of 28/28
INDEX 521 Symbols 3Com, 343 16-way RAID-0 setup, 414-415 8-way NUMA RAID setup, 412-414 A Above Idle tool (Performance Inspector), 102, 104-105 accept_redirects parameter (kernel), 517 accept_source_route parameter (kernel), 517 access bits, 203 ACEs (access control entries), file systems, 236 ACLs (access control lists), 236 active balancing, 191 address spaces, 21 kernel address space, 21 Moore’s Law, 200 user address space, 21 virtual address spaces, 196-197 area structures, 198-199 highmem interface, 201 kernel address spaces, 199 kernel image section, 200 kernel module section, 199 paging, 201-203 swapping, 201-203 user address spaces, 197-198 virtual memory generic view, 196 address translation process, 204-205 addressing, I/O devices, 229-230 affinity, IRQ, 462-464 AFP file system, 347 AFS/DFS, 347 agebuffer parameter (bdflush), 249 AIM7 benchmarks, 142 AIM9 benchmarks, 143, 147 aio-max-nr parameter (kernel), 514 aio-nr parameter (kernel), 514 algorithms, code tuning, 305-328 allocation, pages, 207 allocation groups file systems, 236 XFS (Next-Generation File System), 269 analysis methodologies (benchmarks), 175-176 exit strategies, 179 measurements, 177-179 run rules, 176 target setting, 177 tuning, 177-179 anticipatory I/O elevators, 9 anticipatory I/O scheduler (AS), 222-225 decayed frequency tables, 224 lowest logical block information, 226 positioning time, 224 read anticipation process, 227-228 tuning, 224-225 antic_expire parameter (AS I/O scheduler), 225 anycast_delay parameter (kernel), 516 Apache web servers, tuning, 338-339 APIs (application programming interfaces), 21 NAPI (network device driver API), 464-466 SendFile, 458-460 applets (Java), 376 application benchmarks, 133, 161 database benchmarks, 164-166 Java benchmarks, 161-163 Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 521

Symbols - pearsoncmg.comptgmedia.pearsoncmg.com/images/013144753X/index/013144753X_index.pdfbenchmarks, 179-184 mail servers, 409 measurements, 177-179 metadata, 409 microbenchmarks,

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  • I N D E X

    521

    Symbols3Com, 34316-way RAID-0 setup,

    414-4158-way NUMA RAID setup,

    412-414

    AAbove Idle tool (Performance

    Inspector), 102, 104-105accept_redirects parameter

    (kernel), 517accept_source_route

    parameter (kernel), 517access bits, 203ACEs (access control entries),

    file systems, 236ACLs (access control lists), 236active balancing, 191address spaces, 21

    kernel address space, 21Moore’s Law, 200user address space, 21virtual address spaces,

    196-197area structures, 198-199highmem interface, 201kernel address

    spaces, 199kernel image

    section, 200

    kernel module section, 199

    paging, 201-203swapping, 201-203user address spaces,

    197-198virtual memory generic

    view, 196address translation process,

    204-205addressing, I/O devices,

    229-230affinity, IRQ, 462-464AFP file system, 347AFS/DFS, 347agebuffer parameter

    (bdflush), 249AIM7 benchmarks, 142AIM9 benchmarks, 143, 147aio-max-nr parameter

    (kernel), 514aio-nr parameter (kernel), 514algorithms, code tuning,

    305-328allocation, pages, 207allocation groups

    file systems, 236XFS (Next-Generation File

    System), 269analysis methodologies

    (benchmarks), 175-176exit strategies, 179

    measurements, 177-179run rules, 176target setting, 177tuning, 177-179

    anticipatory I/O elevators, 9anticipatory I/O scheduler

    (AS), 222-225decayed frequency

    tables, 224lowest logical block

    information, 226positioning time, 224read anticipation process,

    227-228tuning, 224-225

    antic_expire parameter (AS I/O scheduler), 225

    anycast_delay parameter (kernel), 516

    Apache web servers, tuning,338-339

    APIs (application programminginterfaces), 21

    NAPI (network device driver API), 464-466

    SendFile, 458-460applets (Java), 376application benchmarks,

    133, 161database benchmarks,

    164-166Java benchmarks, 161-163

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 521

  • Oracle ApplicationsStandard ApplicationBenchmark, 168

    PostMark, 164SAP Standard Application

    Benchmark, 168application programming

    interfaces (APIs). SeeAPIs (application programming interface)

    application servers, 375-376,384-385

    availability, 378clustering, 391-394commercial workload

    J2EE model, 480-481Trade3 benchmark,

    481-504tuning, 479-480

    concurrency, 379connection pools, 502-503data integrity, 378database servers,

    interactivity, 496-499databases, support, 378distribution, 379enterprise application, 383failover, 378fault tolerance, 378file systems, 390hardware, 387-388heterogeneousness, 379hyperthreading, 504interactivity, 379J2EE (Java 2 Enterprise

    Edition), 376-377Java, 376JVM (Java Virtual

    Machine), 386-389load balancing, 397memory usage, 389multiple-applications-in-

    one, 380multiple-services-in-one,

    380

    native code, 386networking, 389pass-by-reference, 502performance

    requirements, 377-390requests, 380scalability, 378security, 378SMP scaling, 390-391software performance

    stack, 382-383string manipulation, 390synchronization, 389thread pools, 501-502threads, 389topologies, 394-398transactions, 380tuning, 398-402vendor server

    portability, 378vendors, Linux support, 380web servers, 390

    applicationsdesigning, 305-309

    clients, 323-324code, 309file I/O, 322-323servers, 309-310sockets, 311, 313-314synchronization,

    318-321threads, 315-317timing routines,

    310-311profiling, 302-303

    app_solicit parameter (kernel), 516

    architecture models, webservers, 336-337

    architecturesdatabases, 362kernel, 20-23multiprocessing

    clusters, 38, 43-45

    NUMA (Non-UniformMemoryArchitecture), 38,48-54

    processor mixing, 38SMP (Symmetrical

    Multiprocessing),36-39

    area structures, virtual memory, 198-199

    AS (anticipatory I/O scheduler), 222-225

    deadline behavior, 416-417decayed frequency

    tables, 224lowest logical block

    information, 226positioning time, 224read anticipation process,

    227-228sequential read

    performance, 415-416tuning, 224-225

    asymmetrical multiprocessingsystems, 28

    asynchronous I/O, 246databases, 371-372file systems, 249-250

    availability, applicationservers, 378

    Bbadblocks utility (Ext2/Ext3

    file system), 258banks, physical memory, 22Baseline column

    (NetBench), 469base_reachable_time

    parameter (kernel), 516bdflush kernel daemon, 512

    parameters, 248-249BEA WebLogic, application

    servers, 377benchmarks, 131, 173

    analysis, 177-179

    522 Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 522

  • application benchmarks,133, 161

    database benchmarks,164-166

    Java benchmarks,161-163

    Oracle ApplicationsStandardBenchmark, 168

    PostMark benchmarks,164

    SAP StandardApplicationBenchmark, 168

    consistency, 132enterprise benchmarks, 133exit strategies, 179FFSB (flexible file system

    benchmark), 409file servers, 408I/O schedulers, 408-409Linux kernel performance

    benchmarks, 179-184mail servers, 409measurements, 177-179metadata, 409microbenchmarks,

    133-134disk benchmarks,

    150-159network benchmarks,

    159-160operating system

    benchmarks,134-143, 147-150

    network performance,456-457

    NetBench, 468-470Netperf3 benchmark,

    471-472SPECWeb99 benchmark,

    475-476VolcanoMark bench-

    mark, 473-474

    operating system benchmarks, 173

    analysis methodology,175-179

    kernel performancebenchmarks,179-184

    methodology casestudy, 175

    numerical analysis, 174simulators, 174tracing, 173workload characteriza-

    tion, 174repeatability, 132run rules, 176sequential read

    benchmarks, 409sequential write

    benchmarks, 409targets, setting, 177tuning, 177-179web server

    benchmarks, 166ECPerf, 168SPECjAppServer, 168SPECweb, 166-168SPECweb SSL, 166-168TCP-W, 166-168

    web servers, 408workloads, 132, 134

    Berkeley sockets, 311, 313-314BI (business intelligence), 164binding, IRQ, 462-464BIO (block I/O) layer

    I/O schedulers, 217-219AS (anticipatory

    I/O scheduler),222-225

    CFQ (Completely FairQueuing) I/Oscheduler, 225

    deadline I/O scheduler,219-220

    noop I/O scheduler, 226

    performance issues, 226tuning, 221-222

    struct page pointers, 219blades, 48block allocationblock groups, Ext2 file

    system, 253block size I/O, databases, 372blocks

    allocationExt2 file system, 254file systems, 235

    increasing, 238super blocks, 236

    Bonnie/Bonnie++ benchmarks, 150-152

    bonuses, interactive tasks,giving to, 194

    bootp_relay parameter (kernel), 517

    bottlenecks, system tracing,87-88

    OProfile command,93-101

    PI (PerformanceInspector), 102-107,110-112, 125-130

    requirements, 88strace command, 90-93top utility, 88-90

    bottom half handlers, 25bounce buffers, databases, 370browsers, 331BSD (Berkeley Software

    Design), 12-16initialization table

    Slackware, 14-15system initialization,

    12-16System V, compared, 12-16

    buffers, read/write buffers,TCP, 281-283

    burst transfer rates, datamovement, 243

    business intelligence (BI), 164byte range requests, 333

    523Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 523

  • CC programming language,

    301, 309C++ programming language,

    301, 309caches, 39-40

    coherency, SMP(SymmetricalMultiprocessing) system, 29

    locality of reference, 40case sensitivity enforced

    column (NetBench), 470case studies

    benchmarking methodology, 175

    commercial workload,Trade3 benchmark,481-504

    Ext2/Ext3 file system layout analysis, 424-430

    file systemsI/O measurement,

    446-452tuning, 436-445

    I/O schedulers, 40716-way RAID-0 setup,

    414-4158-way NUMA RAID

    setup, 412-414AS scheduler, 415-417benchmarks, 408-409CFQ I/O scheduler,

    417-420performance, 409single-CPU single-disk

    setup, 410-411JFS (Journaled File

    System) layout analysis, 430-431

    network performance,455, 468

    benchmarks, 456-457kernel enhancements,

    457-468

    NetBench, 468-470Netperf3 benchmark,

    471-472SPECWeb99 benchmark,

    475-476VolcanoMark bench-

    mark, 473-474ReiserFS layout analysis,

    432, 434XFS layout analysis, 435

    CFQ (Completely FairQueuing) I/O scheduler, 225

    AS scheduler, compared,415-417

    benchmarks, 4088-way NUMA RAID setup,

    benchmark, 412-414performance, 409single-CPU single-disk

    setup, benchmark,410-411

    16-way RAID-0 setup,benchmark, 414-415

    tuning, 417-420CGI (Common Gateway

    Interface), 376channel cards, 47chattr utility (Ext2/Ext3 file

    system), 258children, sleep averages,

    tuning, 192CHILD_PENALTY parameter

    (scheduler), tuning, 192chunked encoding, 333client server model, 331-333clients

    designing, 323-324tuning, 350-354

    file change notifications,353

    metadata, 353opportunistic locking,

    352-353

    protocol layering,351-352

    read-only clients,353-354

    cluster file systems, 348clustering

    application server, 391-394interconnect technology,

    databases, 362clusters, 38, 43

    HA (high availability)clusters, 43-45

    HPCs (high-performanceclusters), 43

    Coda, 347code

    compilers, 326-327as tuning tools, 303-304gcc (GNU Compiler

    Collection) compiler, 301, 309

    native code, applicationservers, 386

    programs, designing, 309tuning, 301-304

    algorithms, 305-328Comer, Douglas E., 505commands

    debugfs, 424dump2efs, 425gprof, 303gtop, 65-67hdparm, 243-246iostat, 75-75, 446-450, 452ipconfig, 82ipcs, 289-291jfs_mkfs, 266less, 26logrotate, 11mk fs, 234-237mke2fs, 255-256mkfs, 424netstat, 80-83nfsstat, 83

    524 Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 524

  • OProfileopcontrol, 94-95oprofpp, 96op_merge, 101op_time, 97op_to_source, 98system tracing, 93-96,

    98-99, 101PI (Performance

    Inspector)pipcntr, 129post, 129ptt, 130pttstats, 130swtrace, 128-129

    prof, 302ps, 71-72pttstats, 105, 107run.itrace, 110-111sar, 67-69, 76, 78sh, 339strace, 90-93sysctl, 278, 299top, 65-67, 88, 90tprof, 107, 110, 112tune, 234vmstat, 62-65, 72-73

    commercial workloadJ2EE model, 480-481Trade3 benchmark,

    481-492, 496-499connection pools,

    502-503database I/O activity,

    495-496hyperthreading, 504JVM (Java Virtual

    Machine), 499-501pass-by-reference, 502thread dumps, 492-495thread pools, 501-502web servers, 491

    tuning, 479-480Common Gateway Interface

    (CGI), 376

    compilersas tuning tools, 303-304gcc (GNU Compiler

    Collection) compiler,301, 309

    compile_et utility (Ext2/Ext3file system), 258

    compiling code, 326-327Completely Fair Queuing

    (CFQ) I/O scheduler, 225component benchmarks. See

    microbenchmarksconcurrency

    application servers, 379web servers, 336

    CONFIG kernel parameters, 517

    configurationExt3 file system, 256hard drives, multiple hard

    drives, 4-5IPC (interprocess

    communication),298-299

    JFS (Journaled FileSystem), 266

    kernel, configurable features, 9

    RAID (Redundant Arrayof Inexpensive Disks),7-8

    ReiserFS, 260XFS (Next-Generation File

    System), 269connection management,

    TCP, kernel parameters,285-286

    connection pools, applicationservers, 502-503

    contention statistics,generating, JLM (JavaLock Monitor), 125-128

    context switching, 24-25conversions, file systems, 6-7

    countersJLM (Java Lock Monitor),

    125-128OProfile, 94

    CPU scheduler, virtual memory, 212-214

    CPUs (central processingunits), utilization,monitoring, 59-69

    create benchmarks, 409crediting interactive tasks,

    scheduler, 192CRO (Continuous Reliable

    Operation), IBM zSeriesmainframes, 47

    DD-SACK, TCP, enabling, 285data integrity

    application servers, 378assuring, 247

    data movementburst transfer rates, 243disks, 241-242internal transfer rates, 243sustained transfer

    rates, 243data=writeback column

    (NetBench), 469database benchmarks,

    164-166results, 182

    database servers, 361application servers,

    interactivity, 496-499databases

    application servers,support for, 378

    architectures, 362clustering interconnect

    technology, 362decision support system

    (DSS) workloads, 362

    525Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 525

  • I/O management, 370asynchronous I/O,

    371-372block size I/O, 372bounce buffers, 370direct I/O, 372raw I/O, 371request locks, 373vectored I/O, 371

    logging devices, 367-368memory management,

    369-370OLTP (online transaction

    processing), 362process management,

    368-369tuning, 362

    global memory,365-366

    I/O, 363load balancing, 363, 365queue length, 363response times, 363

    workloads, 367-368dbench, 155-159dcache read copy update

    column (NetBench), 470deadline behavior, AS

    scheduler, 416-417deadline I/O elevators, 9deadline I/O schedulers,

    219-220deadlocking, semaphores, 27debugfs utility, 259, 424debugging

    Ext2 file system, 259kernel parameters, 511ReiserFS, 264

    decayed frequency tables, 224decision support (DS), 164decision support system

    (DSS) workloads,databases, 362

    dedicated network storageservers, 344

    default threads, virtual memory, 195

    defragmentation, file systems, 246

    delay_first_probe_time parameter (kernel), 516

    dentry-state parameter (kernel), 514

    designing programs, 305-309clients, 323-324code, 309file I/O, 322-323servers, 309-310sockets, 311-314synchronization, 318-321threads, 315-317timing routines, 310-311

    detailed symbol mode reports(OProfile), 96

    device special files, 32devices, I/O devices,

    addressing, 229-230dir-notify-enable parameter

    (kernel), 514direct I/O, databases, 372directories, 236

    Ext2 file system, 253-254JFS (Journaled File

    System), 265dirty bits, 203dirty_background_ratio

    parameter (virtual memory), 209

    dirty_expire_centisecs parameter (virtual memory), 209

    dirty_ratio parameter (virtualmemory), 209

    dirty_writeback_sentisecsparameter (virtual memory), 209

    disk benchmarks, 150Bonnie/Bonnie++

    benchmarks, 150-152dbench, 155-159

    IOmeter benchmarks, 152IOzone benchmarks, 152Penguinmeter

    benchmarks, 153tiobench, 153-155

    disksfile systems, 241

    data movement,241-242

    hdparm command,243-246

    rotational speed,242-243

    track-to-track seekspeed, 242-243

    transfer rates, 243multiple disks,

    configuring, 4-5partitions, placement, 4-5RAID (Redundant Array

    of Inexpensive Disks),configuring, 7-8

    distribution, applicationservers, 379

    DMZ topology, applicationservers, 395

    DNS servers, 35domainname parameter

    (kernel), 511dquot-max parameter

    (kernel), 514dquot-nr parameter

    (kernel), 514DS (decision support), 164dumpe2fs utility (Ext2/Ext3

    file system), 259, 425dynamic content

    SPECWeb99 benchmark,475-476

    web servers, 331dynamic kernel patches,

    PI (PerformanceInspector), 103

    dynamic link libraries,327-328

    526 Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 526

  • Ee2fsck utility (Ext2 file

    system), 259e2image utility (Ext2 file

    system), 259e2label utility (Ext2 file

    system), 259EAs (extended attributes), file

    systems, 236ecn parameter (kernel), 519ECPerf benchmarks, 168EJB (Enterprise Java

    Beans), 376elevators (I/O), 9enterprise applications

    clustering, 391-394J2EE, 383SMP scaling, 390-391topologies, 394-398tuning, 398-402

    enterprise benchmarks, 133Enterprise Java Beans

    (EJB), 376enterprise servers, 42Enterprise Storage Server

    (ESS), 48error_burst parameter

    (kernel), 517error_cost parameter

    (kernel), 517ESCON channel cards, 47ESS (Enterprise Storage

    Server), 48etc/inittab initialization table,

    12-16Ethereal packet capture tool,

    334-335evaluation methodologies

    (performance), 173analysis methodology,

    175-179benchmarking

    methodology casestudy, 175

    kernel performancebenchmarks, 179-184

    numerical analysis, 174simulators, 174tracing, 173workload characterization,

    174evenly affined IRQs column

    (NetBench), 469event balancing, 191event-driven web servers,

    tuning, 339exit strategies, benchmarks, 179EXIT_WEIGHT parameter

    (scheduler), tuning, 192Ext2 file system, 5, 30, 253

    block allocation, 254block groups, 253creating, 255-256directories, 253-254Ext3 extensions, 256inodes, 253layout, analyzing, 424-430relationships, 254upgrading, 258utilities, 258-259Ext3 file system,

    converting to, 6-7, 258Ext3 file system, 5

    Ext2 file system,converting from,6-7, 258

    extensions, 256external journal devices,

    using on, 258kernel configuration

    support, 256layout, analyzing, 424-430partitions, creating, 257tuning, 256, 436-440utilities, 258-259

    extended attributes (EAs), filesystems, 236

    extensions, Ext3 file system, 256

    extentsallocation, file systems, 235file offset, 235file systems, 235JFS (Journaled File

    System), 265starting block

    numbers, 235external fragmentation, file

    systems, 235external journal devices,

    Ext3 file systems, usingon, 258

    external logs, 423JFS (Journaled File

    System), 267tuning, 442-443

    ReiserFS, 262tuning, 440-441

    XFS (Next-Generation FileSystem), 271

    FFACK (Forward

    Acknowledgement), TCP,enabling, 285

    failover, application servers, 378

    fault tolerance, applicationservers, 378

    fdatasync function, 247Feigenbaum, Barry, 346FFSB (flexible file system

    benchmark), 409FHS (Filesystem Hierarchy

    Standard), 13fibre channel, 41FICON channel cards, 47FIFOs, 289fifo_batch parameter (I/O

    scheduler), 221

    527Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 527

  • file change notifications,clients, 353

    file I/O, 322-323file integrity, assuring, 247file offset, 235file servers, 343

    benchmarks, 408NAS (network attached

    storage), 344network file system

    protocols, 345-350tuning, 354-355

    load measurement, 358NFS (Network File

    System), 355-356performance

    measurement, 357Samba, 356-357

    file status flags, setting, 247file synchronization, 246-248file systems, 29, 233

    ACEs (access controlentries), 236

    ACLs (access control lists), 236

    allocation groups, 236application servers, 390asynchronous I/O, 249-250bdflush kernel daemon,

    paramerers, 248-249block allocation, 235converting, 6-7creating

    mk fs command,234-237

    planning, 234defragmentation, 246device special files, 32directories, 236disks, 241

    data movement,241-242

    hdparm command,243-246

    rotational speed,242-243

    track-to-track seekspeed, 242-243

    transfer rates, 243EAs (extended

    attributes), 236Ext2 file system, 5, 30, 253

    block allocation, 254block groups, 253creating, 255-256directories, 253-254Ext3 extensions, 256inodes, 253layout analysis, 424-430relationships, 254upgrading, 258utilities, 258-259

    Ext3 file system, 5external journal

    devices, 258kernel configuration

    support, 256partitioning, 257tuning, 256, 436-440utilities, 258-259

    extents, 235external logs, 423FFSB (flexible file system

    benchmark), 409FHS (Filesystem Hierarchy

    Standard), 13file synchronization,

    246-248fragmentation, 235, 246I/O, measuring, 446-452IBM JFS (Journaled File

    System), 5implementation, 5,

    233-241inodes, 235JFS (Journaled File

    System), 265-266comparison list, 274creating, 266-267

    directories, 265dynamic inode

    allocation, 265extent-based addressing

    structures, 265external logs, 267kernel configuration

    support, 266layout analysis, 430-431mounting, 240, 267transactions, 238-239tuning, 266, 268,

    442-443utilities, 268

    kernel parameters,513-514

    layouts, 423logical blocks, 234logical volumes, 235LVM (Linux Volume

    Manager), 30meta data, 235mk fs command, 234network file system

    protocols, 345-350proc file system, 21,

    508-509memory utilization,

    70-71RAID, 30-31raw disk I/O, 251-252ReiserFS, 5, 259-260

    creating, 261-262external logs, 262kernel configuration

    support, 260layout analysis, 432-434mounting, 262-263tuning, 260, 264,

    440-441utilities, 264

    selecting, 5super blocks, 236sysfs, 509tuning, 234, 436

    528 Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 528

  • VFS (virtual file system), 30

    VGs (volume groups),31-32

    XFS (Next-Generation FileSystem), 5, 268-269

    allocation groups, 269creating, 270-271external logs, 271fullness, 271kernel configuration

    support, 269layout analysis, 435mounting, 271-272partitions, 269tuning, 270-272,

    443-445utilities, 272-273

    file-max parameter (kernel), 513

    file-nr parameter (kernel), 513

    file sizes, increasing, 238Filesystem Hierarchy

    Standard (FHS). See FHS(Filesystem HierarchyStandard)

    Flash web servers, tuning, 339flexible file system benchmark

    (FFSB), 409forced file synchronization, 248FORTRAN programming

    language, 309Forward Acknowledgement

    (FACK), TCP,enabling, 285

    forwarding parameter (kernel), 517

    fragmentation, file systems,235, 246

    front_merges parameter (I/O scheduler), 221

    fsck.ext3 utility (Ext3 file system), 259

    functionsasynchronous I/O, 250file synchronization, 247

    Ggcc (GNU Compiler

    Collection) compiler,301, 309

    tuning options, 303-304gc_stale_time parameter

    (kernel), 516GFS, 348Gigabit Ethernet, tuning,

    Netperf3, 471-472global memory, databases,

    365-366GNU C Library (GLIBC)

    asynchronous I/O interface, 372

    GPL (GNU General PublicLicense), Linux kernel, 19

    gprof command, 303grain locking, processors, 29gtop command, CPU

    utilization, 65-67Gunther, Harvey, 505

    HHA (high availability)

    clusters, 43-45hard drives. See diskshardware

    analysis methodologies, 175application servers,

    387-388IBM zSeries mainframes, 46NUMA servers, 51

    hdparm command, driveinformation, viewing,243-246

    heterogeneousness,application servers, 379

    hierarchiesNUMA servers, 51Processes, viewing, 88, 90

    high availability (HA) clusters, 43-45

    high bandwidth interconnect,NUMA servers, 49

    high-performance clusters(HPCs), 43-44

    highmem interface, 201hold time accounting, JLM

    (Java Lock Monitor),125-128

    home partition, placement,4-5

    horizontal clustering,application servers, 393

    hostname parameter (kernel), 511

    hot_list_length parameter(kernel), 515

    HPCs (high-performanceclusters), 43-44

    HTML generators, 376HTTP (HyperText Transfer

    Protocol), 331ISO layering model, 333requests, 332-333

    byte range requests, 333responses, 331-333

    chunked encoding, 333WebDAV extensions, 347

    huge TLB page support, 9hyperthreading application

    servers, 504

    II/O

    buses, 41databases, 370

    asynchronous I/O,371-372

    block size I/O, 372bounce buffers, 370direct I/O, 372raw I/O, 371request locks, 373tuning, 363vectored I/O, 371

    529Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 529

  • devices, 35addressing, 229-230

    elevators, 9file I/O, 322-323file systems

    asynchronous I/O,249-250

    measuring, 446-452operations, 246

    IBM zSeries mainframes, 47-48

    raw disk I/O, file systems, 251-252

    request locks,databases, 373

    utilization, monitoring,73-78

    I/O schedulers, 217-219, 407AS (anticipatory I/O

    scheduler), 222-228,415-416

    deadline behavior,416-417

    decayed frequencytables, 224

    lowest logical blockinformation, 226

    positioning time, 224read anticipation

    process, 227-228tuning, 224-225

    benchmarks, 408-409CFQ (Completely Fair

    Queuing) I/O scheduler, 225

    tuning, 417-420deadline I/O schedulers,

    219-2208-way NUMA RAID setup,

    benchmark, 412-414noop I/O scheduler, 226performance issues,

    226, 409performance rankings,

    reshuffling, 420

    pools of requests, 223single-CPU single-disk

    setup, benchmark,410-411

    16-way RAID-0 setup,benchmark, 414-415

    tuning, 221-222I/O subsystem, 217

    I/O schedulers, 217-219AS (anticipatory

    I/O scheduler),222-228

    CFQ (Completely FairQueuing) I/Oscheduler, 225

    deadline I/O schedulers, 219-220

    noop I/O scheduler, 226performance issues, 226tuning, 221-222Trade3 benchmark,

    commercial workload, 481-504

    integration, lack of, 217MPIO (Multipath I/O), 41performance issues,

    228-229servers, 40-41

    IBM, 343application servers, 377JFS (Journaled File

    System), 5, 239, 265Netperf3, 456WebSphere Application

    Server, 377, 481-504zSeries mainframes, 45-48

    ICMP, kernel parameters,515-516

    icmp_echo_ignore_all parameter (kernel), 516

    icmp_echo_ignore_broadcastsparameter (kernel), 516

    icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses parameter(kernel), 516

    icmp_ratelimit parameter(kernel), 515

    icmp_ratemask parameter(kernel), 515

    IDE hard drives, 243-246identifiers, IPC (interprocess

    communication), 292identity mapped segment

    (virtual memory). Seekernel image section (virtual memory), 195

    igmp_max_membershipparameter (kernel), 516

    init process, initializationtable, 12-16

    initializationBSD, 12-16init process, 12-16System V, 12-16

    initialization table, 13-14BSD initab, Slackware,

    14-15init process, 12-16System V initab, Red Hat,

    15-16inode-nr parameter

    (kernel), 514inode-state parameter

    (kernel), 514inodes

    Ext2 file system, 253file systems, 235JFS (Journaled File

    System), 265installation, Linux, 3, pre-

    installation planning, 3-8instruction tracing, PI

    (Performance Inspector),103, 110-111

    integration, I/O subsystems,lack of, 217

    interactive tasks, 192-194INTERACTIVE_DELTA

    parameter (scheduler),tuning, 193

    530 Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 530

  • interactivity, applicationservers, 379

    interconnects, NUMAservers, 50, 52

    interfacesAPIs (application

    programming interfaces), 21

    highmem interface, 201information, displaying, 82kernel, 20procfs, 508-509sysctl, 507-508sysfs, 509

    Intermezzo, 347internal fragmentation, file

    systems, 235internal transfer rates, data

    movement, 243Internet Explorer, 331interprocess communication

    (IPC). See IPC (inter-process communication)

    interrupt handlers, 25interrupts, monitoring

    Above Idle tool (PI),104-105

    sar command, 68-69interval parameter

    (bdflush), 249IOmeter benchmarks, 152iostat command, I/O

    monitoring, 75-76,446-452

    IOzone benchmarks, 152IP fragmentation, kernel

    parameters, 519IPC (interprocess

    communication), 25, 289FIFOs, 289identifiers, 292message queues, 289

    parameters, 295-296parameters, modifying,

    298-299

    pipes, 26, 289, 299semaphores, 27-28, 289,

    292-294shared memory segments,

    289, 297-298signals, 25SysV (System V), 26,

    289-292ipconfig command, 82ipcs command, 289-291ipfrag_high_thresh parameter

    (kernel), 520ipfrag_low_thresh parameter

    (kernel), 520ipfrag_time parameter

    (kernel), 519ip_autoconfig parameter

    (kernel), 519ip_default_ttl parameter

    (kernel), 519ip_dynaddr parameter

    (kernel), 520ip_forward parameter

    (kernel), 519ip_local_port_range

    parameter (kernel), 520ip_nonlocal_bind parameter

    (kernel), 519ip_no_pmtu_disc parameter

    (kernel), 519IRQ, affinity, 462-464ISO layering model, 333

    JJ2EE (Java 2 Enterprise

    Edition), 384-385application servers, 376,

    377, 384-385enterprise

    application, 383performance

    requirements,377-390

    software performancestack, 382-383

    clustering, 391-394commercial workload,

    480-481file systems, 390hardware, 387-388JVM (Java Virtual

    Machine), 386,388-389

    memory usage, 389native code, 386networking, 389SMP scaling, 390-391string manipulization, 390synchronization, 389threads, 389topologies, 394-398tuning, 398-402web servers, 390

    Jamison, Wilfred C., 505Java

    applets, 376application servers, 376benchmarks, 161-163JLM (Java Lock Monitor),

    hold time accountingand contention statistics, 125-128

    JPROF tool, JIT address-to-name resolution, 112

    JVM (Java VirtualMachine), 376

    servlets, 376Java Database Connections

    (JDBCs), 376Java Messaging Service

    (JMS), 377Java Transaction Architecture

    (JTA), 377JBoss application servers, 377JDBC (Java Database

    Connections), 376JFS (Journaled File System),

    5, 237-241, 265-266creating, 266-267

    531Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 531

  • directories, 265dynamic inode

    allocation, 265extent-based addressing

    structure, 265external logs, 267kernel configuration

    support, 266layout, analyzing, 430-431mounting, 240, 267tuning, 266-268, 442-443transactions, 238-239utilities, 268

    jfs_mkfs command, 266JIT (just-in-time) compilers,

    JVM (Java VirtualMachine), 386

    JLM (Java Lock Monitor) tool(Performance Inspector),102, 125-128

    JMS (Java Messaging Service), 377

    journaling file systemscomparison list, 274Ext2 file system, 253

    block allocation, 254creating, 255-256directories, 254Ext3 extensions, 256inodes, 253relationships, 254tuning, 256upgrading, 258utilities, 258

    Ext3 file systemexternal journal

    devices, 258kernel configuration

    support, 256partitioning, 257utilities, 258

    JFS (Journaled FileSystem), 265-266

    creating, 266-267directories, 265

    dynamic inode allocation, 265

    extent-based addressingstructures, 265

    external logs, 267kernel configuration

    support, 266layout, analyzing,

    430-431mounting, 267tuning, 266-268,

    442-443utilities, 268

    ReiserFS, 259-260creating, 261-262external logs, 262kernel configuration

    support, 260mounting, 262-263tuning, 260, 264utilities, 264

    XFS (Next-Generation FileSystem), 268-269

    allocation groups, 269creating, 270-271external logs, 271fullness, 271kernel configuration

    support, 269mounting, 271-272partitions, 269tuning, 270, 272utilities, 272-273

    JPROF tool (PerformanceInspector), 102, 112

    JTA (Java TransactionArchitecture), 377

    JVM (Java Virtual Machine),376, 386

    application servers,388-389

    commercial workload,499-501

    thread dumps, 492-495

    Kkeep-alive management,

    TCP, kernel parameters,286-287

    kernelarchitecture, 20-23configurable features, 9file systems, 29-32IPC (Interprocess

    Communication)mechanisms, 25-28

    memory management,21-23

    microkernel operating systems, compared, 20

    modular design, 35modules, 20monolithic aspects, 20network performance,

    enhancements,457-468

    networks, parameter tuning mechanisms,278-287

    open source, 19organization, 20parameters, 509

    CONFIG, 517debugging, 511file system, 513-514ICMP, 515-516IP fragmentation, 519NEIGHBOR, 516net core, 515network, 515-519processes, 510profiling, 511routing, 517shared memory, 510signals, 510system, 511TCP, 518-519virtual memory,

    511-513

    532 Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 532

  • performance benchmarks,179-184

    proc file system, 21parameter tuning,

    508-509process management, 24

    context switching,24-25

    kernel threads, 24process scheduling, 24processes, 24tasks, 24threads, 24

    responsibilities, 20services, 20SMP (Symmetrical

    Multiprocessing) system, 28-29

    sysfs interface, parametertuning, 509

    systctl interface, parametertuning, 507-508

    system calls, 20variables, 277

    kernel address spaces, 21, 199kernel image section (virtual

    memory), 195, 200kernel module section

    (virtual memory), 199kernel threads, 24Krishnamurthy, Balachander,

    333, 341kswapd parameter

    (kernel), 512

    Llacency ratios, NUMA

    servers, 52large pages, support, 206layers, BIO (block I/O) layer,

    I/O schedulers, 217-226layouts

    Ext2/Ext3 file systems,analyzing, 424-430

    file systems, 423JFS (Journaled File

    System), analyzing,430-431

    ReiserFS, analyzing,432, 434

    XFS, analyzing, 435less command, 26levels

    interactive tasks,raising, 192

    RAID, 31libraries, dynamic link

    libraries, 327-328Linux

    evolution of, 19installing, 3

    pre-installation planning, 3-8

    processor support, 19UNIX, compared, 19version 2.6

    new features, 33Linux network stacks, 455list symbol mode reports

    (OProfile), 96listeners (thread), 315LMbench, 134-141load balancing

    application servers, 397databases, 363-365schedulers, 191

    locality of reference,caches, 40

    locksopportunistic locking,

    clients, 352-353SMP (Symmetrical

    Multiprocessing) system, 28-29

    locktime parameter (kernel), 516

    log analysis tools, web servers,340

    logger facility, 12logging devices, databases,

    367-368logical blocks, file systems, 234logical volumes, file

    systems, 235logrotate command, 11logs

    customized logging, 12external logs, 423finding, 11logger facility, 12rotating, 11/var/log/messages logs, 11/var/log/XFree86.0.logs, 11viewing, 10

    loosely coupled multiprocess-ing systems, 28

    lower_zone_protection parameter (virtual memory), 210

    lowest logical block information, AS (anticipatory I/O scheduler), 226

    lsattr utility (Ext2 file system), 259

    Lustre, 348LVM (Linux Volume

    Manager), 30

    Mmail servers, benchmarks, 409management policies,

    schedulers, 1872.6 Linux scheduler,

    189-191load balancing, 191NUMA (non-uniform

    memory access), 188single processor

    systems, 187SMP (symmetric

    multiprocessing), 188

    533Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 533

  • SMT (symmetric multithreading), 189

    tuning, 192-193mapping

    memory, 22-23ObjRMAP (object-based

    reversed mapping), 206rmap (reversed

    mapping), 205max-readahead parameter

    (kernel), 511max_delay parameter

    (kernel), 517max_map_count parameter

    (kernel), 511max_size parameter

    (kernel), 517MAX_SLEEP_AVG

    parameter (scheduler),tuning, 193

    MAX_TIMESLICE parameter(scheduler), tuning, 193

    mcast_solicit parameter (kernel), 516

    mc_forwarding parameter(kernel), 517

    measurements, benchmarks,177-179

    memorycaches, 39-40

    locality of reference, 40global memory, databases,

    365-366managing, databases,

    369-370memory management,

    21-23, 283-284nodes, 22NUMA (non-uniform

    memory access),schedulers, 188

    processes, tracing, 88, 90servers, 39-40

    shared memorykernel parameters, 510semaphores, 27

    utilization, monitoring,69-73

    virtual memory, 195address spaces, 196-199address translation

    process, 204-205area structures, 198-199CPU scheduler, 212-214highmem interface, 201kernel image section,

    195, 200kernel module

    section, 199kernel parameters,

    511-513largepage support, 206ObjRMAP (object-

    based reversedmapping), 206

    page allocation, 207page replacement, 207page tables, 203, 205paging, 201-203processes, 195rmap (reversed

    mapping), 205slab allocators, 208swapping, 201-203tuning, 209-212

    memory management, 21-23,283-284

    memory mapping, 22-23memory usage, application

    servers, 389message queues, 289

    IPC (interprocess communication),parameters, 295-296

    System V IPC, 27message_burst parameter

    (kernel), 515

    message_cost parameter (kernel), 515

    metadatabenchmarks, 409clients, 353file systems, 235

    microbenchmarks, 133-134disk benchmarks, 150

    Bonnie/Bonnie++benchmarks,150-152

    dbench, 155-159IOmeter benchmarks,

    152IOzone benchmarks,

    152Penguinmeter

    benchmarks, 153tiobench, 153-155

    network benchmarksdbench, 159Netperf, 159-160SPEC SFS, 160

    operating system benchmarks, 134

    AIM7, 142AIM9, 143, 147LMbench, 134-141Reaim, 147SPEC SDET, 147-150

    microkernel operating systems, 20

    min-readahead parameter(kernel), 511

    min_delay parameter (kernel), 517

    min_free_kbytes parameter(virtual memory), 210

    MIN_TIMESLICE parameter(scheduler), tuning, 193

    mixing processors, 38mk fs command, file systems,

    creating, 234-237, 424mke2fs utility (Ext2 file

    system), 259

    534 Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 534

  • mkesfs command,Ext2/Ext3 file systems,creating, 255-256

    mkfs.ext3 utility (Ext3 filesystem), 259

    mklost+found utility (Ext2file system), 259

    mkreiserfs utilitiy (ReiserFS), 264

    mk_commands utility(Ext2/Ext3 file system), 259

    modular design, kernel, 20, 35monitoring performance,

    58-59, 131analysis methodology,

    175-179benchmarking

    methodology casestudy, 175

    CPU utilization, 59-69I/O utilization, 73-78kernel performance

    benchmarks, 179-184memory utilization, 69-73network utilization, 78-83numerical analysis, 174simulators, 174system tracing, 87-88

    OProfile command,93-101

    PI (PerformanceInspector),102-112, 125-130

    requirements, 88strace command, 90-93top utility, 88-90

    tracing, 173workload characterization,

    174Moore’s Law, address

    spaces, 200Morton, Andrew, 275

    mountingJFS (Journaled File

    System), 267ReiserFS, 262-263XFS (Next-Generation File

    System), 271-272Mozilla, 331MPIO (Multipath I/O), 41

    NUMA servers, 53msgmax parameter

    (kernel), 510msgmnb parameter

    (kernel), 510msgmni parameter

    (kernel), 510multidomain topology,

    application servers, 398Multipath I/O (MPIO). See

    MPIO (Multipath I/O)multiprocessing

    clusters, 38, 43-45HA (high availability)

    clusters, 43-45HPCs (high-perfor-

    mance clusters), 43NUMA (Non-Uniform

    Memory Architecture),38, 48-54

    hardware, 51hierarchy, 51high bandwidth

    interconnect, 49interconnects, 50-52lacency ratios, 52MPIO (Multipath

    I/O), 53nodes, 50-51timers, 54

    processor mixing, 38SMP (Symmetrical

    Multiprocessing),36-39

    mutual exclusion, 36schedulers, 188topologies, 37-38

    multiprocessor systems, 28-29mutual exclusion, shared

    system resources, 36

    Nnamed pipes, 26, 289Namesys, ResierFS, 239NAPI (network device driver

    API), 464-466NAS (network attached

    storage), 344-345native code, application

    servers, 386ndirty parameter

    (bdflush), 249NEIGHBOR kernel

    parameters, 516net core, kernel

    parameters, 515NetBench, 456, 468-470netdev_max_backlog

    parameter (kernel),280, 515

    Netperf benchmarks, 159-160Netperf3 microbenchmark, 456

    Gigabit Ethernet tuning,471-472

    netstat command, networkutilization, monitoring,80-83

    network attached storage(NAS). See NAS (networkattached storage)

    network benchmarks,159-160

    network file system protocols,345-350

    network initialization,Slackware, 15

    Network Operating Systems(NOS), 343

    network protocol stack,277-278

    network storage servers, 344

    535Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 535

  • networksapplication servers, 389kernel parameters,

    515-519performance, 455, 468

    benchmarks, 456-457IRQ affinity, 462-464kernel enhancements,

    457-468NAPI (network

    device driver API),464-466

    NetBench, 468-470Netperf3 benchmark,

    471-472process affinity, 462SendFile API, 458-460SPECWeb99 benchmark,

    475-476TOE (TCP Offload

    Engine), 467-468TSO (TCP Segmentation

    Offloading),460-462

    VolcanoMark bench-mark, 473-474

    Zerocopy, 458-459tuning

    kernel parameter tuning mechanisms,278-287

    network protocol stack,277-278

    utilization, monitoring,78-83

    nfract parameter (bdflush), 249

    nfract_stop_bdflush parameter (bdflush), 249

    nfract_sync parameter(bdflush), 249

    NFS (Network File System),346-347

    client/server implementa-tions, 350

    tuning, 355-356nfsstat command, network

    utilization, monitoring, 83NICs, Gigabit Ethernet NICs,

    tuning, 471-472nodes

    device nodes, 32memory, 22NUMA servers, 50-51

    non-interactive tasks,starving, 194

    Non-Uniform MemoryArchitecture (NUMA). See NUMA(Non-Uniform MemoryArchitecture)

    noop I/O scheduler, 226NOS (Network Operating

    Systems), 343Novell, 343nr_pdflush_threads

    parameter (virtual memory), 210

    NUMA (Non-UniformMemory Architecture),22, 38, 48-54

    hardware, 51hierarchy, 51high bandwidth

    interconnect, 49interconnects, 50-52lacency ratios, 52MPIO (Multipath I/O), 53nodes, 50-51schedulers, 188timers, 54

    numerical analysis, 174

    OO(1) scheduler column

    (NetBench), 469objects, reference counted

    objects, 197ObjRMAP (object-based

    reversed mapping), 206

    OLTP (online transactionprocessing), 164

    databases, 362logging devices, 367-368

    opcontrol command(OProfile), 94-95

    open source, kernel, 19Open Source Development

    Lab (OSDL), Reaimbenchmarks, 147

    operating system benchmarks, 134, 173

    AIM7, 142AIM9, 143, 147analysis methodology,

    175-179Linux kernel performance

    benchmarks, 179-184LMbench, 134-141methodology case

    study, 175numerical analysis, 174Reaim, 147simulators, 174SPEC SDET, 147-150tracing, 173workload characterization,

    174operating systems. See also

    kernelkernel performance

    benchmarks, 179-184microkernel operating

    systems, 20NOS (Network Operating

    Systems), 343performance evaluation

    methodologies, 173analysis methodology,

    175-179benchmarking

    methodology casestudy, 175

    numerical analysis, 174simulators, 174

    536 Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 536

  • tracing, 173workload characteriza-

    tion, 174opportunistic locking, clients,

    352-353OProfile tool

    counter, 94opcontrol, 94-95oprofpp, 96op_merge, 101op_time, 97op_to_source, 98system tracing, 93-101

    optmem_max parameter(kernel), 281, 515

    Oracle, application servers, 377

    Oracle Applications StandardBenchmark, 168

    Orion, application servers, 377

    OSDL (Open SourceDevelopment Lab),Reiam benchmarks, 147

    osrelease parameter (kernel), 511

    ostype parameter (kernel), 511

    overcommit_memory parameter (virtual memory), 211

    overcommit_ratio parameter(virtual memory), 211

    overhead (locking),processors, 29

    Ppackets, Ethereal packet

    capture tool, 334-335PAE (Physical Address

    Extension), 22page frame maps, 200page tables, 203, 205page-cluster parameter

    (kernel), 512

    page-cluster parameter (virtual memory), 211

    pagesets, 207pagetable_cache parameter

    (kernel), 512paging

    virtual address spaces,201-203

    virtual memory, 23parameters

    IPC (interprocess communication),298-299

    kernel, 509CONFIG, 517debugging, 511file system, 513-514ICMP, 515-516IP fragmentation, 519NEIGHBOR, 516net core, 515network, 515-519network tuning, 278-287processes, 510profiling, 511routing, 517shared memory, 510signals, 510system, 511TCP, 518-519virtual memory, 511-513

    message queues, 295-296semaphores, 292-294shared memory segments,

    297-298parents, sleep averages,

    tuning, 192PARENT_PENALTY

    parameter (scheduler),tuning, 193

    partitionsExt3 partitions,

    creating, 257placement, 4-5XFS (Next-Generation File

    System), 269

    pass-by-reference, applicationservers, 502

    PCI I/O buses, 41Penguinometer

    benchmarks, 153per-thread time (PTT). See

    PTT (per-thread time)performance

    application servers,requirements, 377-390

    enterprise applicationsclustering, 391-394SMP scaling, 390-391topologies, 394-398tuning, 398-402

    evaluation methodologies,173

    analysis methodology,175-179

    benchmarking methodology casestudy, 175

    numerical analysis, 174simulators, 174tracing, 173workload characteriza-

    tion, 174file systems, disks, 241-246I/O schedulers, 226, 409

    16-way RAID-0 setup,414-415

    8-way NUMA RAIDsetup, 412-414

    AS scheduler, 415-417CFQ I/O scheduler,

    tuning, 417-420single-CPU single-disk

    setup, 410-411I/O subsystem, 228-229kernel performance

    benchmarks, 179-184networks, 455, 468

    benchmarks, 456-457IRQ affinity, 462-464kernel enhancements,

    457-468

    537Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 537

  • NAPI (network device driver API),464-466

    NetBench, 468-470Netperf3 benchmark,

    471-472process affinity, 462SendFile API, 458-460SPECWeb99 benchmark,

    475-476TOE (TCP Offload

    Engine), 467-468TSO (TCP Segmentation

    Offloading),460-462

    VolcanoMark bench-mark, 473-474

    Zerocopy, 458-459print servers, 358web servers, tuning,

    337-340workloads, benchmarking,

    132-143, 147-168performance analysis, 58-59

    CPU utilization, 59-69I/O utilization, 73-78memory utilization, 69-73network utilization, 78-83system tracing, 87-88

    OProfile command,93-101

    PI (PerformanceInspector),102-112, 125-130

    requirements, 88strace command, 90-93top utility, 88-90

    performance counters,PI (PerformanceInspector), 103

    Performance Inspector (PI).See PI (PerformanceInspector)

    performance monitoring, 131performance tuning.

    See tuning

    Physical Address Extension(PAE), 22

    physical memory banks, 22PI (Performance Inspector),

    102-112, 125-130Above Idle tool, 102-105dynamic kernel

    patches, 103instruction tracing, 103,

    110-111JLM (Java Lock Monitor)

    tool, 102, 125-128JPROF tool, 102, 112performance counters, 103pipcntr tool, 129post tool, 129ptt tool, 130pttstats tool, 102, 105,

    107, 130swtrace tool, 128-129System Trace Data

    Collection tool, 102tprof tool, 107, 110

    pipcntr tool (PerformanceInspector), 129

    pipes, 289IPC (Interprocess

    Communication),26, 299

    named pipes, 26planning

    file systems, 234pre-installation planning,

    Linux, 3-8point of sale (POS)

    terminals, 164policies, resource

    management policies,schedulers, 187-193

    pools of requests, I/O schedulers, 223

    positioning time,processes, 224

    post tool (PerformanceInspector), 129

    PostMark application benchmarks, 164

    pre-installation planning,Linux, 3-8

    print servers, 343performance, 358

    printk parameter (kernel), 511PRIO_BONUS_RATIO

    parameter (scheduler),tuning, 194

    proc file system, 21kernel parameters, tuning,

    508-509memory utilization, 70-71virtual memory

    parameters, tuning, 209process affinity column

    (NetBench), 470process management, 24-25processes, 24-25

    affinity, 462hierarchies, viewing, 88, 90IPC (interprocess

    communication), 289dynamic modification,

    298-299FIFOs, 289identifiers, 292message queues, 289,

    295-296pipes, 26, 289, 299semaphores, 27-28,

    289-294shared memory

    segments, 289,297-298

    signals, 25SysV (System V), 26,

    289-292kernel parameters, 510managing, databases,

    368-369positioning time, 224read anticipation process,

    AS (anticipatory I/Oscheduler), 227-228

    538 Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 538

  • scheduling, 24timeslices, 25virtual memory

    address spaces, 196-197address translation

    process, 204-205processor affinity, SMP

    (SymmetricalMultiprocessing) system,29

    processorsLinux, support, 19memory caches, 39-40monitoring, Above Idle

    tool (PI), 104-105multiprocessing

    clusters, 38, 43-45NUMA (Non-Uniform

    MemoryArchitecture), 38,48-54

    processor mixing, 38SMP (Symmetrical

    Multiprocessing),36-39

    registers, 39schedulers

    2.6 Linux scheduler,189, 191

    load balancing, 191NUMA (non-uniform

    memory access),188

    single processor systems, 187

    SMP (SymmetricalMultiprocessing)system, 188

    SMT (symmetric multi-threading), 189

    tuning, 192-193service processors, 35SMP (Symmetrical

    Multiprocessing) system, 28-29, 188

    utilization, monitoring,59-69

    word sizes, 39procfs interface, kernel

    parametersCONFIG, 517debugging, 511file system, 513-514ICMP, 515-516IP fragmentation, 519NEIGHBOR, 516net core, 515networks, 515-519processes, 510profiling, 511routing, 517shared memory, 510signals, 510system, 511TCP, 518-519tuning, 508-509virtual memory, 511-513

    prof command, 302profiling

    applications, 302-303kernel parameters, 511

    programming languages,choosing, 309

    programs, designing, 305-309clients, 323-324code, 309file I/O, 322-323servers, 309-310sockets, 311-314synchronization, 318-321threads, 315-317timing routines, 310-311

    protocol layering, clients,351-352

    protocol stack (network),277-278

    protocolsnetwork file system

    protocols, 345-350network protocol stack,

    277-278

    proxy_arp parameter (kernel), 517

    proxy_delay parameter (kernel), 516

    proxy_qlen parameter (kernel), 516

    ps command, memory utilization, 71-72

    PTT (per-thread time), 102monitoring, pttstats tool

    (PI), 105, 107ptt tool (Performance

    Inspector), 130pttstats tool (Performance

    Inspector), 130Pulavarti, Badari, 507Python programming

    language, 309

    Q-Rqueue length, databases, 363

    RAID (Redundant Array ofInexpensive Disks), 7,30-31

    configuring, 7-8levels, 31multiple hard drives, 4

    raw I/Odatabases, 371file systems, 251-252

    read anticipation process,AS (anticipatory I/Oscheduler), 227-228

    read buffers, TCP, kernelparameters, 281-283

    read-only clients, 353-354read_batch_expire parameter

    (AS I/O scheduler), 225read_expire parameter (AS

    I/O scheduler), 224read_expire parameter (I/O

    scheduler), 221Reaim benchmarks, 147real-root-dev parameter

    (kernel), 511

    539Index

    Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 539

  • Redundant Array ofInexpensive Disks(RAID). See RAID(Redundant Array ofInexpensive Disks)

    reentrancy, 310reference counted objects, 197registers, processors, 39ReiserFS, 5, 239, 259-260

    creating, 261-262external logs, 262kernel configuration

    support, 260layout, analyzing, 432-434mounting, 262-263reiserfsck utilitiy, 264tuning, 260, 264, 440-441utilities, 264

    reiserfsck utilitiy (ReiserFS), 264

    relationships, Ext2 file system, 254

    reliability, IBM zSeries mainframes, 47

    replacement policy, virtualaddress spaces, 202-203

    replacing pages, 207requests (web), 332-333

    application servers, 380availability, 378

    byte range requests, 333I/O request locks,

    databases, 373resize2fs utility (Ext2 file

    system), 259resize_reiserfs utility

    (ReiserFS), 264resource management

    policies, schedulers, 1872.6 Linux scheduler,

    189-191load balancing, 191

    NUMA (non-uniformmemory access), 188

    single processor systems, 187

    SMP (symmetric multiprocessing), 188

    SMT (symmetric multithreading), 189

    tuning, 192-193response times, FFSB

    (flexible file systembenchmark), 410

    responses (web), 331-333chunked encoding, 333databases, tuning, 363

    responsibilities, kernel, 20retrans_time parameter

    (kernel), 516Rexford, Jennifer, 333, 341rmap (reversed mapping), 205rmem_default parameter

    (kernel), 515rmem_max parameter

    (kernel), 280, 515rmen_default parameter

    (kernel), 280root partition, placement, 4-5rotating logs, 11rotational speed, disks,

    242-243routing kernel parameters, 517rp_filter parameter

    (kernel), 517rtsig-max parameter

    (kernel), 510rtsig-nr parameter

    (kernel), 510run rules, benchmarks, 176run.itrace command, 110-111runlevels, Slackware, 14runtime information

    collection, tracing, 173

    SSACK (Selective

    Acknowledgements),TCP, enabling, 285

    Samba servers, tuning,356-357

    SANs (storage area networks), 344

    NAS (network attachedstorage), compared, 345

    SAP Standard ApplicationBenchmark, 168

    sar commandCPU utilization, 67-69I/O utilization,

    monitoting, 76, 78scalability, application

    servers, 378SMP scaling, 390-391

    schedulers, 1872.6 Linux scheduler,

    189, 191CPU scheduler, 212-214I/O schedulers,

    217-219, 40716-way RAID-0 setup,

    414-4158-way NUMA RAID

    setup, 412-414AS (anticipatory

    I/O scheduler),222-228

    AS scheduler, 415-417benchmarks, 408-409CFQ (Completely Fair

    Queuing) I/Oscheduler, 225

    CFQ I/O scheduler,417-420

    deadline I/O schedulers,219-220

    noop I/O scheduler, 226

    540 Index

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  • performance, 409performance issues, 226pools of requests, 223single-CPU single-disk

    setup, 410-411tuning, 221-222

    load balancing, 191NUMA (non-uniform

    memory access), 188single processor

    systems, 187SMP (symmetric

    multiprocessing), 188SMT (symmetric

    multithreading), 189thread schedulers, 316tuning, 192-193

    scheduling processes, 24SCSI technology, 41SDET benchmarks, 147-150secure_redirects parameter

    (kernel), 517seek_cost parameter (I/O

    scheduler), 221Selective Acknowledgements

    (SACK), TCP,enabling, 285

    sem parameter (kernel), 510semaphores, 289, 318-321

    IPC (InterprocessCommunication),27-28

    parameters, 292-294SendFile API, network

    performance, 458-460SendFile/Zerocopy column

    (NetBench), 469send_redirects parameter

    (kernel), 517sequential read

    benchmarks, 409sequential read performance,

    AS scheduler, 415-416sequential write

    benchmarks, 409

    servers, 35application servers,

    375-376availability, 378clustering, 391-394commercial workload

    tuning, 479-480concurrency, 379connection pools,

    502-503data integrity, 378databases, support, 378distribution, 379enterprise

    application, 383failover, 378fault tolerance, 378file systems, 390hardware, 387-388heterogeneousness, 379hyperthreading, 504interactivity, 379J2EE, 384-385J2EE (Java 2 Enterprise

    Edition), 376-377Java, 376JVM (Java Virtual

    Machine), 386-389memory usage, 389multiple-applications-

    in-one, 380multiple-services-in-

    one, 380native code, 386networking, 389pass-by-reference, 502performance

    requirements,377-390

    requests, 380scalability, 378security, 378SMP scaling, 390-391software performance

    stack, 382-383

    string manipulation, 390synchronization, 389thread pools, 501-502threads, 389topologies, 394-398transactions, 380tuning, 398-402vendor server

    portability, 378vendors, 380web servers, 390

    clusters, 38, 43HA (high availability)

    clusters, 43-45HPCs (high

    performance clusters), 43

    database servers, 361designing, 309-310DNS servers, 35enterprise servers, 42file servers, 343

    benchmarks, 408NAS (network attached

    storage), 344network file system

    protocols, 345-350tuning, 354-358

    I/O subsystems, 40-41mail servers,

    benchmarks, 409memory, 39-40multiprocessing

    clusters, 38, 43-45NUMA (Non-Uniform

    MemoryArchitecture), 38,48-54

    processor mixing, 38SMP (Symmetrical

    Multiprocessing),36-39

    topologies, 37-38

    541Index

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  • network storage servers, 344

    NUMA servers, 38, 48-54hardware, 51hierarchy, 51high bandwidth

    interconnect, 49interconnects, 50, 52lacency ratios, 52MPIO (Multipath

    I/O), 53nodes, 50-51timers, 54

    print servers, 343performance, 358

    processor mixing, 38Shark servers, 48SMP servers, 36-39, 369

    mutual exclusion, 36topologies, 37-38

    systemsblades, 48IBM zSeries

    mainframes, 45-48NUMA (Non-Uniform

    MemoryArchitecture), 48-54

    web servers, 331architecture models,

    336-337benchmarks, 408concurrency, 336dynamic content

    generation, 331Ethereal packet capture

    tool, 334-335HTTP (HyperText

    Transfer Protocol), 331

    network behavior, 333requests, 332-333responses, 331-333transactions, 335-336

    tuning, 337-340service processors, 35services, kernel, 20servlets (Java), 376SFS benchmarks, 160SGI, XFS (Next-Generation

    File System), 239,268-271

    sh command, 339shared memory

    kernel parameters, 510semaphores, 27

    Shared MemoryMultiprocessing (SMP).See SMP (Shared MemoryMultiprocessing)

    shared memory segments, 289IPC (interprocess

    communication)parameters, 297-298

    shared system resources,mutual exclusion, 36

    shared_media parameter(kernel), 517

    Shark servers, 48Sharoff, Narasimha, 507shmall parameter (kernel), 510shmmax parameter

    (kernel), 510shmni parameter (kernel), 510signals

    IPC (InterprocessCommunication), 25

    kernel parameters, 510simulators, 174slab allocators, 208Slackware, 14-15sleep averages, tuning,

    scheduler, 192-193SMB/CIFS network file

    system, 346smblog=1 column

    (NetBench), 469

    SMP (SymmetricalMultiprocessing) system,28, 36-39

    application servers,scaling, 390-391

    cache coherency, 29concurrency, 28data serialization, 28locks, 28-29mutual exclusion, 36processor affinity, 29schedulers, 188servers, 369topologies, 37-38

    SMT (symmetric multithreading),schedulers, 189

    sockets, 311, 313-314software

    performance evaluationmethodologies, 173

    analysis methodologies,175-179

    benchmarking methodology casestudy, 175

    kernel performancebenchmarks,179-184

    numerical analysis, 174simulators, 174tracing, 173workload characteriza-

    tion, 174tracing, swtrace tool

    (PerformanceInspector), 128-129

    software performance stacks,application servers,382-383

    Solaris, 201somaxconn parameter

    (kernel), 281

    542 Index

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  • SPEC (Standard PerformanceEvaluation Corporation),185

    SPEC SDET benchmarks,147-150

    SPEC SFS benchmarks, 160SPECjAppServer

    benchmarks, 168SPECjvm benchmarks, 163SPECweb benchmarks,

    166-168SPECweb SSL

    benchmarks, 166-168SPECWeb99

    benchmark, 456content case studies,

    475-476SPECweb99 benchmarks,

    results, 184SPECWeb99 workload

    generators, 340spinlocks column

    (NetBench), 470starting block numbers, 235STARVATION_LIMIT

    parameter (scheduler),tuning, 194

    starving non-interactivetasks, scheduler, 194

    status flags (file), setting, 247storage area networks

    (SANs), 344NAS (network attached

    storage), compared, 345strace command, system

    tracing, 90-93strings, application

    servers, 390struct page pointers, BIO

    (block I/O) layer, 219subsystems (I/O), 217

    integration, lack of, 217performance issues,

    228-229

    I/O schedulers, 217-226Sun Microsystems, Inc.,

    Java, 376Sun ONE application

    servers, 377super blocks, file systems, 236super-max parameter

    (kernel), 514super-nr parameter

    (kernel), 514sustained transfer rates, data

    movement, 243swap partition, placement,

    4-5swappiness parameter

    (virtual memory), 211swapping

    memory, 23virtual address spaces,

    201-203switching, context switching,

    24-25swtrace tool (Performance

    Inspector), 128-129Symmetrical Multiprocessing

    (SMP). See SMP(SymmetricalMultiprocessing)

    Syn Queue length, TCP,controlling, 286

    synchronizationapplication servers, 389file synchronization,

    246-248semaphores, 318-321

    synchronized I/O, 246sysctl command, kernel

    parameters, modifying, 299sysctl interface, kernel

    parametersCONFIG, 517debugging, 511file system, 513-514

    ICMP, 515-516IP fragmentation, 519NEIGHBOR, 516net core, 515networks, 515-519processes, 510profiling, 511routing, 517shared memory, 510signals, 510system, 511TCP, 518-519tuning, 507-508virtual memory, 511-513

    sysfs interface, kernel parameters, tuning, 509

    sysrq parameter (kernel), 511system calls

    kernel, 20tracing, strace command,

    90-93system initialization

    BSD, 12-16init process, 12-16initialization table, 13-14System V, 12-16

    system initialization table(/etc/inittab), 12

    system paramaters, 511system performance analysis,

    58-59CPU utilization, 59-62

    gtop command, 65-67sar command, 67-69top command, 65-67vmstat, 62-65

    I/O utilization, 73-78memory utilization, 69-73network utilization, 78-83

    System Trace Data Collectiontool (PerformanceInspector), 102

    543Index

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  • system tracing, 87-88OProfile command, 93-96,

    98-99, 101PI (Performance

    Inspector), 102-112,125-130

    Above Idle tool, 102-105dynamic kernel

    patches, 103instruction tracing, 103,

    110-111JLM (Java Lock

    Monitor) tool, 102,125-128

    JPROF tool, 102, 112performance

    counters, 103pipcntr tool, 129post tool, 129ptt tool, 130pttstats tool, 102,

    105-107, 130swtrace tool, 128-129System Trace Data

    Collection tool, 102

    tprof tool, 107-110requirements, 88strace command, 90-93top utility, 88, 90

    System V, 289BSD, compared, 12-16initialization table, Red

    Hat, 15-16IPC (Interprocess

    Communication), 26,290-292

    system initialization, 12-16

    Ttables

    decayed frequency tables, 224

    page frame maps, 200page tables, 203-205

    targets, benchmarks,setting, 177

    tasks, 24interactive tasks, 192-194non-interactive tasks, 194sleep averages, tuning, 193threads, 24timeslices, tuning, 193TSRUN

    (TASK_RUNNABLE)state, 213

    virtual memory, 195TCP (transport control

    protocol)connection management,

    kernel parameters,285-286

    D-SACK, enabling, 285FACK (Forward

    Acknowledgement),enabling, 285

    keep-alive management,kernel parameters,286-287

    kernel parameters, 518-519memory management,

    kernel parameters,283-284

    read/write buffers, kernelparameters, 281, 283

    SACK (SelectiveAcknowledgements),enabling, 285

    Syn Queue length,controlling, 286

    window scaling,enabling, 284

    TCP-W benchmarks, 166-168TCP/IP (transport control

    protocol/Internet protocol), 277-278

    kernel paramters, 281-287stacks, 455statistics, displaying, 82

    tcp_app_win parameter (kernel), 518

    tcp_dsack parameter (kernel),285, 519

    tcp_fack parameter (kernel),285, 519

    tcp_fin_timeout parameter(kernel), 518

    tcp_keepalive_intvl parameter (kernel),287, 519

    tcp_keepalive_probes parameter (kernel),287, 519

    tcp_keepalive_time parameter (kernel),286, 519

    tcp_max_orphans parameter(kernel), 518

    tcp_max_syn_backlog parameter (kernel),286, 518

    tcp_max_tw_buckets parameter (kernel), 518

    tcp_mem parameter (kernel),283, 518

    tcp_reordering parameter(kernel), 518

    tcp_retries1 parameter (kernel), 519

    tcp_retries2 parameter (kernel), 519

    tcp_rfc1337 parameter (kernel), 518

    tcp_rmem parameter (kernel), 281, 518

    tcp_sack parameter (kernel),285, 519

    tcp_stdurg parameter (kernel), 518

    tcp_synack_retries parameter(kernel), 286

    tcp_syn_retries parameter(kernel), 519

    544 Index

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  • tcp_timestamps parameter(kernel), 518

    tcp_tw_reuse parameter (kernel), 518

    tcp_window_scaling parameter (kernel),284, 518

    tcp_wmem parameter (kernel), 282, 518

    thread dumps, JVM (JavaVirtual Machine),492-495

    thread listeners, 315thread pools, application

    servers, 501-502thread schedulers,

    212-214, 316threads, 24

    application servers, 389default threads, virtual

    memory, 195designing, 315-317hyperthreading, 504kernel threads, 24PTT (per-thread time),

    monitoring, 105-107SMT (symmetric

    multithreading)schedulers, 189

    thread dumps, 493TSRUN

    (TASK_RUNNABLE)state, 213

    thread_max parameter (kernel), 510

    three-tier topology,application servers, 395

    tightly coupled multi-processing systems, 28

    timers, NUMA servers, 54timeslices

    processes, 25tuning, scheduler, 193

    timing routines, 310-311tiobench, 153-155

    TOE (TCP Offload Engine),467-468

    Tomcat application servers, 377

    top commandCPU utilization, 65-67system tracing, 88-90

    topologiesapplication servers,

    394-398multiprocessor systems,

    37-38Torvalds, Linus, 19tprof command, 107, 110

    JPROF reports,generating, 112

    tracing runtime informationcollection, 173

    tracing systems, 87-88OProfile command, 93-101PI (Performance

    Inspector), 102-112,125-130

    Above Idle tool, 102-105dynamic kernel

    patches, 103instruction tracing, 103,

    110-111JLM (Java Lock

    Monitor) tool, 102,125-128

    JPROF tool, 102, 112performance

    counters, 103pipcntr tool, 129post tool, 129ptt tool, 130pttstats tool, 102, 105,

    107, 130swtrace tool, 128-129System Trace Data

    Collection tool, 102tprof tool, 107, 110

    requirements, 88strace command, 90-93top utility, 88, 90

    track-to-track seek speed,disks, 242-243

    Trade3 benchmark,commercial workload,481-492, 496-499

    connection pools, 502-503database I/O activity,

    495-496hyperthreading, 504JVM (Java Virtual

    Machine), 499-501pass-by-reference, 502thread dumps, 492-495thread pools, 501-502web servers, 491

    transactionsapplication servers, 380journaled file systems,

    238-240web servers, 335-336

    transfer rates, disks, 243transport control protocol

    (TCP). See TCP (transportcontrol protocol)

    transport controlprotocol/Internet protocol(TCP/IP). See TCP/IP(transport control protocol/Internet protocol)

    TSO (TCP SegmentationOffloading), networkperformance, 460-462

    TSRUN (TASK_RUNNABLE)state, 213

    tunable parameters,kernel, 509

    CONFIG, 517debugging, 511file system, 513-514ICMP, 515-516IP fragmentation, 519NEIGHBOR, 516net core, 515network, 515-519processes, 510profiling, 511

    545Index

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  • routing, 517shared memory, 510signals, 510system, 511TCP, 518-519virtual memory, 511-513

    tune command, file systems,tuning, 234

    tune2fs utility (Ext2 file system), 259

    tuningapplication servers, 398-402

    commercial workload,489-504

    AS (anticipatory I/Oscheduler), 224-225

    benchmarks, 177-179CFQ I/O scheduler,

    417-420clients, 350-354code, 301-304

    algorithms, 305-328commercial workload,

    479-480, 489-504compilers as tuning tools,

    303-304databases, 362-365file servers, 354-358file systems, 436

    Ext3 file system, 256,436-440

    JFS (Journaled FileSystem), 266-268,442-443

    ReiserFS, 260, 264,440-441

    XFS, 270-272, 443-445Gigabit Ethernet,

    Netperf3, 471-472I/O schedulers, 221-222kernel parameters,

    507-509

    networkskernel parameter tuning

    mechanisms,278-287

    network protocol stack,277-278

    profiling, 302-303schedulers, 192-193virtual memory, 209-212web servers, 337-340

    Apache web servers,338-339

    event-driven webservers, 339

    Flash web servers, 339log analysis tools, 340Tux web servers, 339workload generators, 340

    Tux web servers, tuning, 339

    Uucast_solicit parameter

    (kernel), 516UNIX, Linux, compared, 19unres_qlen parameter

    (kernel), 516user address spaces, 21, 197User Ramp Up tests, 489usr partition, placement, 4-5utilities

    Ext2 file system, 258-259JFS (Journaled File

    System), 268ReiserFS, 264XFS (Next-Generation File

    System), 272-273uuidgen utility (Ext2/Ext3 file

    system), 259

    Vvar partition, placement, 4-5var/log/messages logs, 11var/log/XFree86.0.logs, 11

    variables (kernel), 277vectored I/O, databases, 371vendor server portability,

    application servers, 378vendors, application

    servers, 380version parameter (kernel), 511vertical clustering, application

    servers, 392VFS (virtual file systems),

    30, 32VGs (volume groups), 31-32viewing

    address spaces, virtualmemory, 196

    logs, 10virtual file systems, 30, 32virtual memory, 195, 205

    address spaces, 21, 196-197area structures, 198-199generic view, 196kernel address

    spaces, 199paging, 201-203swapping, 201-203user address spaces,

    197-198CPU scheduler, 212-214highmem interface, 201kernel image section,

    195, 200kernel module section, 199kernel parameters, 511-513largepages, support for, 206ObjRMAP (object-based

    reversed mapping), 206page allocation, 207page replacement, 207page tables, 203, 205paging, 23processes, 195

    address translationprocess, 204-205

    546 Index

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  • rmap (reversed mapping), 205

    slab allocators, 208tuning, 209-212

    vm.heap-stack-gap parameter(kernel), 511

    vmstat commandCPU utilization, 62-65memory utilization, 72-73

    vm_cache_scan_ratio parameter (kernel), 513

    vm_gfp_debug parameter(kernel), 513

    vm_lru_balance_ratio parameter (kernel), 513

    vm_mapped_ratio parameter(kernel), 513

    vm_passes parameter (kernel), 513

    vm_vfs_scan_ratio parameter(kernel), 513

    VolanoMark Java Serverbenchmarks, 161-162,183, 456, 473-474

    volume groups (VGs), 31-32volume managers, 30-31

    Wweb servers, 331

    application servers, 390need for, 375

    architecture models,336-337

    benchmarks, 166, 408ECPerf, 168SPECjAppServer, 168SPECweb, 166-168SPECweb SSL, 166-168TCP-W, 166-168

    commercial workload,Trade3 benchmark, 491

    concurrency, 336dynamic content

    generation, 331

    Ethereal packet capturetool, 334-335

    HTTP (HyperText TransferProtocol), 331

    network behavior, 333requests, 332-333responses, 331-333transactions, 335-336tuning, 337-340

    Apache web servers,338-339

    event-driven webservers, 339

    Flash web servers, 339log analysis tools, 340Tux web servers, 339workload generators, 340

    WebDAV extensions (HTTP), 347

    WebSphere ApplicationServer, 377

    Trade3 benchmark,commercial workload,481-504

    window scaling, TCP,enabling, 284

    wmem_default parameter(kernel), 515

    wmem_max parameter (kernel), 280, 515

    word sizes, processors, 39workload charcterization, 174workload generators, web

    servers, 340workloads

    benchmarking, 132,134, 173

    analysis methodologies,175-179

    application bench-marks, 161-168

    benchmarking methodology casestudy, 175

    kernel performancebenchmarks,179-184

    microbenchmarks,134-160

    performance evaluationmethodologies,173-174

    commercial workloadsJ2EE model, 480-481Trade3 benchmark,

    481-504tuning, 479-480

    databases, 367-368decision support system

    (DSS) workloads, 362steady state of

    operation, 131write buffers, TCP, kernel

    parameters, 281-283write_starved parameter (I/O

    scheduler), 221

    X-ZXFS (Next-Generation File

    System), 5, 268-269allocation groups, 269creating, 270-271external logs, 271fullness, 271kernel configuration

    support, 269layout, analyzing, 435mounting, 271-272partitions, 269tuning, 270-272, 443-445utilities, 272-273

    Zerocopy, network performance, 458-459

    Ziff-Davis, NetBench, 456zones, memory nodes, 22Zope application servers, 377zSeries mainframes, 45-48

    547Index

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  • Johnson_Index.qxd 4/1/05 5:21 PM Page 548