LTE Physical Layer Design and ImplementationSubmitted in fulfillment of the requirement For the Degree of
: Presented & Submitted By :Mr. Mahesh Sukhariya (Roll No. U08EC328) Mr. Rishi Garg (Roll No. U08EC340) Mr. Vikas Aggarwal (Roll No. U08EC364) Mr. Adarsh Pillai (Roll No. U08EC410) B. TECH. IV (Electronics & Communication) 8th Semester
: Guided By : Dr. U.D.DalalAssociate Professor, ECED.
(May - 2012)
ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT SardarVallabhbhai National Institute of Technology Surat-395007, Gujarat, INDIA.
We would like to express our greatest gratitude to the people who have helped & supported us throughout our project. We are grateful to our guide Dr. (Mrs.) U.D.DALAL for her continuous support for the Project, from initial advice & encouragement to this day. We wish to thank our parents for their undivided support and our friends who appreciated us for our work & motivated us and finally to God who made all the things possible.
ABSTRACTLTE is a standard for wireless data communications technology and an evolution of the GSM/UMTS standards. The goal of LTE is to increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using new DSP (Digital Signal Processing) techniques and modulations that were developed in the beginning of the new millennium. The system supports downlink and uplink peak data rates of 100 Mbps and 50 Mbps respectively with 20 MHz bandwidth. In addition to peak data rate improvements, LTE system provides much higher spectral efficiency .In terms of latency, LTE radio interface and network provides capabilities for less than 10 ms latency for the transmission of a packet from the network to the UE.LTE uses SCFDMA in its uplink. In SC-FDMA, multiple access among users is made possible by assigning different users, different sets of non-overlapping Fourier-coefficients (sub-carriers). This is achieved at the transmitter by inserting (prior to IFFT) silent Fourier-coefficients (at positions assigned to other users), and removing them on the receiver side after the FFT. In this project uplink part of the LTE physical layer is implemented using System Vue which is an electronic system-level (ESL) design software. First the various modulation techniques like QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM were successfully implemented and analyzed. Later the LTE uplink physical layer was designed and characteristics of the spectrum were observed for different noise density values in the spectrum analyzer .The throughput and BER was also observed with satisfactory results.
SardarVallabhbhai National Institute of TechnologySurat-395007, Gujarat, INDIA. ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
This is to certify that the B. Tech. IV (8th Semester)PROJECT REPORT entitled LTE Physical Layer Design And Implementation is presented & submitted by Candidates Mr. Mahesh Sukhariya, Rishi Garg, Vikas Aggarwal, Adarsh Pillai, bearing Roll Nos. U08EC328, U08EC340, U08EC364, U08EC410, in the fulfillment of the requirement for the award of B.Tech. Degree in Electronics & Communication Engineering. They have successfully and satisfactorily completed their Project Exam in all respect. We, certify that the work is comprehensive, complete and fit for evaluation.Dr. U. D. DALAL Project Guide Associate Professor PROJECT EXAMINERS : Name 1.Asst. Prof. Shweta N. Shah 2.Asst.Prof. Shilpi Gupta 3.Mrs V.P. Bhale Signature with date __________________ __________________ __________________ DEPARTMENT SEAL Prof. N. B. KANIRKAR UG In-charge, Associate Professor Dr.S. PATNAIK Head of the Deptt. ECED Associate Professor
TABLE OF CONTENT
LIST OF FIGURES. ii
CHAPTERS1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Requirements for UMTS Long Term Evolution 1.2 Consumers Future Requirements 1.3 LTE Architecture 1.4 Network Architecture 1.5 QoS and bearer service architecture 1.6 Seamless mobility support 2. LTE PHYSICAL LAYER 2.1Technology Focus 2.2 SCFDMA 2.3 Single Carrier Modulation 2.4 Subcarrier Mapping 2.5 LTE Uplink Physical Channels 3. INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM VUE 3.1 Introduction To UI 4. LTE Uplink Design 4.1 LTE Uplink Transmitter 4.2 LTE Uplink Throughput 4.3 Blocks used in Simulation using System Vue 4.4 BER Analysis RESULT CONCLUSION REFERENCES ACRONYMS 1 2 3 5 6 11 12 16 16 19 23 24 26 38 38 48 48 49 50 70
LIST OF FIGURESSR. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 NAME OF THE FIGURE Fig.1(a) Broadband growth 20052012 Fig.1(b) Growth of voice and data traffic in WCDMA networks world wide Fig .1(c) Network Architecture Fig .1(d) Functional split between eNB and MME/GW Fig .1(e) User Plane Protocol Fig .1(f) Control Plane Protocol Fig .1(g) S1 interfaces user and control planes Fig .1(h) X2 interfaces user and control planes Fig .1(i) EPS bearer service architecture Fig .1(j) Active Handovers Fig .1(k) Handover Message Sequence Fig .2(a)QAM block diagram Fig.2(b) Constellation diagram Fig. 2(c) BER Fig. 2(d) Transmitter scheme of SC-FDMA Fig .2(e) Uplink slot format Fig .2(f) OFDM transmitter and receiver Fig .2(g) SC-FDMA transmitter and receiver Fig .2(h) Time domain representation of interleaved SC-FDMA Fig. 2(i) Simplified interleaved SC-FDMA transmitter Fig .2(j) subcarrier mapping Fig.2(k) subcarrier mapping example Fig.2(l) PRACH preamble time structure Fig.2(m) subcarrier content Fig.2(o) non frequency hopping srs Fig.2(p) frequency hopping srs Fig.2(q)PUSCH structure Fig.2(r)PUSCH Fig. 3.1(a) SystemVue Getting Started Window Fig .3.1(b) Setting Source Properties Fig .3.1(c) Sine Source setup PAGE NO. 4 5 7 8 8 9 10 10 11 13 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27 29 36 36 37 37 38 39 39
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Fig .3.1(d). SystemVue Design Environment Fig .3.1(e) Selecting component from Part Selector Fig .3.1(f) Setting Source Properties Fig .3.1(g). Sine Source setup Fig .3.1(h) Simulation Controller Properties Fig .3.1(i) SystemVue Fig .3.1(j). Simulation Dataset Fig .3.l(k). Adding measurement to Graph Fig .3.1(l). Graphing Wizard Fig .3.1(m) spectrum Fig .3.1(n). Adding Graph from Workspace Tree Fig .3.1(o) Graphing Wizard Fig .3.1(p).Spectrum graph Fig .3.1(q) SystemVue Tile View Fig .4.1(a) LTE Uplink Transmitter using system vue Fig .4.2(b) Uplink block diagram using system vue Fig .4.3(a) random bit generater Fig .4.3(c) LTE UL Src Fig .4.3(d). Uplink Transmitter -System Parameters Fig .4.3(e). Uplink Transmitter-PUSCH parameters Fig .4.3(f). Uplink Transmitter -RB allocation (PUSCH) parameters Fig .4.3(g). Uplink Transmitter PUCCH Parameters Fig .4.3(h). Uplink Transmitter PRACH parameters Fig .4.3(i). Uplink Transmitter SRS parameters Fig .4.3(j). Uplink transmitter Control info parameters Fig .4.3(k). Uplink Transmitter Power parameter Fig .4.3(l). Complex to rectangular converter Fig .4.3(m). Modulator Fig .4.3(n). Modulator parameters Fig .4.3(o) Oscillator Fig .4.3(p) Spectrum Analyzer Fig .4.3(q). Spectrum Analyzer Parameters Fig .4.3(r). Power vs. Frequency graph Fig .4.3(s). Noise density Block Fig .4.3(t) Noise density parameters Fig .4.3(u) Demodulator block Fig .4.3(v) Demodulator parameters Fig .4.3(w) Delay block Fig .4.3 (x) Delay parameters Fig .4.3(y) LTE UL Receiver Fig .4.3(z) UL receiver system parameters Fig .4.3(aa) UL receiver PUSCH parameters Fig .4.3(bb) UL receiver RB allocation(PUSCH) parameters Fig .4.3(cc) UL receiver PUCCH Parameters Fig .4.3(dd) UL receiver PRACH parameters Fig .4.3(ee) UL Receiver SRS Parameters
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Fig .4.3(ff) UL Receiver Control info Parameters Fig .4.3(gg) UL Receiver Rx algorithm parameters Fig .4.3(hh) LTE Through put block diagram Fig .4.3(ii) LTE Throughput parameters Fig .4.3 (jj) LTE UL AWGN HARQ THROUGHPUT Fig .4.3 (kk) UL BER Measurement Block Diagram Fig .4.3(ll) BER properties Fig .4.3(mm) BER Parameters Fig .4.4(a) UL BER measurement block diagram Fig .4.4(b) BER vs. SNR graph
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LIST OF TABLES
SNO 1 2 3 5 6 7 8
NAME OF TABLE 2.1. LTE parameters 2.2 .Preamble format 2.3 .PRACH Preamble format 2.5 .UE setting 2.6 .channel setting 2.7 .PUCCH format type 2.8 .Format
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CHAPTER 1:INTRODUCTIONLong Term Evolution (LTE) is the next step forward in cellular 3G services. Expected in the 2008 time frame, LTE is a 3GPP standard that provides for an uplink speed of up to 50 megabits per second (Mbps) and a downlink speed of up to 100 Mbps. LTE will bring many technical benefits to cellular networks. Bandwidth will be scalable from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz this spectral efficiency in 3G networks, allowing carriers to provide will suit the needs of different network operators that have different bandwidth allocations, and also allow operators to provide different services based on spectrum. LTE is also expected to improve more data and voice services over a given bandwidth on the channel.
The 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) represents a major advance in cellular technology. LTE is designed to meet carrier needs for high-speed data and media transport as well as highcapacity voice support well into the next decade. It encompasses high-speed data, multimedia unicast and multimedia broadcast services. Although technical specifications are not yet finalized, significant details are emerging. This report focuses on the LTE physical layer(PHY).
The LTE PHY is a highly efficient means of conveying both data and control information between an enhanced base station (eNodeB) and mobile user equipment (UE). The LTE PHY employs some advanced technologies