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Talking about some applications of Glyoxal
Glyoxal practically does not exists as the well-known volatile dialdehyde, but in commercial 40%aqueous solutions.Glyoxal is predominantly found in non-volatile hydrated and oligomeric forms.The Molecular Formula is C2H2O2, Molecular Weight is 58.04, and CAS Registry Number is107-22-2.
The Glyoxal produced at Clariant is used as starting material for the synthesis of crosslinkingagents, in the textile finishing industry for instance to make urea Glyoxal formaldehyde resins.The paper industry uses large amounts of Glyoxal, where its cellulose crosslinking properties areappreciated to make paper suitable for offset printing and to improve its wet-strength. Glyoxalthrough its methylic or ethylic monoacetals or acetals is also a key compound in a wide variety ofchemistries and applications.
The main routes of occupational exposure to glyoxal during use as a disinfectant are via inhalationof aerosol and dermal absorption. The general population is exposed mainly through ingestion ofglyoxal-containing food, glyoxal-containing cosmetics, but could be exposed through polluted airin urban regions and through traces of glyoxal in drinking-water.
In animal studies, 30% and 40% aqueous glyoxal caused slight to definite skin irritations,depending on the application time. Glyoxal is irritating to mucous membranes and acts as a skinsensitising agent in humans and experimental animals.
Glyoxal(CAS NO:107-22-2) is directly genotoxic in vitro in bacterial and mammalian cells,inducing, for example, DNA adducts, mutations, chromosomal aberrations, DNA repair, sisterchromatid exchanges, and DNA single strand breaks. In vivo, a genotoxic activity of glyoxal wasestablished at the site of application in the pyloric mucosa of rats by demonstration of unscheduledDNA synthesis and DNA single strand breaks. After oral application, DNA strand breaks werefurther observed in rat liver.
Glyoxal is endogenously produced during normal cellular metabolism by a multitude ofenzyme-independent pathways. Glyoxal is also a product of the metabolism and microsomaloxidation of other compounds, such as glycolaldehyde, ethylene glycol, and beta-hydroxysubstituted N-nitrosamines.
The concentration of glyoxal in human blood plasma has been reported to be 0.1-1 mol/litre,with higher levels reported for patients with diabetes or renal failure. In biological materials, lessthan 10% of the glyoxal present is in unbound forms in aqueous solution (free glyoxal andhydrates), as most of the reactive carbonyl groups are reversibly bound to cysteinyl, lysyl, andarginyl residues of proteins.