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Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper Today: Wolfger von der Behrens [email protected] 18.9.2018

Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

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Page 1: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper

Today: Wolfger von der Behrens

[email protected]

18.9.2018

Page 2: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Neurons

Pyramidal neuron by Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934, Nobel prize with Camillo Golgi in 1906)

Page 3: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Neurons

Reconstruction of living human brain cell, Stanford 2017

Page 4: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Types of Neurons

From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition

Page 5: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Schematic neuron

Dendrites

Page 6: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Axon

Boutons

Cleft

Dendritic spines

Postsynaptic membrane,

Vesicles

Transmitter,

Receptors

Terminology

Page 7: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Axon

Page 8: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Vesicles

From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition

Page 9: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Post-synaptic receptor

From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition

Page 10: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition

Dendrites

Page 11: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Sequence of events F

rom

: Purv

es, N

euro

scie

nce, 4

th e

ditio

n

Page 12: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Neuronal Networks

Page 13: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Neuronal Networks

Page 14: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Terminology

Central nervous system (CNS) vs

Peripheral nervous

Page 15: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

The human brain

Page 16: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

The human brain

Page 17: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

The human brain

Page 18: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

The human brain

Page 20: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

The Meninges

• Structure

• Function

Fro

m: P

urv

es, N

euro

scie

nce, 4

th e

ditio

n

Gross Anatomy: Protection and Sustenance of the Brain

Page 21: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Ventricular system F

rom

: Purv

es, N

euro

scie

nce, 4

th e

ditio

n

Page 22: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Navigating the Central Nervous System

Page 23: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Navigating the Central Nervous System

Page 24: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Navigating the Central Nervous System

From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition

Page 25: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Navigating the Central Nervous System

From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition

Page 26: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Directions of Orientation in the CNS • Anterior: Toward the front or front end

• Posterior: Toward the back or back end

• Inferior: Toward the bottom of the body, or below

• Superior: Toward the top of the head/body, or above

• Medial: Toward the middle/midline

• Lateral: Away from the middle/midline, toward the side

• Rostral: Toward the nose

• Caudal: Toward the tail/rear

• Proximal: Near the trunk or center

• Distal: Away from the center

• Dorsal:Toward the back

• Ventral: Toward the belly

• Ipsilateral: On the same side

• Contralateral: On the opposite side

• Bilateral: On both sides

• Unilateral: On one side

Navigating the Central Nervous System

Page 27: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Neural development

From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition

Page 28: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Neural development

From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition

Page 29: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Telencephalon

Diencephalon

Mesencephalon

Metencephalon

Myelencephalon

Major divisions of the brain

From: Wikipedia

Page 30: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Brain Spinal Cord

Central Nervous System

Somatic NS

Sympathetic NS Parasympathetic NS

Autonomic NS

Peripheral Nervous System

Nervous System (NS)

Cerebral cortex

Basal ganglia

Hippocampus

Amygdala

Telencephalon

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Diencephalon

Forebrain

Tectum

Tegmentum

Mesencephalon

Midbrain

Pons

Cerebellum

Metencephalon

Medulla

Myelencephalon

Hindbrain

Neural Tube (Embyronic Brain)

The Brain

Page 31: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Major divisions of the brain F

rom

: Purv

es, N

euro

scie

nce, 4

th e

ditio

n

Page 32: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Cranial nerves

From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition

Page 33: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Major divisions of the brain

Page 34: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

The Limbic System

Page 35: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

The Limbic System

• Broca’s “limbic lobe”

• Papez (1937) more precisely defined it

• Structure • Structures on medial and basal surfaces of cerebral hemispheres

• Cingulate gyrus + parahippocampal gyrus + hippocampal formation + fornix + amygdala + septum + mammillary bodies

• Anatomic circuits include basolateral circuit and the Papez circuit

• Function • Emotional expression

• Memory acquisition

• Fear conditioning

• Violence and aggression

Page 36: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

http://www.driesen.com/diencephalon.htm

Hypothalamus and Thalamus

Page 37: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Hypothalamus and Thalamus

Upper Brain Stem: Diencephalon

• Thalamus

• Structure

• Relatively large

• Two symmetric large nuclei

• All thalamic nuclei receive ascending and descending input

• Many projections

• Function

• Relay station

• Domain-specific information processing

Page 38: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Hypothalamus and Thalamus

Upper Brain Stem: Diencephalon

• Hypothalamus • Structure

• Very small

• Contains an important collection of nuclei

• Function

• Controls autonomic mechanisms

Page 39: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

http://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~psyc220/kalat/JK246.fig8.15.basal_ganglia.jpg

Basal Ganglia

Page 40: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Basal Ganglia

• Structure • Collection of nuclei embedded deep within cortex

• Partially surround the thalamus

• Sensory projections to cerebrum

• Efferents to other nervous system structures

• Caudate nucleus + putamen + globus pallidus + substantia nigra + subthalamic nucleus

• Function • Regulate voluntary movement

• Integrative or just a relay station?

• Pathology • Movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson’s)

Page 41: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Lobes of cerebral cortex F

rom

: Purv

es, N

euro

scie

nce, 4

th e

ditio

n

Page 42: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Cytoarchitecture

Page 43: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Adult visual Cx Adult motor Cx

1.5 months Cx

Page 44: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)

Cortical areas

Page 45: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Phineas Gage (1823–1860)

Cortical areas

Accident in 1848 destroyed left frontal lobe

„ The equilibrium or balance, so to

speak, between his intellectual faculties

and animal propensities, seems to have

been destroyed.”

Page 46: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Brodmann’s areas F

rom

: Korb

inia

n B

rodm

an

19

09

Page 47: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Brodmann’s areas

Page 48: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Superficial layers

Superficial layers

Layer IV

Layer IV

Infragranular layers

Infragranular layers

Feedforward

Feedback

Lower area Higher area

Circuits

Page 49: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

Circuits F

rom

: Da C

osta

& M

artin

, 2010

Page 50: Systems Neuroscience Dan Kiper - UZHkiper/Wolfger.pdf · 2018. 10. 1. · From: Purves, Neuroscience, 4th edition . Major divisions of the brain . The Limbic System . The Limbic System

“Comprehensive” visual circuit F

rom

: Felle

man &

Van E

ssen, 1

991