pusdienam, vakariijam

When talking about timethe pulkstens viens, divi, tris and so on are referring to hours, and so these too behave as if they were plural nouns: pirms vieniem be f ore one (o'clock) pec deviniem f a ter nine (o'clock) Unusually, when talking about timethe numeral tris is also declined: pirms trijiem f be ore three (o'clock) pec trijiem f a ter three (o'clock) Otherwise, singular nouns with the prepositions pirms and pec are in the genitive case: pirms koncerta bef ore the concert pec koncerta af ter the concert pirms skolas f be ore school pec skolas f a ter school

Q Dialogue 3c i k o s I


piedallsies (piedallties( dziesma (f.( diluents (m.( sagatavojuas (sagatavoties( skate (fa( parsteidzoi klausljos (klauslties( Tpai skaneja (skanet( atputlsimies (atpusties( bus jaierodas (ierasties( lai uzstatos (uzstaties( Atklaanas koncerts (m.(

will participate song conductor prepared (f. pi.) heat surprisingly 1 was listening particularly it sounded we will rest we will have to show up in order to perform, appear Opening concert

Language pointsrs X 3 a s t s t i e tp a e v i

Musu koris piedallsies Our choir is going to participateThe f uture tense of ref lexive verbsas with the non-ref lexive verbsis largely regular throughout. Although once again the endings are the same, stem changes do occur, especially in irregular verbs. Regular stems are as f or the past tense, and the endings are -sos, -sies-sies-simies and -sities. Even irregular verbs f ollow exactly the same pattern, except f or verbs with an s or a z bef ore the ending -ties. These acquire an extra syllable. Here are some examples: griezties atpusties es griezisos atputisos mes griezisimies atputlsimies ierasties ieradisos ieradisimies justies jutisos jutisimies

Mes nodziedajam parsteidzosi labi We sang surprisingly wellThere is an adverbial f orm of another type of present active participle, one that is characterized by the -oss, -osa ending. It can be used as a descriptive word, like an adjective apmierinoss rezultats (a satisf actory result), ziedosa pu^e (a flower in bloom)9 smaidosas sejas (smiling f aces) - or as an adverb (parsteidzosi, parliecinosi): Vigi nespeleja parliecinosi. They didn't play convincingly. The adjectival participle can have both def inite and indef inite forms: raudoss berns raudosais berns a crying child the crying child

Gerunds from reflexive verbsGerunds or verbal nouns f ormed f rom ref lexive verbs tend to have a long -a in the ending. They can be awkward to use, as in the nominative both the singular and plural is the same. In adaition, these words only exist in the nominative, genitive and accusative f orms. The gerund tiksanas (meeting) satikties ) to meet: is f rom the verb ukties (or

nominative genitive

Man sodien ir tiksanas ar prieksnieku. Today I have a meeting with the boss. Tiksanas laika mes parrunajam dazadas problemas. During the meeting we discussed various problems. Es tagad eju uz tiksanos. I am now going to a meeting.

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Some other examples of gerunds f ormed f rom ref lexive nouns are velesanas (wish or desire) f rom veleties, nodarbosanas (occupation) f rom nodarbotiesiepazisanas (acquaintance) f rom iepazities and the f amiliar Uz redzesanos!, which is an accusative f orm based on the verb redzeties (to see each other again).

English words ending with ing'In English, the suf f ix -ing is characteristic of the present active participle and of gerunds (verbal nouns). In Latvian, however there is more than one equivalent and f unction f or -ing words: 1 2 3 As a present tense verb: he skis / he is skiing As a gerund (verbal noun): skiing As a present participle: (whilst) skiing viijs slepo sleposana slepo jot

Exercises1 Iepazisimies! Let's get to know each other! Some of the characters you have already met in the dialogues have been asked what they do and what they like doing in their spare time. Read these people's stories and then answer the questions. Try not to look back or use the glossary. Deivids stasta Esmu dzimis Skotijabet jau ilgus gadus dzlvoju Londona. Apmekleju vietejo pamatskolu un 1983. gada beidzu Eainburgas universitati ar bakalaura gradu ekonomika. Tad vairakus gadus stradaju privata konsultantu f irma. Nesen man piedavaja iespeju stradat Riga. Kad es uzzinaju, ka brauksu uz Rigu stradat, es saku maclties latviesu valodu. Tagad esam nodzlvojusi Riga piecus menesus. Brivaja laika man patik spelet golfu. Vispar man patik nodarboties ar sportu. Vasara es speleju tenisu. Ziema biezi eju uz trenazieru zali.

Fiona stasta Ar Deividu es satikos, kad man bija 19 gadu. Abi stude jam universitate. Divus gadus velak apprecejamies. Tad piedzima berni vispirms Harijs, pec tam Millija. Uz daziem gadiem dzivojam Londona. Faktiski man nav daudz brlva laika man tacu ir divi berni. Vel macos neklatieneLondonas Universitate. Vakaros esmu nogurusi, varbut parak biezi skatos televizoru. Sakuma berni dzivo j a Anglija, bet kops septembra vi^i apmekle starptautisko skolu Jurmala. Man joti patik cejot. Kapec? Lai iepazitos ar citam zememar citam kulturam. Karlis stasta Kada ir mana nodarbosanas? Pec profesijas esmu inzenierisbet pedejos 10 gadus esmu stradajis f inansu joma. Esmu gramatvedis, direktora paligs. Jau ilgus gadus es stradaju Latvijas centralaja banka. Esmu precejies. Mana sieva Laima ir skolotaja, viija maca vieteja pamatskola. Man nepatik sports, bet man patik but ara, briva daba. Speleju sahu. Mani interese ari politika un vesture. Vasara biezi braucam uz Kolku peldeties jura un saujoties kapas. Gundega stasta Pec prof esijas esmu jurists, macijos Latvijas Universitates Tieslietu f akultate. Velak stuaeju marketingu un man laime jas atrast darbu reklamas agentura. Nesen saku dzivot kopa ar Naidzelu. Mes satikamies darba. Vins bija nesen atbraucis no Nujorkas uz Rigu un neprata runat latviski. Man bija jatulko. Un ta mes iepazinamies. Ko es daru on vaja laika? Man patik iepirkties! Veikali, izpardosanas, atlaides un nocenosanas ta ir mana pasaule! Naidzels stasta Neesmu no Latvijas, esmu dzimis un audzis Jaunzelande. Pec skolas beigsanas dazus gadus cejoju pa pasauli. Kadu laiku dzivoju Anglija, apmekleju Londonas Biznesa augstskolu. Kadu laiku biju arl precejies man ir dels, bet vins dzivo pie mates. Ilgus gadus stradaju l^ujorka. Mans hobijs ir burasana. Mans sapnis ir dzivot pie juras. llze stasta Esmu dzimusi un augusi Riga. Kops skolas beigsanas es stradaju Latvijas Banka. Neesmu precejusies, bet man ir kakis. Dzivoju kopa ar divam draudzenem. Man Joti patlk muzika. Dziedu kori, apmekleju koncertus. Mans vajasprieks ir dziedasana un dejosana. MIlu ari makslu. Biezi eju uz izstadem un makslas muzejiem. Patiesiba pati arl mazliet gleznoju.

rs &p a s t d s t i e t p a e v i

Peteris stasta Esmu liepajnieks, bet stradaju teatri Riga. Reizem ari nodarbojos ar reklamu. Jaunlba beidzu Makslas Akademiju. Kads ir mans vajasprieks? Lasisana. Patik ari klausities muziku. Nesen nopirku dzivokli. Tagad to remonteju. Es nekad neskatos televizoru. Labprat stradaju darza, lai gan man pasam darza nav. Bet maniem draugiem ir neliels lauku Ipasums, labprat villus apciemoju. Ejam pastaigaties pa mezu, rudeni se^ojam. a b c d e f g h i 2 What did David study? How long have David and Fiona been in Riga? What does Fiona do perhaps too of ten? What is Karlis doing nowand what was he previously? Where does Gundega work? How did she meet Nigel? What is Nigel's f avourite pastime? How long has Ilze been working at the bank? Which town is Peteris f rom?

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Match the occupations to their place of workto f orm the sentence: (Kas) strada (kur). Example: Sekretare strada biroja. a b c d e f g h i j f o iciants skolotaja arste pardevejs stradnieks kasieris pastniece lauksaimnieks aktrise uznemejs i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x slimnlca lauki rupnica pasts teatris restorans veikals uznemums banka skola


Match the time phrases in Latvian with their counterparts in English. b d pec daziem menesiem pagajusaja gada tagad vakar katru dienu nakamnedej nesen sobrid pirms stundas vairakus gadus reiz uz vienu nedelu i yesterday ii each or every day iii recently iv at the moment v for a number o f years vi for a week vii once viii next week ix last year x in a f ew months xi now xii an hour ago

4rs p a s s s t i e tp a e v i

Complete the following sentences by changing the words in brackets into Latvian. All the words will have -sana / -sanas / -sanas endings. a b c d e f g h i No visiem sporta veidiem man vislabak patik (skiing). Profesoram ir plasas (knowledge) par Eiropas vesturi. Apvienotas Karalistes (elections) piedalljas tikai trls politiskas partijas. Mana masa iet Makslas Akademija un macas {painting). Braunu gimene daudz cejo pa pasauli, vi^u vajasprieks ir (travelling). Ko vins stasta? Ta ir tikai tuksa (talking), Latvija populars vajasprieks jeb hobijs ir (mushroom picking). Kada ir jusu (occupation)} Viram sodien ir (a meeting) banka.


Answer the following questions. A Latvian asks you Kada ir jusu nodarbosanas? what do they want to know? b f I someone says Es straaaju par what will they tell you? c Name two things that you studiedusing a complete sentence. d How would you ask someone How long? (ref erring to time) e Ko jus darat brivaja laika? and Kads ir jusu valas prieks? are two ways of asking you much the same thing. What is it? a

TranscriptsDialogue 1Zurnaliste David Zurnaliste David Zurnaliste David Where do you work? I work at the central bank, in Valdemara iela. What do you do? (lit What do you work as?) I am a consultant. Where did you work previously? Many years ago I worked as an analyst Last year I worked as the financial director in a private company. Zurnaliste How long have you worked in Latvia? David Five months. Zurnaliste And you have higher education in economics? David Yes, I've Qot a master's degree in economics.

Zurnaliste Which university did you graduate from? David At first I studied at Edinburgh University, then, some years later, I studied in Paris, where I obtained the master's degree. Later, I also attended courses at London Business School.

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Dialogue 2Viesis Gundega Viesis Gundega What is your occupation? I'm a marketing manager. That's interesting! Where do you work? For a number of years now I have been working for an advertising agency. In fact, I have a bachelor's degree in law, but I didn't like working as a lawyer. Where did you study? At the start I studied at the University of Latvia, later at the Vidzeme University College. When did you graduate? I graduated in 2001.

Viesis Gundega Viesis Gundega

Dialogue 3Peteris Viesturs What do you usually do on holiday? In our family it's a tricky problem. On holidays, I like to go to the mountains, because I like skiing. My wife, on the other handlikes to be somewhere by the water. She always wants to go to warm countries so as to be able to swim and to sunbathe. That means that you need two vacations in a year: one in the winter and the other in the summer. Or also - go on holiday separately. I wouldn't like that



Dialogue 4Ojars Elita Ojars Elita Ojars Elita At what time are we going to the beach tomorrow? Around 11 o'clock. So late? You know that on Saturday morning I don't like getting up early, don't you? If we leave after 11,then we'll get to the beach at only about 12.00 or 12.30. What's so bad about that? We'll have lunch and then we'll be able to peacefully sunbathe in the dunes.

Ojars Elita

You can't go swimming straight after lunch. You have to wait an hour at least. That's not long. We can stay at the seaside all day long, even up until evening. The day after tomorrow is Sunday, we've got the whole weekend ahead of us!

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Dialogue 5David What is the most popular sport in Latvia? Karlis I think that it's ice hockey, although basketball is also popular. The Latvian (national) hockey team is quite strong. Some Latvian hockey players play in clubs abroad: in Canadain Finlandin Russia. David And what sports do women do? Karlis Women too play basketball, and moreover very well. The Latvian team recently took part in the Olympic Games. I think that skiing and swimming are also well liked. Both women and men play tennis. And do folk dancing. David Is folk dancing a sport?


Dialogue 6Viesturs Did you watch the game last night? The Switzerland team played against the Latvian team. Gundega It was a dramatic match, wasn't it! Began quietly and looked as though the result would be a draw, however in the end... Viesturs Yes, in the first half nothing happened. At the start of the second half the Swiss attacked more actively. Gundega I dont wonder. The Latvians didn't play convincingly. And then the defender started to argue with the referee and received a yellow card. Viesturs (It was) even worse afterwards, when he kicked the attacker and received a red card and got sent off. At the last minute. Gundega Yes, and in the penalty area as well! I didn't doubt that the Swiss penalty kick would be a goal. Viesturs They got lucky. It was a poor kick. The Latvian goalkeeper said that the ball was wet and slipped through his hands. So Switzerland won and Latvia lost

Dialogue 7Peteris Fiona Peteris Fiona What do you do in your spare time? I really like to travel. Your hobby is travelling? Yes, itfs interesting to travel to other countries, to stroll around an unfamiliar city, to visit art galleries and tourist sites, and to get to know another culture. And what is your hobby? Peteris I prefer to be somewhere with nature: to go for a walk in the forest, or by the sea. In the autumn I like to go mushroom picking. Fiona How do you know which mushrooms are edible and which ones are poisonous? Peteris I know them all. I know which are the champignons, which are the chanterelles, the boletus, the russula. Everyone knows toadstools they're the red ones with white spots.

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Dialogue 8We 're really pleased that our choir is to participate in the Song and dance festival. Zane Congratulations! Ilze (Our) conductor was worried that we weren't prepared. We had to learn lots of new songs. But in the competition heats we sang surprisingly well. Zane Yes, I was listening, and in the last one especially it sounded good. In fact, you couldn't hope for better. The conductor can feel satisfied. Ilze Really, there's nothing to complain about Now we'll have a rest, but in a few days' time we'll have to be (lit arrive) at Meaparks, in order to perform at the Opening concert. Ilze

Let's get to know each otherDavid I was born in Scotland, but f or many years now have lived in London. I went to the local primary school and in 1983 I graduated f rom Edinburgh University with a bachelor's degree in economics. Then f or a number o f years, I workea in a private consultancy f irm. Recently I was o ff ered the opportunity to work in Riga. When I f ound out that I would be going to Riga to workI started learning Latvian. Now we have been in Riga

five months. In my f ree time I like to play golf . Generally I like doing sport. In the summer I play tennis. In the winter I o f ten go to the gym. Fiona I met David when I was 19 years old. We both were studying at university. Two years later we got married. Then the children were born: f irst of all Harry, a f ter that Milly. For a number f o years we lived in London. In f act I don't have a lot of f ree time -I've got two childrenaf ter all. I am still studyingdistancelearning, at the University o f London. In the evenings I am tired, perhaps I watc"1 V too of ten. Initially the children stayed in England, but since September they have been attending the international school in Jurmala. I like travelling a lot. Why? To get to know other countriesother cultures. Karlis What's my occupation? According to pro f ession I'm an engineer, but f or the last ten years I've worked in the f inancial sector. I am an accountanta director's assistant. For many years I have been working at the central bank o f Latvia. I'm married. My wif e Laima is a teachershe teaches at the local primary school. I don't like sportbut I do like to be outside in the f resh air. I play chess. I'm also interested in politcs and history. In the summer we of ten drive to Kolkato swim in the sea and to sunbathe in the dunes. Gundega According to pro f ession, I'm a lawyer I studied at the University o f Latvia, in the f aculty f o law. Later I studied marketing and I was lucky to f ind a job in an advertising agency. Recently I started living together with Nigel. We met at work. He had recently come over to Riga f rom New York and didn't know Latvian. I had to interpret. And thaf s how we got to know each other. What do 1 do in my f ree time? I love shopping! Shops, sales, reductions and discounts that's my world! Nigel I'm not f rom Latvia, I was born and grew up in New Zealand, On f inishing school I travelled around the world f or a f ew years. For a while I lived in England, attended the London School f o Business. For a while I also was married - I have a sony but he lives with his mother. For many years I worked in New York. My hobby is sailing. My dream is to live by the sea.

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I was born and grew up in Riga. Since I lef t school I have worked at the Bank of Latvia. I'm not marriedbut I have a cat. I live together with two f riends. I like music a lot. I also sing in a choir and attend concerts. My hobby is singing and dancing. I also love art. I of ten go to exhibitions and art galleries. To tell the truth I also paint a little ... Peteris lm f rom Liepaja, but I work in the theatre in Riga. Sometimes I also get involved in advertising. In my youth I graduated f rom the Academy f o Art. Whaf s my hobby? Reading. I also like to listen to music. Recently I bought a f lat. Now I'm renovating it. I never watch television. Z7/ happily work in the garden, although I don't have a garden mysel f . But my f riends have a smallish country property, I like to visit them. We go f or walks in the f orestin the autumn we pick mushrooms.

In this unit you will learn about using the car about travelling around Latvia a bit about history more on dates

O Dialogue 1David is in the car, racing to the airport to meet Fiona. He is running late and is stopped on the road by a traffic policeman. Policija Stop! Te riedrikst braukt. 1 ir vienvirziena iela. Vai neredzejat bridinajuma zimi? lebraukt aizliegts! Un vel jGs parsniedzat atjauto brauksanas atrumu. Ko, IGdzu? Es esmu arzemnieks. Jus braucat par atru. Jums bGs jamaksa sods. Kur ir jusu autovaditaja aplieclba? Es esmu britu pilsonis. JGsu pasi, ludzu. Atvainojiet. Es steidzos. Man jabrauc uz lidostu. Sodien ierodas mana sieva. Man vienalga. Kaut vai ierastos karaliene ... likums ir likums! police one-way street warning sign no entry you exceeded permitted driving speed too fast penalty, fine citizen 1 don't care even if were to arrive queen the law

6 laimlgu c e u ! |-^

David Policija David Policija David Policijar

policija (f.( vienvirziena iela (f.( brldinajums (m.( zlme (m.( iebraukt aizliegts parsniedzat (parsniegt( atjautais braukanas atrums (m.( par atru sods (m.( pilsonis (m.( man vienalga kaut vai ierastos (ierasties( karaliene (f.( likums (m.(

Language pointsSatiksmes noteikumi Road rulesjabrauc ar drosibas jostu f sa ety belts mandatory jaievero maksimala atruma the speed limit must be ierobezojums observed

Parkapumi Offences parkapt (noteikumus, likumu) brauksanas atruma parsniegsana brauksana bez tieslbam brauksana bez droslbas jostas Ce(a zlmes Road signs iebraukt aizliegts velosipediem braukt aizliegts apstaties aizliegts velosipedu cejs nedrikst apdzlt atjautais brauksanas atrums maksimalais atrums 50 maksimala atruma ierobezojuma zona beidzas

&s f g u ml l c e c

to break (the rules, the law) breaking the speed limit driving without a licence driving without a seat belt no entry no bicycles no stopping cycle way no overtaking permitted speed maxiumum speed limit SO end of speed limit


miglas zona f og ceja remonts road melnais ledus black

works ice

bezmaksas stawieta f ree parking degviela: bez svinaA-85, A-6 f uel: leadf reeA-8Sy A-6 tehniska pase technical passcar registration

Dialogue 2Arvlds' car suddenly broke down in the middle of the road. He doesn't know what's the matter with it. He now has taken the car to a mechanic. Arvlds Autoserviss ArvTds Autoserviss ArvTds Masina nedarbojas. Kas vainas? Kas notika? Griezos pa labi, un peksni masina apstajas. Benzlns ir? Ja, protams. Nupat biju auto mazgatava un degvielas uzpildes stacija. Tvertne ir pilna. Autoserviss Kad masina pedejo reizi bija autoservisa?

Neatceros. Bet zinu, ka bija tehniska apskate, un parbaudlja visu bremzes, parnesumkarbu, e||u, izputeju, gaismas ... pat ritenus un riepas. Autoserviss Nu jaaa ... VarbGt kaut kas salGzis. Tulit apskatisim. Cerams, ka varesim salabot. nedarbojas (darboties( Kas notika? (notikt( griezos (griezties( pekni apstajas (apstaties( benzins (m.( nupat auto mazgatava (f.( degvielas uzpildes stacija (f.( tvertne (f.( pilns, pilna tehniska apskate (f.( parbaudlja (parbaudit( bremzes (f. pi.( parnesumkarba (f.( izputejs (m.( ritenis (m.( riepa (f.( saluzis, saluzusi salabot isn't working What happened? 1 was turning suddenly stopped petrol just now car wash petrol station tank full (m.f f.) roadworthiness inspection checked, tested brakes gearbox exhaust wheel tyre broken (m f.) to fix


Language pointsProblemas ar automaslnu Problems with the carEs pazaudeju atslegu. trukst degvielas Bremzes nedarbojas. Spogulis saluzis. pardurta riepa vilkt (masinu) trose I lost the key. out of fuel The brakes aren't working. The mirror is broken, punctured tyre to tow tow rope


Kaut kas ir saluzis Something is brokenTo express that something happened at some indef inite time, or at an unspecif ied place, or when talking about someone or something (we don't know who or what), the word kaut is used, followed by the word kas, kad or kur whatwhen or where. Kaut kas ir saluzis. Varbut kaut kad julija? Vi^a dzivo kaut kur Latgale. Something is broken, Perhaps at some time in July? She lives somewhere in Latgale.



A similar construction kaut kads / kaut kada - can be used for some kind of or some sort o f. Vins spele kaut kadu datora speli. Kads or kada can also mean Kads klauve pie durv