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COUR INTERNATIONALE DE JUSTICE
MÉMOIRES, PLAIDOIRIES ET DOCUMENTS
DES ÉTATS-UNIS À TÉHÉRAN
Abbreviated reference:
1.C.J. Plrad~ngs, United Slutes Diplornutic and Consular S t a j in Tchran
Référence a brégee: C.I.J. Mémoires. Personnel diplomatique rt consulaire
ries Eiais- Unis ci Téhéran
Sales nurnber No de vente:
CASE CONCERNlNG UNITED STATES DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR STAFF IN TEHRAN
AFFAIRE RELATIVE AU PERSONNEI, DIPLOMATIQUE ET CONSULAIRE DES ÉTATS-UNIS À TÉHÉRAN
INTERNATIONAL COURT OF .JUSTICE
PLEADINGS, ORAL ARGUMENTS, DOCUMENTS
COUR INTERNATIONALE DE JUSTICE
MÉMOIRES, PLAIDOIRIES ET DOCUMENTS
DES ÉTATS-UNIS A TÉHÉRAN
(ÉTATS-UNIS D'AMÉRIQUE c. IRAN)
The prcsent volume contains the record filed in the case concerning United States Diplumutic und Consular Staff in Tehran.
This case, entered on the Court's General List on 29 November 1979 under number 64, was the subject of an Order on Indication of Provisional Measures (United Starrs Diplomatic and Consular S I o f in Tehran. Provisional Measures, Order of 15 December 1979, I.C.J. Reports 1979, p. 7 ) and of a Judgment delivered on 24 May 1980 (United States Diplornatic and Consular Stofl in Tuhran. 1.C.J. Rcporfs 1980, p. 3 ) and was discontinued by an Order of 12 May 1981 (Unitrd Stiiies Diplomatic und Consular S t a f in Tehrun. I.C.J. Reporis 1981, p. 45).
The Application, Request for the Indication of Provisional Measures, Mernorial and Oral Arguments appear in this volume in chronological order.
The page references originally appearing in the statements have been altercd to correspond with the pagination of the present edition.
The Hague, 1982.
Le préscnt volume reproduit le dossier de l'affaire relative au Personnel diplornutique rr consulaire des Ercrts-Unis Ù Tihéran.
Cette affaire, inscrite au rôle général sous le numéro 64, a fait l'objet d'une ordonnance portant indication de mésures conservatoires (Personnel diplorna- tique et consulaire des Etats-Unis ci Téhéran, mesrires conservatoire.^, ordonnance du 15 di.cernbre 1979, C.I. J . Recueil 1979, p. 7 ) et d'un arrêt rendu le 24 mai 1980 (Personnel diplornutique et consulaire des E~ots-Unis ci Téhéran, crrrêi, C.I.J. Recueil 1980, p. 3 ) et elle a été rayée du rôle par une ordonnance du 12 mai 1981 [Personnel diqiomaliclue et consulaire des Etais-Unis a T6héran. C.I.J. Recueil 1981, p. 45). '
La reaucte. la demande en indication de mesures conservatoires. le mémoire et les p~aidoiriés sont reproduits dans le présent volume suivant leur ordre chronologique.
Les renvois d'un exposé à l'autre ont été modifies pour tenir compte de la pagination de la présente édition.
La Haye, 1982.
Page Application Instituting Proceedings submitted by the Government of the
United States of America
1. Statement of facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 II. The jurisdiction of the Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
III. Thç claims of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 IV. Judgment requested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Request for the Indication of Provisional Measures of Protection submitted by the Covernment of the United States of America . . . . . . . 9
Oral Arguments on the Request for the Indication of Provisional Measures
Preliminary questions by the President . . . . . . . . . . . Commiinication from the Government of Iran . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Question by the President
Opening remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The applicable international legal standards . . . . . . . . .
The 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations . . . . . The 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations . . . . . The New York Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of
Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplo- matic Agents . . . . . . . . . . .
The 1955 Treaty of Arnity, Econornic Relations and ~ o n i u i a r ~ i g h t ; bei.ween the United States of America and Iran . . . . . .
The legal principles are simple and unambiguous . . . . . . . The facts are equally simple . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recital of the Tacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The facts amount to a continuing violation of plainly established nghts The Court has undoubted jurisdiction under the first three treaties
. . . . relied upon and prima facie jurisdiction under the fourth Action by the Security Council does not exclude action by the Court The request for provisional measures is based on the irreparable injury
being inflicted on the American hostages . . . . . . . . . The request is also intended to preserve the slolrrs quo pendente lite . The communication t o the Court from the Iranian Government does
. . . not constitute a legal obstacle to the United States request The Aegeari Sea Continental Shevcase distinguished . . . . , The different responsibilities of the Security Council and of the Court
. . . . . . are recognized in Security Council resolution 357
X DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR STAFF
Page The provisional measures requested specified . . . . . . . . . 34 The Court urged to act with expedition . . . . . . . . . . 35
QUESTIONS BY JUDGE MOSLER AND BY THE COURT . . . . . . . . 37
CLOSINC; OF THE ORAL PROCEEDINGS. . + . . . . . . . . . . 38
READING OF THE ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Documents submitted to the Court after the filing of the reqnest for the indication of provisional measures
Selected document 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Declaration of David D. Newsom, Under Secretary of State, of 6
December 1979, with Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Letter dated 9 November 1979 from the Permanent Representa- tive of the United States of America to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council . . . . 46
Statement by Ambassador Donald F. McHenry, Uniled States Permanent Representative to the United Nations, in the Security Council, on the situation in Iran, 1 December 1979 46
Statement by Ambassador Donald F. McHenry, United States Permanent Representative t o the United Nations, in the Security Council, on the situation in Iran, 4 December 1979 48
Appendix B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 The White House, Statement on Iran, 6 November 1979 . . 50 Statement at Special Briefing-Wednesday, 7 November 1979-
5.02 p.m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Staternent by Secretary of taie Cyrus R. v a n c e - ~ h u r s d a ~ , 7
November 1979, 3.29 p.m. . . . . . . . . . . 50 Statement by the Honorable Cyrus R. vance, Secretary of tat te,
concerning the situation in Iran, 8 November 1979 . . . 51 The White House, 9 November 1979 . . . . . . . . . 5 1 The White House, I O November 1979 . . . . . . 5 1 The White House, announcement by the President, the Briefing
Room, 12 November 1979 . . . . . . . . . . 52 The White House, 12 November 1979. Imports of ~e t ro leum
and Petroleum Products. By the President of the United States of America: A Proclamation . . . . . . . . . . . 52
The White House, 14 November 1979 . . . . . . . . 53 The Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, 14 November 1979 53 Iran and Energy . . . . . . . . . . . 54 The White Houçe, Statement by the President, 17 November
1 9 7 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 The White House, 19 ~ovérnt;er 1979 . . . . . . 58 Statement by the Vice President a t Press Conference k ~ l o o r n -
ington, Minnesota, at Minnesota Farmers' Union Conven- tion: 19 November 1979. . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
The White House, 20 Novernber 1979. . . . . . . . 58 Statement by Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, 21 November 1979 59 Department of Justice, 27 November 1979 . . . . . . . 59 News Conference on Iran . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 The White House, Statement by t'he Vice-President, 5 December
1979, the Briefing Room . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
CONTENTS XI
Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix C 67
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Khomeini telephone cal1 67 . . . . . . . . 2 . Council of experts president's speech 67
. . . . . . . . . . . 3 . Qom Serninary statement 68 4 . Revolution Council assumes ~ o v e r n m e n t functions . . . 69
. . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . Khomeini's son arrives 69 . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . Student interviewed . 70
. . . . . . . . . . 7 Guards Commander on takeover 72 . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . Public Prosecutor statement 72 . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . Praise for Embassy seizure 72
. . . . . . . . 10 . Khomeini representative's remarks 73 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I Yazdi comments 73
. . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . Khomeini on occupation 74 13 . Letter of resignation . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 14 . Khomeini accepts Bazargan resignation, delegates power . 75
. . . . . 15 Students threaten to kill US Embassy hostages 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Clergy support for takeover 76
. . . . . . . . . . . 17 "Announcement" from Shiraz 77 . . . . 18 . Khomeini tells youths to leave lraqi Consulate 77
19 . Beheshti interviewed on new tasks (if Revolution Council . 77 20 . Khomeini forbids officials to meet IJS representatives . . 78
. . . . . . . . . . . 21 . Students reaffirm demand 78 . . . . 22 . Khomeini's refusal to deal with US commended 79
. . . . . . . . . . 23 . Ayatollah Beheshti interview 80
. . . . . . . . . . 24 . Bani-Sadr letter to Waldheim 80
. . . . . . . . . . 25 . Gotbzadeh Press Conference 83 . . . 26. Student leader says hostages will die if troops scnt 84
. . . . . . . . . . . 27 . Military personnel march 85 . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. Bani-Sadr on demands 86
. . . . . . . 29 . Revolution Council addresses people 87 . . . . . . . . . . . 30 . Student statement No. 37 88
. . . . . . . . . 3 1 . Khomeini interview on hostages 88 . . . . . . . . . . 32 . CBS interview with Khomeini 90
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 . Gotbzadeh interview 94 . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Ahmad Khorneini interview 97
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 . Khomeini speech 99 36 . 21 November developments concerning US Embassy . . 102
. . . . . . . 37 . Khomeini addresses Pakistani officers 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 . Bani-Sadr address 103
. . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Bani-Sadr Press Conference 105 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Gotbzadeh on trials 105
4 1 . 27 November developrnents conccrning US Embassy . . 105 . . . . . . . . . . 42 . Khomeini denounces Carter 107
. . . . . . . . . . . 43 . Students repeat trial threat 108 . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 . No U N reprcsentative 108
. . . . . . . . . . . 45 Gotbzadeh Press Con ference 108
. . . . . . . . . . . 46 Students on Shah's departurc 112 . . . . . . . . . . 47 Gotbzadeh Paris radio interview 112
. . . . . . . . . . . 48 Careful guarding of Laingen 114 . . . . . . . . . . 49 Students threaten to begin trials 114
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected document 2 116 Response by the United States, 1 I December 1979, to questions
. . . . . . . prescnted by the Court on 10 December IV79 116
XII DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR STAFF
Page Selected document 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Response by the United States. 12 December 1979. to a question . . . . . . presented by Judge Gros on 1 1 Dccemkr 1979 118
Memorial of the Government of the United States of America
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part I I Staternent of the Facts
A . The attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B . The role of the lranian authorities . . . . . . . . . . . C . The status of the hostages . . . . . . . . . . . . D . Violations of the Embassy's archives and documents . . . . E . Lack of access to the hostages . . . . . . . . . . . F . The status of the United States chargé d'Affaires . . . . . . G . The lranian Government's stated justification of the seizure of the
Embassy and the hostagcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H . Efforts of the United States to negotiate the dispute . . . . . I . Protests by the Government of the United States . . . . . . J . Resort to the United Nations and to the Court . . . . . . K . Other responsive measures of the United States . . . . . .
Part III . The Jurisdiction of the Court . . . . . . . . . . . . A . The Optional Protocols to the Vienna Conventions on Diplomatic
and Consular Relations afford the Court jurisdiction . . . . 1 . Prerequisites to the Court's jurisdiction . . . . . . . 2 . The natural and ordinary meaning of the Optional rotoc cols 3 . Possible arguments against the Court's jurisdiction under the
Optional Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . Optional characier of resort to arbitration or conciliation . . 5 . The iravuux prkparatoires . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . The failure of Iran to seek arbitraiion or conciiiation . . . 7 . Jurisdiction through lapse of time . . . . . . . . . .
B . The Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations, and Consular Rights affords the Court jurisdiction . . . . . . . . . . . .
C . The Convention on the Prevention and Punishrnent of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, affords the Court jurisdiction .
D . The Court has jurisdiction to grant the relief iought by the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part IV . The Claims of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . A . The responsibility of lran for the acts of omission and commission
of which the United States complains . . . . . . . . . . B . The Governmcnt of lran has violated, and continues to violate, its
international legal obligation to ensurc the inviolability of United States diplornatic agents and members of Ihe administrative and technical staff of the United States Embassy . . . . . . . I . The obligation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . The breach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C . The Governrnent of Iran has violated, continues to violate and threatens further imminent violation of its international legal obligation to ensure immunity from proseculion for United States diplomatic agents and members of the administrative and technical staff on the United States Ernbassy . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTENTS Xlll
Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . The obligation 161
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . The breach 163 D . The Government of lran has violated. and continues to violate.…

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