Syro Hittie

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  • 7/26/2019 Syro Hittie


    Syro-Hittite statesFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    (Redirected from Neo-Hittite)

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  • 7/26/2019 Syro Hittie



    The states that are called Neo-Hittite, or more recently Syro-HittitewereLuwian,Aramaicand

    Phoenician-speaking political entities of theIron Agein northern Syriaand southern Anatolia

    that arose following the collapse of theHittite Empirearound !" #$ and which lasted untilroughly %"" #$& The term '(eo-Hittite' is sometimes reser)ed specifically for the Luwian-

    speaking principalities like *ilidand $archemish, although in a wider sense the +roader cultural

    term 'Syro-Hittite' is now applied to all the entities that arose in south-central Anatolia

    following the Hittite collapsesuch as Ta+aland well as those of northern and

    coastal Syria&/0


    ate ron!e "#e-arly .ron "#e transition

    / ist of 0yro-Hittite states

    1 .nscriptions

    2 0ee also

    3 Notes

    4 5ternal links

    ate ron!e "#e-arly .ron "#e transition

    +his section may require copy editingfor grammar, style, cohesion,tone, or spelling6 7o can assist *y editin# it6 (November 2014)

    Frther information8 ron!e "#e collapse

    +he &ast Hittiteempire at its ma5imm e5pansion in the lands of central "natolia
  • 7/26/2019 Syro Hittie


    The collapse of the Hittite Empire is usually associated with the gradual decline of Eastern

    *editerranean trade networks and the resulting collapse of ma1or Late #ron2e Age citiesin the

    Le)antine coast, Anatolia and the Aegean&/30In the middle of the 4th century #$, great groups

    of 5reeksspeaking ancient 6oriandialects mo)ed from the north through the #alkanregion tothe south& The Thracianswho occupied this region, and northern 5reece, were forced to mo)e to

    the western coasts, and later to the inland of Anatolia,where they +ecame known asPhrygiansand *ysians& At the end of the 4th century #$, the *yceneanpalaces in inland 5reece were

    destroyed +y in)aders and almost simultaneously sea-raiders de)astated the palace at Pylos&/40/70

    A few decades later, at the +eginning of the 3th century #$, HomericTroywas destroyed/80andthe Hittite Empiresuffered a sudden de)astating attack from the 9askas, who occupied the coasts

    around the #lack Sea,and who were 1oined with the*ysians&They proceeded to destroy almost

    all Hittite sites +ut they were finally defeated +y the Assyrians+eyond the southern +orders near

    Tigris/:0These great population mo)ements in the Eastern-*editterannean are documented in the

    records of ;amesses III as an in)asion +y the so-called sea peoples&/%0*entioned as +eing among them are the people ofAdana in$iliciaand

    pro+a+ly the Troyans&Hatti,Ar2awa, Alashiya, ?garitand Alalakhweredestroyed&/!0The in)aders were defeated near the +orders of Egypt&

    It seems that the sea-peoples contri+uted to the collapse of the Empire, although they are only

    mentioned in the Egyptianrecords and the archaeological e)idence is insufficient& Their in)asion

    caused the mo)ement, +y +oth land and sea, of large populations seeking new land to settle&/@0Infact, it is recorded that theforeign countriesmade a conspiracy in their islands and that no land

    could stand +efore their arms& The Hittites were strong enough to sur)i)e the first stream of

    emigrations, +ut they didnt escape the second, where they were surrounded +y enemies& The

    Caskawere a continuous trou+le, the +orders withArzawawere ne)er considered safe, *itanni

    to the south was always an enemy and a few decades earlier the Hittites suffered a great defeatagainst the Assyrians+eyond the +orders&/"0These (eo-Hittite 9ingdoms gradually fell under

    the control of the (eo Assyrian Empire

  • 7/26/2019 Syro Hittie


    continue into the Iron Age without hiatus, and those temples witness multiple re+uildings in the

    Early Iron Age&

    ist of 0yro-Hittite states

    Historical map of the Neo-Hittite states, c6 9:: $6 orders are appro5imate only6

    The Syro=Hittite states may +e di)ided into two groupsC a northern group whereHittiterulersremained in power, and a southern group where Aramaeanscame to rule from a+out """ #$&Although these states are considered somewhat unified, they were thought to actually +e

    disunified, e)en in separate kingdoms&/80/:0

    The northern group includesC

    +a*al6 .t may ha&e inclded a #rop of city states called the+yanitis(+wana,+nna, Hpisna, 0hinkht, .shtnda)

    ;amman(with %elid)