Systems Development and IT Adoption Brian Mennecke

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Text of Systems Development and IT Adoption Brian Mennecke

  • Systems Development and IT AdoptionBrian Mennecke

  • Change Becomes ConstantChange has become both pervasive and persistentThe pace of change has accelerated due to globalization of the economy and technological advancements Whats driving this?E-commerce

  • Managing ChangeThe ability to manage change is critical to the success of systems development. The new or modified systems created during systems development will inevitably cause change.Managing change requires the ability to recognize existing or potential problems.

  • All this leads to the need for changeBusiness Process Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.

  • BUSINESS PROCESSESBusiness Process RedesignSix principles for redesigning business processes:Organize business processes around outcomes, not tasksAssign those who use the output to perform the processIntegrate information processing into the work that produces the information

  • BUSINESS PROCESSESBusiness Process RedesignSix principles for redesigning business processes:Create a virtual enterprise by treating geographically distributed resources as though they were centralizedLink parallel activities instead of integrating their resultsHave the people who do the work make all the decisions, and let controls built into the system monitor the process

  • Four Key Wordsfor ReengineeringFundamentalRadicalDramaticProcess

  • FundamentalWhy do we do what we do?Why do we do it the way we do?

  • RadicalGetting to the root of things: not making superficial changes or fiddling with what is already in placeDisregarding all existing structures and procedures and inventing completely new ways of accomplishing work

  • DramaticReengineering isnt about making marginal or incremental improvements but about achieving quantum leaps in performanceDramatic improvement demands blowing up the old and replacing it with something new

  • ProcessCollection of activities that takes one or more kinds of input and creates an output that is of value to the customer


  • Definition Phase:End user and systems analysts conduct analysis of current system and business processesAnalysis is:Process-orientedData-orientedBusiness case generated and solution chosenPROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES TO DELIVER INFORMATION SYSTEMSThe Information Systems Life Cycle

  • PROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES TO DELIVER INFORMATION SYSTEMSConstruction Phase:System designed, built, and tested System logically described, then physicallyTechnology chosenPrograms, inputs, and outputs designedSoftware programmed and testedUser acceptance testing conducted The Information Systems Life Cycle

  • PROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES TO DELIVER INFORMATION SYSTEMSImplementation Phase:Business managers and IS professionals install new systemData and procedures from old system convertedThe Information Systems Life Cycle

  • Establishing Objectives for Systems DevelopmentSystems development objectives should be supportive of, and aligned with, organizational goals. There are four kinds of objectives that should be considered:Performance objectives.Cost objectives.Control objectives.Complexity objectives.

  • Systems Development MethodologiesA key factor in completing a successful systems development project is to adopt a methodology.A methodology is a way of doing things.

  • A systems development methodology is an assortment of rules and standards that govern the approach taken to all tasks associated with systems development.In structured systems development the systems development tasks are broken down into small, easily managed parts.Systems Development Methodologies

  • Top-down design means the entire system can be viewed as a layered set of descriptions, each of which could be decomposed, or peeled back, to reveal more detailed specifications for smaller parts of the system. Systems Development Methodologies

  • Structured WalkthroughA structured walkthrough is a planned and pre-announced review of the progress of a particular project deliverable--a specific project outcome, a structure chart, or a human procedure.The walkthrough helps team members review and evaluate the program of components of a structured project.

  • Implementation Phase Installation Parallel StrategyParallel StrategyParallel StrategyParallel Strategy

  • Trends in Systems Development

  • Operational and Rapid PrototypingAn operational prototype is a prototype that works.A partially operational prototype has some components that are operational.A rapid prototype allows system stakeholders and users to see a mockup of the subsystem much faster, which enables earlier changes.

  • Prototyping approach:Takes advantage of availability of fourth generation procedural languages and relational database management systemsEnables creation of system (or part of system) more quickly, then revise after users have tried itIs a type of evolutionary development processPrototyping Methodology

  • Prototyping used as a replacement to traditional SDLC methodology:Good when requirements hard to defineGood when system needed quickly Impractical for large, complex applications

    Prototyping Methodology

  • Advantages:Only basic requirements needed at front endUsed to develop systems that radically change how work is done, so users can evaluateAllows firms to explore use of new technologyWorking system available for testing more quicklyLess strong top-down commitment needed at front endCosts and benefits can be derived after experience with initial prototypeInitial user acceptance likely higher

    Prototyping Advantages and DisadvantagesPrototyping Methodology

  • Disadvantages:End prototype often lacks security and control featuresMay not undergo as rigorous testingFinal documentation may be less completeMore difficult to manage user expectations

    Prototyping Advantages and DisadvantagesPrototyping Methodology

  • Prototyping MethodologyPrototyping within an SDLC Process

  • PROTOTYPING METHODOLOGYPrototyping within an SDLC Process

  • Rapid Application Development (RAD)

    Hybrid methodology aspects of SDLC and prototypingGoal is to produce a system in less than a year

  • Agile Software Development Discipline

    a group of software development methodologies that promotes development iterations, open collaboration, and process adaptability throughout the life-cycle of the project.

  • Agile Software Development Discipline

    4 values:SimplicityCommunicationFeedback CourageAgile techniques are typically focused on enabling quick changes in direction.

  • Agile Software Development Principles - The Agile ManifestoCustomer satisfaction by rapid, continuous delivery of useful softwareWorking software is delivered frequently (weeks rather than months)Working software is the principal measure of progressEven late changes in requirements are welcomedClose, daily cooperation between business people and developersFace-to-face conversation is the best form of communication (Co-location)Projects are built around motivated individuals, who should be trustedContinuous attention to technical excellence and good designSimplicitySelf-organizing teamsRegular adaptation to changing circumstances

  • End-User Systems DevelopmentEnd-user systems development is a term that was originally used to describe the development of information systems by individuals outside of the formal IS planning and departmental structure.

  • Success Factors in Systems DevelopmentClearly defined organizational goals.A sharp focus on, and clear understanding of, the most important business problems or opportunities.Clearly defined systems development objectives.Support of top-level managers. Involvement of users at all stages.Use of a proven systems development method.Creating or aligning incremental systems benefits with normal user work activities so as to provide incentives for effective system interaction. Managing change.A simple and straightforward design.Good training programs for all involved.

  • Adoption/Diffusion Theories To be successful, organizations must be positioned to accept the system and users much want to use the systemOrganizational-level (macro) theoriesIndividual-level (micro) theories

  • Adoption/Diffusion Theories Rogers (1995) (an ISU Prof at the time) offered a seminal model of diffusion. He proposed that members of a social system make innovation decisions during a 5-step process (The Innovation-Decision Process Theory):Knowledge the member(s) develops an awareness of an innovation and some idea of how it functionsPersuasion the member(s) develops and formalizes an attitude (favorable or unfavorable) about the innovationDecision the member(s) engages in a process that lead to a decision about whether to adopt or reject the innovationImplementation an innovation is put into use,Confirmation the member(s) evaluates the innovation-decision.

  • Adoption/Diffusion Theories Rogers (1995) Individual Innovativeness Theory proposes that individual adopters react differently to adoption decisions based on a stable trait or predispositionInnovators (2.5%) - risk takers who take the initiative and time to experiment with new things and technologiesEarly Adopters (13.5%) individuals early in the adoption cycle who tend to be respected leaders and set the trend for adoption. Early Majority (34%) careful, safe, deliberate decision makers w