Taaldiversiteit in het Onderwijs Linguistic Diversity in Education Dr. Alex M.J. Riemersma Lector Frisian & Multilingualism in Education a.m.j.riemersma@nhl.nl

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Taaldiversiteit in het Onderwijs Linguistic Diversity in Education Dr. Alex M.J. Riemersma Lector Frisian & Multilingualism in Education a.m.j.riemersma@nhl.nl a.m.j.riemersma@nhl.nl Ems-Dollard Regiodag Groningen,22 November 2012 Slide 2 Overview Global Linguistic Diversity Individual bi- and plurilingualism Transfer & Translanguaging Multilingual Education: why, what, how, results Language Policy at School Slide 3 Startvragen Waar denkt U aan bij: Taaldiversiteit in het onderwijs Taalgericht vakonderwijs Meertalig onderwijs Schooltaalbeleid Slide 4 Global Linguistic Diversity Globe: 6,000 Languages (in oral use) Unesco Language Vitality Index (2009): more than 2,500 languages (in oral use) endangered / threatened with extinct in 21st century Slide 5 Global Linguistic Diversity 600 700 Languages with basic infrastructure: Orthography, Dictionary, Grammar Book 475 Languages with complete Bible translation + 1,240 languages with New Testament + 823 languages with (small) part of Bible Slide 6 Unesco Language Vitality Slide 7 Language Vitality factors (6) Intergenerational transmission Absolute number of speakers Proportion of speakers within total population Trends in existing domains Response to new domains & media Materials for Education and Literacy Slide 8 Language Vitality factors (3) Governmental and Institutional Language Attitudes & Politics Community Members Attitudes towards their own languages Documentation (& corpus planning) Slide 9 Degrees of Endangerment 5: safe The language is used by all ages, from children up. 4: unsafe The language is used by some children in all domains; it is used by all children in limited domains. 3: definitively endangered The language is used mostly by the parental generation and up. 2: severely endangered The language is used mostly by the grandparental generation and up. 1: critically endangered The language is used mostly by very few speakers, of great-grandparental generation. 0: extinct There exists no speaker. Slide 10 Language Planning Key Words State:Citizen: CapacityCommand OpportunitiesUse Desire / PlanWill Slide 11 International organisations United Nations (195 member states): 6 working languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish Council of Europe (47 member states): 6 working languages: English, French (documents) German, Italian, Russian, Spanish (interpretation) Slide 12 European Linguistic Diversity Slide 13 EU Language Policies Mother tongue + 2 other languages Individual Multilingualism as an asset > (2) Mother tongue + 2 (or more) Lifelong Learning Program (2007-2013) > Erasmus for All (2014-2020) Slide 14 European Policies: EU European Treaty: EU respects the religious, cultural and linguistic diversity. Definition Mother tongue = state language Principle of subsidiarity is in favour of national languages. All languages are equal > mainstreaming is in fact in favour of English (only) ! Slide 15 Individual bi- and plurilingualism 65% of world population uses more than one language in every day life 10% of EU population speaks a minority language Millions of migrant language speakers Slide 16 Individual bi- and plurilingualsm Handicap for happiness? Asset for successes in: > cognitive > character > communication > culture > career Slide 17 17 Old theory / ferldere ideen Slide 18 18 New theory / nij ynsjoch Slide 19 Ice berg by Jim Cummins Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en opvoeding Slide 20 Triple Ice berg and Common Underlying Proficiency Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en Opvoeding Slide 21 Why multilingual education? Mother tongue development Cognitive developments Easier third language acquisition Flexible communication: > social participation > economic success: career & cash Cultural heritage/language maintenance Slide 22 Foreign language learning Original status & function: > Elite mainly in reading and writing > Cultural purposes Changing towards: > All students and adults: M + 2 > Global communication oral use & ict Slide 23 Development of multilingual education in 20th century Neglect of mother tongue > submersion Transitional bilingualism > subtractive bilingualism Equal footing / immersion > additive / full bilingualism Slide 24 Goals of Multilingual Education Cultural heritage of home language Transition towards national language versus: Language maintenance & development Full bilingualism / biliterate Slide 25 Characteristics of Multilingual Education Goal oriented > language development > full bilingualism & biliteracy Subject & use (medium of instruction) Communication & culture Continuous curriculum Slide 26 Models of multilingual education One person / one language > identification with native speaker Split of time > language rich input Division of subjects > task specific & CLIL: content & language integrated learning Immersion (in the weaker language) Slide 27 Immersion versus CLIL Immersion: from (pre-)school onwards more than 50% teaching time native speakers as teachers CLIL: Mainly in secondary education Less than 50% of teaching time Non-native speakers as teachers Slide 28 Actors at Macro + Meso level Macro (national and international): conflicting policies National: stress on national language only discouraging regional and migrant languages International: EU-/ CoE-policy: mother tongue + 2 Meso (school level): reflects conflicting policies Concept of Multilingual Education (ME) fits better to EU- & CoE-policy CLIL & Immersion Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Slide 29 Bilingual Education in the Netherlands NO migrant language education Primary school: English obligatory + 650 schools Early language learning Secondary school: English + one + 160 schools with English CLIL + 2 schools with German - CLIL Slide 30 Why Language Policy at School? Changing world(s): mobility & experiences Position school in multilingual context Awareness raising on linguistic diversity: minority & migrant languages Integrated teaching & learning 30 Slide 31 What Language Policy at School? Every teacher is a language teacher Integrated Teaching & Learning Comparability of: - teachers didactics - students results - schools results in the region Visibility of languages: source & target 31 Slide 32 Language Policy at School Vision on school as: - language rich school / TTO / VVTO - Bi-, tri- or multilingual school Agreements on language use: - internal communication at school - internal communication in the class room - external communication: orally and in writing (f.e. on the school website) 32 Slide 33 Professional Competencies Language Policy at School In service training aiming at qualified teachers (competencies) towards: Every teacher is a language teacher Language support for subject teachers (f.e. native speakers) 33 Slide 34 Professional Co-operation Language Policy at School Transfer: (implicit) use of various languages Translanguaging: acquisition of knowledge in one language, use and present in another language CLIL: Content & Language Integrated Learning Comparison of Languages: grammar, vocabulary, pragmatics 34 Slide 35 Activities on Language Richness of the School Thematic week on Linguistic Diversity including RMLs & IMLs Weekly Presentation of a students language and its culture Special activities language acquisition f.e. Language Village 35 Slide 36 Actors for multilingual education Educational authorities (national, regional, local school board) School principals & management Class room teachers Parents & students Social and cultural environemnt Slide 37 Micro (school & class room) Teamwork of teachers of subjects and medium of instruction > integral approach Common descriptors of language command in the target languages > CEFR + Language Portfolio Comparable testing methods > student monitoring system Learning strategies of pupils based on translanguaging and language use Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Slide 38 Ambitions of lectureship Continuity of Multilingual Education from primary to secondary education; adequate teacher training Didactic approach for teacher training: - effective & integrated learning - aiming at results Language portfolio: - languages integrated - curriculum oriented Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Slide 39 Ambitions of lectureship Development of measurement tool for comparable results of language command: - Frisian Dutch - English; Reference levels: - CEFR: Common European Reference Level (Council of Europe) - DFR: Dutch national reference levels - Anglia-levels / Me!English - Frisia-level Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Slide 40 CEFR & Anglia Slide 41 Comparative levels Levels DFR & CEFR, Anglia & Frisia DFR 1F2F3F 4F CEFRA1A2B1B2C1C2 Anglia Junior Intermediate FrisiaStartStap 1Stap 2Stap 3 Slide 42 Relevant literature M. Hajer & Th. Meestringa, Handboek Taalgericht Vakonderwijs. H. Paus e.a., Dertien doelen in een dozijn. Een referentiekader voor taalcompetenties van leraren in Nederland en Vlaanderen. Nederlandse Taalunie. 42 Slide 43 43 Eskerrik asko Mange Takk Diolch Tankewol Trugarez Grazia Graciis Dankscheen Merc plan Kiitos Ksznm Multimesc Thank you Hvala Dankuwel Tankewol