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    ANUL I

    Cluj Napoca 2012

    UNIVERSITATEA BABE-BOLYAI, CLUJ-NAPOCA Centrul de Formare Continu i nvmnt la Distan Facultatea de tiine Economice i Gestiunea Afacerilor Specializarea: AN I TRUNCHI COMUN Disciplina: curs practic de limba englez aplicat n domeniul afacerilor limba 1

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    Teacher Name: Adriana Fekete Office: Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, 58 T. Mihali st., Cluj-Napoca, room 016 (ground floor) Telephone: 0264-418655 E-mail: [email protected] Tutorials: any time, at the given e-mail address

    Course identification information: Course title: Practical course of business English Course code: EBL 1006, EBL 2006 first year, 2 semesters Course type: compulsory Tutor: Adriana Fekete e-mail address: [email protected]

    The course addresses intermediate (Common European Framework of Reference B1) students. To help you decide what level you are, we suggest you use the following descriptors of language ability as given by the Common European Framework of Reference.

    level description


    Can understand and use familiar everyday expressions and very basic phrases aimed at the satisfaction of needs of a concrete type. Can introduce him/herself and others and can ask and answer questions about personal details such as where he/she lives, people he/she knows and things he/she has. Can interact in a simple way provided the other person talks slowly and clearly and is prepared to help.


    Can understand sentences and frequently used expressions related to areas of most immediate relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local geography, employment). Can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar and routine matters. Can describe in simple terms aspects of his/her background, immediate environment and matters in areas of immediate need.


    Can understand the main points of clear standard input on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. Can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. Can produce simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. Can describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes & ambitions and briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans.


    Can understand the main ideas of complex text on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions in his/her field of specialisation. Can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible without strain for either party. Can produce clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects and explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options.


    Can understand a wide range of demanding, longer texts, and recognise implicit meaning. Can express him/herself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. Can use language flexibly and effectively for social, academic and professional purposes. Can produce clear, well-structured, detailed text on complex subjects, showing controlled use of organisational patterns, connectors and cohesive devices.

    C2 Can understand with ease virtually everything heard or read. Can summarise information from different spoken and written sources, reconstructing arguments and accounts in a coherent presentation. Can express him/herself spontaneously, very fluently and precisely, differentiating finer shades of meaning even in more complex situations.


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    It is absolutely necessary that students whose level is lower than intermediate should work individually to reach that level. To this purpose, students can use practical grammars which contain essential theoretical information and practical tasks (see Suggested bibliography) or take English language courses offered by specialised institutions.



    The purpose of English for1st Year Business Students is to develop the written and oral communication skills of business students. The course focuses on two vital areas of the learning process: improving reading and writing skills as well as developing learning skills. The subject matter, drawn from various business fields, is not excessively specialised.


    Eight units are devoted to training students in the skills of reading, developing vocabulary, and writing. These units are designed to help students:

    Become familiar with the various vocabulary items related to business English Become familiar with the various expressions related to specific language functions Improving reading skills by focusing on both content and the use of theses

    expressions in task-based writing exercises Build up writing skills by practising the contextual use of the vocabulary items and

    focusing on grammar in controlled practice exercises. Learn and review basic business vocabulary

    The structure of the units is systematic, concise and explicit, responsive to the variety of communicative circumstances in business. The content is formative, aiming at developing students awareness of the need for communicating correctly in a foreign language. Mainly designed to be used as self-study material, the book intends to encourage students to take individual study more seriously, to offer standardised exercises, to provide concrete examples, to focus on language use (knowledge of language, language skills, awareness of the nature of learning, awareness of the reading process, attitudes to reading: unknown words, strategies, meaning, opportunities for discussion/ exchanges of opinion).

    The texts provide opportunities for review and expansion of the skills throughout the year. Furthermore, the units organisation allows the student to take advantage of individual study. The abundance of material in the texts makes them easily adaptable to varying learner interests, student specialties, and language levels.

    The units of the book deal with texts that offer the possibility of learning specific vocabulary, grammar structures and functional language in appropriate contexts. The tasks students will have to carry out will help them develop their language skills in an integrated way, i.e. extracting the main ideas from a text// taking notes etc.

    The structure of most units is the following: a. Lead-in b. Reading c. Vocabulary development d. Language focus e. Functions

    The lead-in section is devised to introduce students to the topic of the unit. It consists of questions or exercises that forecast the subject matter to be dealt with in the reading section.

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    The reading section contains texts that offer both information connected with the business environment and the opportunity to improve and enrich students vocabulary with new words and expressions.

    The vocabulary development section offers explanation of some of the lexical items from the text and expands the learning context to the lexical areas of the words/ expressions studied. It presents both general and specialised vocabulary and the activities initiated here require sustained individual work with the dictionary.

    The language focus section starts from examples found in the text. It has two sub-sections: one that deals with the theoretical input of a certain grammar problem (rules, examples etc.) and the second Practice that contains different types of exercises. However, students should decide whether they need more practice and if so, they should use additional self-study materials (practical grammars).

    The functions section contains a number of expressions that represent certain language functions. This may help students become familiar with the context in which these expressions are used. The section also contains suggested writing activities in order to focus attention on individual activities that offer the possibility of making use of the knowledge acquired within each unit, as a whole.

    In some units there is a section entitled English in Use. This section aims at familiarising students with the structure of the Language in Use section of the language ability examination that they will have to take on graduation.

    Course calendar

    The eight units will be approached in the order they appear, i.e. the first four units in the first semester and the remaining four in the second semester.

    Every semester students will have classes with the teacher twice, four hours each time. Before coming to class, students should study the units planned as follows:

    First semester First meeting units 1 and 2, Introduction to Business Communication and Presentations Second meeting units 3 and 4, The Structure of the Firm and Business Ethics

    Second semester First meeting units 5 and 6, Management and Recruitment Second meeting units 7 and 8, Business Travel and Culture and Civilisation

    The classes are mainly aimed at checking students individual work and answering possible questions, clarifying whatever aspects students may have found difficult to understand.

    We would like to insist on the fact that attending the classes alone cannot give students the necessary knowledge of English. Self-study is extremely important in acquiring a foreign language especially for long-distance students who are not exposed to the weekly classroom context. Reading newspaper articles in English (the Internet is an inexhaustible resource) and looking up unknown vocabulary can be of great help.


    Students will have to complete three homework assignments during each semester. These assignments carry 30% of the final mark.

    Every semester students will have to take a written test. The test will mainly consist of: grammar and vocabulary tasks 50%

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    questions referring to the topics covered during the semester (the questions that appear as reflection topics in the STOP AND THINK! sections) 50%

    The final mark will be calculated as follows: homework assignments 30% final test 70%

    It is very important that students understand that this practical course book does not contain the entire vocabulary of the English language! That would be impossible. Consequently, students should understand that in the test they may have to deal with tasks containing vocabulary that does not appear in the course book but which they are supposed to know at the intermediate level. The type and structure of the tasks that will appear in the test will be the same as those of the tasks that appear in the course book. However, they will not necessarily be identical since the aim of the test is not to assess students memory, but their ability to use the acquired knowledge in communication situations.

    It is not compulsory to attend the classes. However, contributing to the class can bring you 1 additional point to the final mark.

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    Suggested Bibliography

    *** Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary (London: Collins ELT, Harper Collins Publishers, 2003) Budai, L., Gramatica englez teorie i exerciii (Bucureti: Teora, 2001) A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar (London: Oxford University Press, 1996) Vince, M., Advanced Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT, 1994) Vince, M., Intermediate Language Practice (London: MacMillan Heinemann ELT, 1998) Mann, Malcolm &Taylore-Knowles, Steve (2008). Destination B2, MacMillan Mann, Malcolm &Taylore-Knowles, Steve (2008). Destination C1&C2, MacMillan Swan, Michael (2009). Practical English Usage, OUP Swan, Michael, Baker, David (2012). Grammar Scan. Diagnostic Tests for Practical English Usage, OUP



    Free-access online dictionaries:,,

    Further Vocabulary Study

    UNIT 1 Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice, p. 199-202; Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice, p. 212-216; 219-220 UNIT 2 Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice, pp. 236-238; Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice, pp. 224-227 UNIT 3 Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice, pp. 203-206; 209-213; 220-223 UNIT 4 Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice, pp. 231-233; 242-244 Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice, pp. 192-196 UNIT 5 Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice, pp. 203-205; 209-213; 216-219 UNIT 6 Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice, pp. 199-202

    Further Language Study

    THE TENSE SYSTEM Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice Tense consolidation Units 1 4 (pp. 1-24) Progress Test (pp. 25-29) Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice Units 2 9 (pp. 3-36) Problems, Errors and Consolidation (p. 37) A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet A Practical English Grammar The present tenses (pp. 152-162)

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    The past and perfect tenses (pp. 161-179) The future (pp. 180-194)

    GERUND/INFINITIVE Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice Unit 19 (pp. 107-113) Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice Units 38 39 (pp. 152-165) A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet A Practical English Grammar The infinitive (p. 212-227) The gerund (pp. 228-233) Infinitive and gerund constructions (pp. 234-238)

    ACTIVE/PASSIVE Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice Units 6-7 (pp. 30-40) Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice Units 15 16 (pp. 58-63) A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet A Practical English Grammar The passive voice (pp. 263-268) MODALS Michael Vince Advanced Language Practice Units 11-12 (pp. 59-70) Michael Vince Intermediate Language Practice Units 17 18 (pp. 64-71) A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet A Practical English Grammar May and can for permission and possibility (pp. 128-133) Can and be able for ability (pp. 134-136) Ought, should, must, have to, need for obligation (pp. 137-146) Must, have, will and should for deduction and assumption (pp. 147-149)

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    UNIT ONE INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS COMMUNICATION ........... 10 UNIT TWO PRESENTATIONS ................................................................. 24 UNIT THREE THE STRUCTURE OF THE FIRM ...................................... 36 UNIT FOUR BUSINESS ETHICS ............................................................. 47 UNIT FIVE MANAGEMENT ...................................................................... 56 UNIT SIX RECRUITMENT ........................................................................ 73 UNIT SEVEN BUSINESS TRAVEL .......................................................... 87 UNIT EIGHT CULTURE AND CIVILISATION .......................................... 93 APPENDIX 1 ADJECTIVES + OBLIGATORY PREPOSITION .............. 108 APPENDIX 2 GRAMMAR FILES ............................................................ 110 FUNCTIONS FILES ................................................................................... 134

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    Students should be able to use the vocabulary under INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS COMMUNICATION to communicate about:

    Communication in business settings Importance of communicating effectively Factors that influence effective communication Qualities of a good communicator Forms of communication Forms of written communication Forms of spoken communication Formal versus informal language Prevention of communication breakdowns Verbal and non-verbal communication

    be in communication with somebody noun [U] FORMAL biodata noun [U] business card noun [C] by word of mouth communication noun conversation noun [C or U] corporate communication [U] correspondence noun [U] discourse noun FORMAL engage sb in conversation FORMAL etiquette noun [U] exchange noun face-to-face adjective facsimile noun [C] fax noun [C, U] formal adjective illegible adjective in short in writing indecipherable adjective informal adjective information noun [U] interface noun [C] IT noun [U] legible adjective

    manners plural noun means of communication noun [C] message verb [T] networking noun [U] nonverbal communication noun [U] pleasantry noun [C] FORMAL polite adjective political correctness noun [U] respect noun [U] share verb shoptalk noun [U] shorthand for sth small talk noun [U] speech noun stationery noun [U] talk noun [C, U] telegram noun [C] telex noun [C or U] template noun [C] tete-a-tete noun [C] text verb [T] the Internet noun virtual adjective well-mannered adjective window noun [C] word processing noun [U]

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    1. Communication

    1.1. Lead-in


    definition: the process by which people exchange information or express their thoughts and feelings

    (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English)

    Forms and Components of Human Communication

    Humans communicate in order to share knowledge and experiences. Common forms of human communication include sign language, speaking, writing, gestures, and broadcasting. Communication can be interactive, transactive, intentional, or unintentional; it can also be verbal or nonverbal. Communication varies considerably in form and style when considering scale. Internal communication, within oneself, is intrapersonal while communication between two individuals is interpersonal. At larger scales of communication both the system of communication and media of communication change. Small group communication takes place in settings of between three and 12 individuals creating a different set of interactions than large groups such as organisational communication in settings like companies or communities. At the largest scales mass communication describes communication to huge numbers of individuals through mass media. Communication also has a time component, being either synchronous or asynchronous. There are a number of theories of communication that attempt to explain human communication. However, various theories relating to human communication have the same core philosophy. Communication follows a five-step process, which begins with the creation of a message and then sending it to another individual, organisation or a group of people. This message is received and then interpreted. Finally this message is responded to, which completes the process of communication.



    What possible barriers to interpersonal communication can you identify? What language is mainly used in international communication? Why?

    1.2. Reading

    Read the following short texts referring to communication and answer the questions that follow.

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    Text 1. "Have you ever said to yourself, "I wish I had spoken up"? Or, "If only I had introduced myself"? Or, "Did I say the wrong thing"? Conversational Confidence is the answer. Just by listening, you'll master the proven interpersonal skills you need to deal with every individual, every group, every occasion. The result? New doors will open to you. You won't hesitate to accept an invitation, to approach someone important, to seize an opportunity. You'll never again feel like an outsider. Success will naturally flow your way--and with less effort than you ever imagined possible."

    ~verbalAdvantage (advertisement in The New Republic, March 12, 2001)

    1. Why are people sometimes reluctant to speak up their minds? 2. What is the role of listening in a conversation? 3. How can people develop their communication skills?

    Text 2. "'Communication' is a registry of modern longings. The term evokes a utopia where nothing is misunderstood, hearts are open, and expression is uninhibited. Desire being most intense when the object is absent, longings for communication also index a deep sense of dereliction in social relationships. ... 'Communication' is a rich tangle of intellectual and cultural strands that encodes our time's confrontations with itself. To understand communication is to understand much more. An apparent answer to the painful divisions between self and other, private and public, and inner thought and outer word, the notion illustrates our strange lives at this point in history. It is a sink into which most of our hopes and fears seem to be poured."

    John Durham Peters, Speaking into the Air A History of the Idea of Communication (1999, p. 2)

    1. According to the author, how can the nature of communication be defined? 2. What does the author mean by inner thought and outer word? 3. How can misunderstanding appear?

    Text 3. "A word (or in general any sign) is interindividual. Everything that is said, expressed, is located outside the soul of the speaker and does not belong only to him. The word cannot be assigned to a single speaker. The author (speaker) has his own inalienable right to the word, but the listener has his rights, and those whose voices are heard in the word before the author comes upon it also have their rights (after all, there are no words that belong to no one)."

    M. Bakhtin Speech Genres and Other Late Essays (Trans. Vern McGee). Austin: University of Texas Press, 1986, p. 121

    1. What do words refer to? 2. The same word may mean different things to different persons. Try to explain

    how this happens. 3. How do new words appear in a language?

    1.3. Vocabulary development

    1.3.1. Match the phrases in column 1 with their meaning in column 2.

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    1. at the hands of sb A. to have finished 2. be at an end B. (not) give careful attention to sb/sth 3. be in sbs debt C. show your respect for sb by visiting them,

    going to their funeral, attending a memorial service, etc.

    4. beyond the call of duty D. at the beginning of sth 5. give rise to sth E. feel grateful to sb for their help, kindness,

    etc. 6. have the honour of doing sth F. die in order to protect or save sb/sth 7. hold sway G. say or do sth to show your respect and

    admiration for sb 8. in large part H. to a great extent 9. lay down you life (for sb/sth) I. make sth definite or complete 10. lay waste to sth J. used to indicate the result or consequence

    of a situation or action 11. on the threshold of sth K. performed with greater courage or effort

    than is usual or expected 12. pay (no) heed to sb/sth L. cause something to happen or exist 13. pay tribute to sb M. completely destroy a place or area 14. pay your respects (to sb) N. because of sbs actions 15. set the seal on sth O. start disagreeing or arguing with sb about

    sth 16. take issue with sth/sb

    (over/about sth) P. be given the opportunity of doing sth that

    makes you feel proud 17. therein lies sth Q. polite formula when disagreeing with sb 18. with (all due) respect to R. have power or influence over a group of

    people or a region

    1.3.2. Fill in the gaps in the following texts by using the phrases 1-18 given in the vocabulary task 1.3.1. A. (1) ___ the Prime Minister, it is the people of this country who have, (2) ___, suffered (3) ___ his government, and I am sure they will want to (4) ___ his last remark. B. Thousands of people gathered to (5) ___ the many local servicemen who (6) ___ their country. C. Terrorists still (7) ___ in many of the rural areas and (8) ___ the problem. They have already (9) ___ much valuable farmland, and we could be facing yet another drought. Any hopes that this awful situation might (10) ___ look premature. D. James Mauplins groundbreaking research not only (11) ___ his highly esteemed books and (12) ___ a glistering academic career, it also put us (13) ___ a major breakthrough in the treatment of Parkinsons Disease. I now (14) ___ introducing Professor Mauplin. E. I would like to (15) ___ the young police officer who, (16) ___ his own safety, went to the help of our daughter and saved her from certain death. It was an act of considerable bravery, way (17) ___, and we will forever (18) ___.

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    1.3.3. Look at the phrases given in 1.3.1. Then match 1-8 with a-h.

    1. have A. rise to something 2. pay B. the seal on something 3. take C. waste to something 4. give D. the honour to do something 5. hold E. tribute to somebody 6. set F. issue with somebody 7. lay down G. sway 8. lay H. your life for something

    1.4 Functions Information exchange Asking for information useful expressions

    Could you tell me...? Do you know...? Do you happen to know...? I'd like to know...

    Could you find out...? I'm interested in ... I'm looking for...

    2. Communication and the media

    NOTE the media noun [uncountable] The noun should always be accompanied by the definite article and should be followed by a verb in the plural.

    2.1. Lead in Answer the following questions: What role do the media play in the society? Are you interested in the news? Do you read newspapers or watch news bulletins?

    2.2. Vocabulary development Group the following words into the three categories given in the table below. Use a dictionary.

    journalism newspapers and magazines radio and television investigative circulation broadcast

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    circulation gonzo correspondent columnist editor tabloid pay-per-view channel compact

    colour supplement satellite article edition feature column chequebook review

    scoop broadcast transmit frequency editorial station show reporter episode.

    news bulletin investigative airtime cable commercial broadsheet network

    2.3. Reading Read the following text. To what extent do you agree with it? Give your pros and cons. While reading, fill in the gaps with ONE word.


    What should you do? Every time you have to solve such tasks: - first, read the whole paragraph, as it is, with gaps; sometimes the clue is in the sentence that comes after the gap to be filled; - remember that you have to use ONE word! - decide what part of speech is missing (noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, etc.), depending on the natural word order; then, if necessary, concentrate on the form that the identified word should have (number for a noun, tense for a verb, etc.).

    Remember the tips! They are useful!

    The growing role of the media in our society Paragraph 1

    In the world of today, the media have become almost as necessary 1 ___ food and clothing. It is true that the media are playing an outstanding role in strengthening the society; they are a mirror of 2 ___ society. Their duty is to inform, educate and entertain the people. They help us to know what is going on 3 ___ the world. They 4 ___ their lives in danger during attacks or natural disasters, just to inform us of the situation. It is partly due to them that awareness is spreading in the society. It is the media 5 ___ shape our lives. Our lives would be incomplete 6 ___ the media.

    Paragraph 2 The media 7 ___ the watchdog of the political democracy. If they 8 ___ their role honestly, they will be a great force in building the nation but, nowadays, the media have become a commercialised sector eying only for news that is hot and sells. 9 ___ of giving important information and educative programmes, all that one gets on television is sensational depiction of all news stories, their only goal being gaining television rating points (TRPs).

    Paragraph 3 Every issue is hyped for a day or two, so much so 10 ___ you switch to any channel, they all will be flashing the same story but then when the heat is over there is no following of the case. The news then jostles 11 ___ space with other stories that are carrying the heat then. Even 12 ___ we cannot think of a world without television sets, media has become so much a part of us that to recognise its impact, we need

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    to step 13 ___ and consciously think about how they shape our lives and what they are saying.

    Paragraph 4 The media affects peoples perspective not 14 ___ through television, but 15 ___ through radio and newspapers. In this way, even many messages 16 ___ which we cannot agree inevitably come to us from diverse constellations of media. They can even be turned 17 ___ our benefit by whetting our understanding and articulation of what we believe; today news channels and even some newspapers are mouthpiece of some political parties. Their work then limits only to spread the ideology of the party 18 ___ than give correct news. People have to judge 19 ___ their own by looking and listening to different channels for the same news and then form a conclusion.

    Paragraph 5 The media are an integral part of our society. However, a matter of concern is their excessive intervention in everything. Sometimes, just for making money, insignificant news is given so 20 ___ priority that the real news is not even brought 21 ___ notice. Yes, it does also entertain but again its a debatable issue because by entertainment we mean healthy entertainment and not those nonsense TV serials. So 21 ___ last, like science they are a tool, which we have to use by our judgment to provide maximum satisfaction side by side without harming ourselves. The other disadvantage is that sometimes they also publish or broadcast some vulgar news, and sometimes unessential activities are served 22 ___ very important news and broadcast again and again. This does not broaden the reach of the media.

    Paragraph 6 In spite of being sensational and biased, the significance of the media cannot be ignored, especially in an age, in which globalisation and liberalisation have become the order of the day. In this globalised world, the task and duties of the media are increasing day by day. There is still a lot to be done by the media for the betterment of the society.

    (adapted from

    2.3. Vocabulary development 2.3.1. Match the following words or phrases from the text with their appropriate definition.

    1. awareness (par. 1) a. increase someones desire for something 2. watchdog (par. 2) b. a person, newspaper etc. that expresses the opinions

    of a government or a political organisation 3. hyped (par. 3) c. unfairly preferring a person or a group over another 4. whet(ting) (par. 4) d. a person or group of people whose job is to protect the

    rights of people who buy things and to make sure companies do not do anything illegal or harmful

    5. mouthpiece (par. 4) e. to amuse or interest people in a way that gives them pleasure

    6. entertain (par. 5) f. very excited or nervous and unable to keep still 7. biased (par. 6) g. knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or

    situation 8. betterment (par. 6) h. (formal) improvement, especially in someones social

    and economic position Make up sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the words above. Show them to your neighbour and ask them whether they understand the meaning illustrated. If they dont, make the necessary corrections.

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    2.3.2. Write one word in each gap. 1. Obviously it goes ___ saying that I dont want you to tell anyone else about this. 2. Reading ___ lines, it seems that the governments considering tightening media

    regulations. 3. Im afraid that book is ___ of print, but Ill see if we can find a second-hand copy

    for you somewhere. 4. I followed your instructions ___ the letter but I still couldnt get the printer to work

    properly. 5. Getting Elaine to edit your article is just asking ___ trouble; you know how

    pedantic and opinionated she is! 6. ___ answer to your question, no, I have never had any business dealings with

    Mr Partridge. 7. Even if youve got a great idea for a novel, its incredibly hard putting pen ___

    paper for the first time. 8. Put your ideas down ___ paper and well discuss them at the next meeting. 9. Youve had some good news, havent you? Its written all ___ your face.

    2.3.3. Use the words given in brackets to form a word that fits in the space.


    What should you do? Every time you have to solve such tasks: - decide what part of speech would meaningfully complete the sentence and then use suffixes and/or prefixes typical of that part if speech (e.g. for nouns: -ment, -ness, -ance, -tion, etc.; for adverbs ly; for adjectives ous, -ful, etc.); - pay attention to agreement (e.g. number for nouns); - pay attention to spelling! spelling is extremely important in such tasks; if you are not sure, use a dictionary; - read the sentence carefully; sometimes there is a negative connotation that requires the use of prefixes/suffixes with a negative meaning; - do not try to learn words by heart! you cannot remember them all! read as much as possible and use a dictionary! study word families (e.g. employ, employment, employer, employee, unemployment, employable, unemployable).

    Remember the tips! They are useful!

    A. The (1) ___ (SAY) never judge a book by its cover could not be more true for Ridiculous Rules by Marjorie Allen. The cover is completely blank, whereas the book is crammed full of wonderful examples and anecdotes. Allen is an (2) ___ (SPEAK) critic of much of what is taught to native and non-native speakers of English, and has issued a (3) ___ (DECLARE) of war against textbooks and style books which tell lies. Take the ridiculous and (4) ___ (MEAN) rule of never ending a sentence with a preposition. The lovely if famous story goes, that Winston Churchill, well known for his numerous (5)___ (WRITE) as well as for being British Prime Minister during the Second World War , received a manuscript back from an ignorant (6) ___ (EDIT) who had told him rather rudely that he had to (7) ___ (PHRASE) a sentence which ended with a preposition. Churchill responded by making the simple yet forceful (8) ___ (STATE) in the margin: This is an impertinence up with which I will not put. the (9) ___ (IMPLY) being that not to end a sentence with a preposition

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    often sounds ridiculous in English. Sadly, Allen informs us that the story is probably mere (10) ___ (HEAR), and that Churchill may have actually only written rubbish! in the margin.

    B. I love watching (1) ___ (DISCUSS) programmes, and I love politics, so youd think Id enjoy watching (2) ___ (POLITICS) being interviewed on TV. But I dont. All too often, (3) ___ (JOURNAL) ask them the most (4) ___ (RIDICULE) questions, and, when they do get an interesting question, sit there watching in (5) ___ (BELIEVE) as some of the most (6) ___ (POWER) people in the country give totally (7) ___ (CONVINCE) responses. Its as if they dont care whether their reply is (8) (BELIEVE) or not. Often, theyre very poor (9) ___ (COMMUNICATE), and theyre frequently even more (10) ___ (INFORM) about key issues than I am. I dont expect them to be particularly (11) ___ (HUMOUR) they are serious people, after all but at least they could say something interesting occasionally. It makes me want to stand for election myself.

    2.3.4. Study the vocabulary given below and then fill in the gaps in the following text by using the appropriate phrases.

    add up (informal) seem reasonable or logical (used mainly in a negative sense) boil down to sth if a situation or problem boils down to one thing, that thins is the

    main point in the situation, or the main cause of the problem capitalise on sth gain a further advantage for yourself from a situation come/be under fire be criticised severely for sth you have done in the final analysis used to state a basic truth after everything has been

    discussed and considered neck and neck (of two people or groups) level with each other in a race or

    competition pluck sth out of the air say a name, number, etc. without giving it any thought quick/slow off the mark fast/slow in reacting to a situation stop the rot stop a bad situation from getting worse talk sth up describe or discuss sth in a way that makes it sound better than it is

    The prime minister has (1) ____ during the election campaign for being slow to respond to events, but he was (2) ___ this morning. In a speech in Dover, he claimed that the Oppositions tax policies didnt (3) ___, and that they were (4) ___ numbers ___. Meanwhile, the Opposition were trying to (5) ___ the latest bad unemployment figures, which clearly illustrated, in their view, that the only thing which could (6) ___ was a change of government. They also (7) ___ the latest opinion poll-figures, which now put them (8) ___ with the government. (9) ___ it will just (10) ___ who the voters choose to believe.

    2.4. Language Focus: The Noun Number Agreement Number Agreement the number of is followed generally by singular, while a number of by plural

    The number of investors was huge. A number of shareholders were expected to sell their shares.

    nouns/pronouns can be coordinated with the following simple or correlative conjunctions: and, or, either or, neither nor, both and, not only but also.

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    a) and, both and require the plural form of the verb The president and the secretary general are not present. Both the president and the secretary general are on a business trip.

    b) or, either or follow the rule of proximity ( the closest subject dictates the number of the verb) His supporters or he has to take this issue very seriously. Either he or his supporters have to take a decision.

    c) neither nor may follow the rule of proximity (as above), but in everyday use the plural is preferred Neither the guests nor the host is to be blamed. or Neither the guest nor the host are to be blamed.

    With as well as, except, but, with only the first noun dictates the agreement with the predicate.

    Mr. Jones as well as all his colleagues is expected to come. All the members of the board, but David, are here. A man with a young child was asking for help.

    2.5. Functions a. Identifying yourself Hello, Im from Hello, my name isI work for Hello, let me introduce myself, ImIm in charge of// Im responsible for Hello, first name+ surnameIve got an appointment with

    b. Greetings when you meet someone for the first time

    First greeting Reply to the greeting Neutral How do you do? Im (very) pleased/

    delighted to meet you. Its (very) nice to meet you.

    How do you do? Its (very) nice to meet you too. Im pleased to meet you too.

    Informal How do you do? Nice/ good to meet you. Hello. Nice to have you with us. Hi. Pleased to meet you.

    Nice/ good to meet you too.

    Pleased to meet you too.

    3. IT and Human Interaction

    3.1. Lead-in


    Can the full effect of the current information revolution be predicted? Why? Is meeting face-to-face more valuable than corresponding electronically? Why?

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    3.2. Reading Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. They are given in the box below the text. They are lettered A to J. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 10 with the corresponding missing parts A to J.


    What should you do? Every time you have to solve such tasks: - first, read the text, ignoring the empty spaces, so that you can get the gist; - the second time you read the text you can adopt the following strategy: every time you come to an empty space, read carefully the sentence before and the one after the empty space, and look for a meaningful connection between the sentence/part of sentence you have chosen and the text; consider all the given sentences, do not stop at the first one that you consider to be the correct answer; - sometimes you are given more sentences than gaps; if so, the extra sentence is either too general or similar to the correct variant, but in a way or another inadequate; - read the text again to see if it makes sense.

    Remember the tips! They are useful!

    New video examines impact of computers on human interaction by Barbara McKenna

    Through the advent of the web, we can get whatever we want online 1 ___. We can bank online, make friends online, even attend virtual concerts and art shows online. One man in Dallas, 2 ___, has even gone so far as to confine himself to his home for a full year, acquiring everything he needs (including a Valentine's Day date) through the web.

    Observing the increasing "realness" of virtual reality, UCSC (University of California, Santa Cruz) film professor Chip Lord has produced a video that explores the question of how 3 ___. The video, Awakening from the Twentieth Century, aired recently on public television and is the winner of the Dallas Video Festival's Latham Award for 1999.

    "I started working on this during a sabbatical in early 1998," Lord says. "I wanted to look at how the computer is changing the ways in which we conduct daily life. One of my central goals was to find out whether the Internet and virtual networking telecommuting, distance learning, e-commerce have had an effect 4 ___."

    To explore this, Lord combines montages of life in San Francisco with interviews. Among those he interviews are Homer Flynn, spokesperson for a San Francisco underground, multimedia band named The Residents; John Sanborn, director of the online rock and roll murder mystery "Paul Is Dead"; Ellen Ullman, a software engineer, commentator, and author of Close to the Machine; Gannon Hall, a web site designer; and Rebecca Solnit, a social commentator and author of the just-published book, Wanderlust: A History of Walking (Viking Press).

    Rather than aim to prove a point, Lord is out to 5 ___. One montage opens with a

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    view of the old-fashioned marble-floored interior of a Wells Fargo Bank branch bank in San Francisco and fades to a nearby Safeway, in which a Wells Fargo "mini-bank" is built into the wall. The juxtaposition continues 6 ___ the bank's dramatic picture of racing horses pulling a stagecoach and, over that image, in stark white, the URL

    "Is the physical space of the bank becoming obsolete?" Lord asks.

    Through his interviews Lord also explores the impending fate of such things as the automobile, film, community. But the question that most concerns Lord is whether the physical space of the city itself 7 ___.

    Lord gets very different opinions from his subjects. Web designer and computing specialist Gannon Hall conducts most of his business virtually through e-mail, web sites, and the phone. "Gannon recognizes that 8 ___, but once he starts working on a project he does everything virtually, via the Internet. For Gannon, because his business is virtual, he could be anywhere. He doesn't need the city. To him, the city is like fashion. You choose it the same way you would choose clothes. He says, 'you wear the city.' "

    But social commentator Rebecca Solnit feels very differently, affirming the importance of real-life interaction at such places as the Farmer's Market, where 9 ___. To flesh out this perspective, Lord also shows footage of two groups of San Franciscans bicyclists and rollerbladers. The bicycling event, called Critical Mass, is anything but virtual, drawing some 3,000 bicyclists each month who hit the streets during a Friday rush hour.

    As Lord trails along with the rollerbladers, hundreds of whom come out each Friday for the "Friday Night Skate," he comes to this conclusion:

    "Maybe because of the utopian images we hear about the new technologies, I thought that broadcasting, netcasting, wireless networks, and pagers, cellphones, and beepers all 10 ___ for celebration and the ritual rubbing of shoulders in streets, plazas, and squares. But I was wrong. Because we still need fashion. We still need to wear the city because the city is..." Lord trails off, letting Humphrey Bogart, in the character of San Francisco detective Sam Spade, finish his sentence: "The stuff that dreams are made of."


    A. an initial face-to-face meeting with clients is necessary B. the computer is affecting the ways we interact with each other and our

    environment C. groceries, prescriptions, even pets D. vendors and customers interact directly and chance encounters with friends

    can take place E. explore the implications of our emerging computer-generated culture F. were conspiring to end the need for public gathering G. is becoming obsolete H. who calls himself DotComGuy I. on how we use our physical space J. with a shot of a billboard advertising

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    3.3. Vocabulary development 3.3.1. Match the following words or phrases from the text with their appropriate definition.

    1. rollerblader (n) a. no longer useful, because something newer and better has been invented

    2. footage (n) b. referring to an event or situation, especially an unpleasant one, which is going to happen very soon

    3. to flesh sth out (v) c. the act of putting things together, especially things that are not normally together, in order to compare them or to make something new

    4. obsolete (adj) d. working at home using a computer connected to a company's main office

    5. stark (adj) e. a period when someone, especially someone in a university job, stops doing their usual work in order to study or travel

    6. impending (adj) f. cinema film showing a particular event 7. juxtaposition (n) g. to keep someone or something within the limits of a

    particular activity or subject 8. to fade (v) h. the time when something first begins to be widely

    used 9. telecommuting (n) i. very plain in appearance, with little or no colour or

    decoration 10. sabbatical (n) j. to add more details to something in order to make it

    clear, more interesting etc 11. to confine (v) k. person who uses special boots with a single row of

    wheels fixed under it to skate on hard surfaces 12. advent (n) l. to gradually disappear

    3.3.2. If the word in bold is correct, put a tick. If it is incorrect, replace it with one of the words in bold from the other sentences.

    1. The Internet is a really vast console of computers, all connected together. 2. Since we got resource, weve been watching music videos online. 3. Early computer games seem quite nuclear compared with todays games. 4. It seems to me that primitive power is far cleaner than oil. 5. These ancient tools have been crafted with an enormous amount of skill. 6. The next generation of games technique will have better graphics. 7. Theres a network in computing called beta testing, which means you test

    something to see if it works properly before it becomes official. 8. This latest breakthrough will mean cheaper, faster internet access for all. 9. The computer has finished analysing all the broadband. 10. The sea is a great natural data but we need the right technology to use it.

    3.3.3. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the space. We often think of ourselves as living in a time of 1___ (CONTINUE) technological change and development. We tend to believe that we are unique in history in dealing with a constantly 2 ___ (EVOLVE) world of gadgets, devices and innovations. However, the end of the nineteenth century and the start of the twentieth was also a time that saw many 3 ___ (REVOLT) changes.

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    People had needed to show 4 ___ (FLEXIBLE) throughout the nineteenth century, as the effects of the Industrial Revolution meant constantly making 5 ___ (ADJUST) to deal with changing working conditions. Towards the end of the century, though, people had to become more 6 ___ (ADAPT) than ever before. The typewriter (1873), the telephone (1876) and other 7 ___ (INFLUENCE) developments gave people the 8 ___ (CAPABLE) to live and work in ways their grandparents could not have imagined. Over the next 30 years, little remained 9 ___ (ALTER) as the camera, the cinema, the phonograph, the plane and radio all had an 10 ___ (ELECTRIC) effect on people and society.

    3.4. Functions Presenting and supporting opinions Asking for opinions

    What are your feelings on this?

    To one person To a group of people What are your views on.? Any reaction to that? What are your feelings about? Has anybody any strong feeling about /

    views on that? What do you think of .? Whats the general view on/ feeling about

    that? Whats your opinion about that? Has anybody any comments to make?


    One of the most negative aspects of the impact of the Internet in our daily life is the fact that it alters social behaviour, habits and abilities of people. Write an argumentative essay in response to the following statement: The Internet makes people lonelier. (Write between 250-300 words.) You can submit the paper electronically or hand it in to your teacher on the first meeting. Deadline 15 November


    In argumentative essays there should be a balance between the pros and the cons. Refer to each argument in a distinct paragraph. The conclusion of an argumentative essay should summarise the arguments and give your opinion. Do not use bulleted lists! Present concrete details and refer to your own experience.

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    Students should be able to use the vocabulary under PRESENTATIONS to communicate about:

    Types of presentations made in business Preparing and planning a presentation Audience analysis Presentation materials Delivery techniques Body language and voice Signalling words and phrases Question-and-answer session Golden rules for presentations

    address verb [T] FORMAL audience noun [C] board noun [C] body language noun [U] chart noun [ C ] file noun [C] flip chart noun [C] flow chart noun [C] folder noun [C] harangue noun [C] have the floor information overload noun [U] in-tray noun [C] keynote address/speech/speaker noun [C] language barrier noun [C] lecture noun [C] misunderstanding noun [C,U] monologue noun [C] non-verbal adjective noticeboard noun [C]

    observer noun [C] onlooker noun [C] oration noun [C] FORMAL outline noun [C] out-tray noun [C] overhead transparency noun [C] overhead projector noun [C] pie chart noun presentation noun [ C, U ] printer noun [C] rephrase verb [T] ring binder noun [C] seminar noun [ C ] spectator noun [C] take the floor talk noun [C] visual aid noun [C] whiteboard noun [C] workshop noun [C]

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    UNIT TWO PRESENTATIONS Speaking in public is often cited as the number one fear of adults. The Book of Lists places the fear of death in fifth place while public speaking ranks first. Jerry Seinfeld said, "That would mean at a funeral, people are five times more likely to want to be in the casket than giving the eulogy."

    1. Business presentations



    How can one prepare before a presentation? Why do you think some people are afraid of public speaking? How can they overcome this fear?

    1.1. Reading comprehension

    Read the following article about business presentations. Some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose from sentences A- K the one which fits each gap (1-10). There is one sentence which you do not need to use. (Remember the tips?)

    Effective Public Speaking in Business Presentations By Doug Staneart

    Right or wrong, people form a perception about how competent you are by how you present yourself when you stand and speak. 1____ In fact, public speaking is an easy way to set yourself apart from your competition, because when you stand up and say what you want to say, the way that you want to say it, you are doing what 95% of the people in the audience wish they could do. A person who is confident in front of a group gives off an air of competence, whereas a person who fumbles might leave a negative impression. When I was in college, I had an internship with a major oil company, and at the end of the summer, I had to present a summary of my internship to a group of department managers and vice-presidents. 2____ Many of the other interns were graduate students who were much more comfortable in front of a group. When I spoke, I could feel the sweat beads on my forehead, and I could see my hands shaking. The butterflies in my stomach were uncontrollable. After the presentation, I asked myself, "If I were the decision-maker in that room, and I only had one permanent position to offer, would I choose me?" 3____ Over the next few years, I trained with some of the most successful public speaking coaches in the country. 4____ Below are some of the great public speaking tips that I have found that really work. Realize 90% of nervousness doesn't even show. The audience usually can't see

    the butterflies, or shaky hands, or sweaty palms. The problem occurs when we start thinking about these symptoms rather than focusing on the audience and

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    our topic. 5____ Focus on them and two things will happen: 1) they will like you more, and 2) much of the nervousness that you feel will go away.

    Add some enthusiasm to your talk. Your audience will never be more excited about your talk than you are, so give them some energy, and they will give it back to you. Walk about a half step faster. Smile. Let your gestures and voice emphasis come naturally. 6____

    Limit your talk to a few key points. Narrow down your topic to either one key point for a short talk, or three key points for a longer talk (a talk longer than 30-minutes.) Ask yourself, "If my audience only remembered one thing from my talk, what would be most important thing for them to remember?" 7____ For instance, think of the Statue of Liberty. What do you see? You probably see a picture in your mind of the statue. Now think of a pink elephant. Again, you probably see a picture in your mind, but the important question iswhere did the statue go? Your mind can only truly focus on one thing at a time. 8____ The more points your presentation has, the less focus the audience will have on each individual point. Once you have your key points, then create your PowerPoint slides. That will keep you from having hundreds of PowerPoint slides.

    Tell stories. Don't tell little white lies, but do tell anecdotes and personal experiences. Stories build rapport with your audience, and they give you more credibility. Your audience will remember your stories a lot longer than they will remember your talking points. 9____ Kids in town made fun of him, but Les found out that this man's house had caught on fire, and his two baby girls died in the blaze. The man attempted to go in and save them many times, but the heat was too great. When his brother-in-law showed up, he verbally assaulted the man calling him a chicken for not going in to save his girls. 10____ I heard this story years ago, and I can't remember the specific point Les Brown was making on stage. I do remember the "chicken-man," though, and I frequently think about how I should get all the facts before passing judgment on people. Les Brown's stories have longevity, and your stories will have that type of impact as well.

    When in doubt, speak from the heart. Let your audience see the real you, and you will have a great speaking performance.

    (adapted and abridged from public_ speaking_in_ business_presentations.html)

    A. Since then, I have spoken before thousands of people, and coached hundreds of managers, executives, and other leaders on how to present more effectively to groups. B. I was the youngest person in the room, just 20. C. I heard Les Brown, a famous motivational speaker, years ago, and he told a story about how a man in his hometown went around the town square holding two baby dolls and squawking like a chicken. D. The reason this is so important is that the human mind likes to think of only one thing at a time. E. By human nature, most people are focused on themselves not on you. F. Ever since then, the man has not spoken a word -- instead he just clucks like a chicken. G. They also form perceptions about the company you represent based on your performance. H. I thought they would. I. As you add additional points, each previous point will become diluted. J. Don't over do it, but give more energy than what you normally would. K. I had to answer "no."

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    1.2. English in use

    1.2.1. Read the article below and fill in the gaps with ONE word. (Remember the tips?)

    15 Strategies for Giving Oral Presentations Lynn F. Jacobs, Jeremy S. Hyman

    More 1 ___ death and taxes, the thing people fear most is speaking 2 ___ public. Needless to say, college students are not immune 3 ___ this terror, which, for you psychology hounds, even has a 4 ___: glossophobia. Unfortunately, in college, its not always so easy to avoid public speaking. Some schools have required courses in speech. And even in colleges 5 ___ speech isnt a subject, there often is a broad variety of courses that incorporate presentations or reportsand sometimes full-length seminarsinto the regular class activities. Still, theres 6 ___ need to lose your breakfast (or lunch or dinner) 7 ___ your upcoming presentation. Our 15 tips for improving your public speaking will make even a garden-variety speaker into a real Cicero:

    1. Do your homework. Nobody 8 ___ give a good presentation 9 ___ putting in some serious time preparing remarks. Many gifted speakers look as if theyre just talking off the cuff, saying 10 ___ comes to mind. But, in truth, theyve spent considerable time figuring out what theyre going to say. You should, too.

    4-Star Tip. Its always a good idea to try out your presentation on your professor 11 ___ giving it in class. Office hours work well for this.

    2. Play the parts. Good presentations are structured in sections. Many presentations need only two or three main points. Organizing your points 12 ___ a few main parts and telling your audience 13 ___ these parts are both before and as you go through your presentation can be the difference 14 ___ a winning presentation and a loser.

    3. Do a dry run. Its always good to do a run-through (or even a couple of run-throughs) the night 15 ___ the presentation. This can help 16 ___ both your timing and your manner of presentation. Be sure to make mental notes if you went on 17 ___ long or got nervous or stuck. Some people find it useful to have a friend pretend to be the audience: He or she can build up your confidence and maybe even ask a question or two.

    4. Look presentable. No need to wear a suit, but its hard for people to take a presentation seriously when you look like someone 18 ___ just rolled out of bed.

    5. Talk; dont read. Nobody enjoys seeing a speaker burying his or her face in a script, reading stiffly 19 ___ a piece of paper. Try to talk from notes, or, if you use a written-out text, try to look down 20 ___ it only occasionally. Its less important that you capture the text word for word than that you present the main ideas in a natural and relaxed way.

    6. Take it slow. The single biggest mistake inexperienced speakers make is going too fast. Remember that your audience hears the material for the first time and isnt nearly as familiar 21 ___ the topic as you are.

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    Extra Pointer. If you find yourself running 22 ___ of time, either drop or briefly summarize any leftover material. If your presentation includes a discussion period, gesture at the points you havent fully covered and suggest them as things that could be discussed later.

    7. Use aids. For certain sorts of presentations, visual 23 ___ such as PowerPoints, handouts, even things written on the board can help your audience locate and grasp the main points. Just be sure to explain these materials fully in your presentation: No one is happy to see an outline that cant be made heads or 24 ___ of.

    8. Dont bury the crowd. Including massive numbers of quotations or unfathomable amounts of data can overwhelm even the 25 ___ attentive audience.

    9. Be yourself. As important 26 ___ the content you present is your authenticity in presenting it, so dont try to be someone youre not. Youll never succeed.

    10. Play it straight. Theres 27 ___ harm in including a little humor in your presentations, especially if you can carry it off well. But in most college presentations, clowns will get Cs.

    11. Circle the crowd. A very important part of public speaking is to make 28 ___ contact with people seated in all parts of the room even those nodding off in the back. That shows people that youre interested 29 ___ communicating with them not just getting 30 ___ this experience as quickly as possible. And it wouldnt hurt to go out from in back of the podium or desk and walk around the room a little. Sharing space with the audience can also communicate your interest in sharing your results 31 ___ them, something you surely want to do.

    12. Appear relaxed. You dont have to actually be relaxedfew speakers are but at least try to appear as relaxed as possible. Bring along some water or a drink, take short 32 ___ from time to time, and think pleasant thoughts. No one enjoys speakers 33 ___ are trembling and sweating bullets.

    13. Finish strong. Always be sure to have a satisfying conclusion 34 ___ your presentation in 35 ___ you make clear to the listeners what they now know. It creates a warm feeling in the minds of your listeners and shows them that theyve really learned something from your talk which they probably have.

    14. Welcome interruptions. Some speakers are terrified that someone will interrupt them 36 ___ a question or comment. Actually, this is one of the 37 ___ things that can happen, because it shows that someone in the audience has engaged 38 ___ what youre saying, and, if you have the time to offer a brief response, it can actually lead to genuine progress on the point you were making. And two-way conversation (assuming youre minimally good at it) is always a tension-reducer.

    15. Know when to stop lecturing. Certain presentations especially in advanced or upper-division classes or seminars can require you to present some material, then lead a discussion. Be sure to attentively listen 39 ___ any comments or questions your classmates might raise 40 ___ starting on your answer. And in a discussion period, never lecture (only discuss), and be sure to answer exactly the

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    question asked. In many classes, how you discuss is as important as how you present.

    (adapted from

    1.3. Vocabulary development Study the following phrases.

    a nervous wreck (informal) very upset and worried jump in interrupt somebody while they are talking lose sight of sth forget an important fact about a situation nod off (informal) to fall asleep nothing could be further from the truth used to emphasize that something is

    definitely not true pare sth down to reduce something, especially by making a lot of small

    reductions sit through sth to attend a meeting, performance etc. and stay until the end,

    even if it is long and boring set in if something sets in, especially something unpleasant, it begins and

    seems likely to continue for a long time (talk) at cross purposes if two people are at cross purposes they do not

    understand each other because they are talking about different things but fail to realize this

    the presentation (achievement) of ones life the most remarkable/the best achievement

    Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text:

    We had to 1 ___ Robs disastrous presentation to the group today. We were overloaded with information, and he completely 2 ___ the main points; he should 3 ___ it ___. He thought a good powerpoint would compensate for poor presentation skills, but nothing could have been 4 ___. Most of the time he spoke too slowly (one or two people were 5 ___). Then Dr Jones asked him a tricky question and you could see the panic 6 ___. When Elaine asked about projected sales he 7 ___ before shed finished, and they ended up 8 ___. He was hoping it would be the presentation 9 ___, but instead he ended up a 10 ___.

    2. First meetings


    What factors can influence the success of a first meeting?

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    2.1. Reading comprehension Parts of the sentences in the following text have been removed. They are given in the box below the text. They are lettered A to L. Read the text and fill in the blanks numbered 1 to 10 with the corresponding missing parts A to L. There are two letters that you do not need.

    What to Say When Meeting Someone for the First Time It can be quite a nervous time when you are meeting someone new and often people can wonder what they should say. It doesn't matter if it is a date, a new work colleague, a business meeting or someone you meet in a social situation, you can find yourself stuck for what to say when meeting someone for the first time. However, 1 ____ and begin a relationship on good terms.

    The greeting The first thing to do when meeting someone is to smile and greet them, telling them your name. A smile will relax you as well as making you appear friendly and open, so the other person also relaxes and 2 ___. You should say your name (probably just your first name unless it is a business situation). Again, this relaxes you and the other person because it makes you appear open and 3 ___. It doesn't matter that they may well forget your name later; you made yourself appear open to them.

    Use the situation You have met together for a purpose, whether that is a meeting, a party, or whatever. You can find some connection between you to talk about in that. If you are at a company meeting you 4 ___. Or at a party you might ask how they know the host. Beyond that, you could use your physical surroundings to find something to talk about. So you may ask about the other person's journey or remark upon the decor etc. Ask their opinion about something and show that you are interested in what they think.

    Keep it light Keep your comments light and positive and you should get a response that is also in the same manner. Don't voice 5 ___ until you know the person better as it is possible you could offend them. Keep controversial conversation topics for a later meeting.

    Relax You have reason to be confident when meeting someone for the first time because in this situation they have never met you either. You are equals, both in the same position in that respect. Even though you have to be a little careful not to offend people, don't feel you need to put on an act. It is the real you 6 ___ if you are to have a lasting and positive relationship so that is what you should present to them.

    Use your manners Even if you have offended someone on a first meeting, you can rescue the situation so there is no need to panic about it. Simply apologize and let it be known that 7 ___. If people can see that your apology is sincere and that you meant no offence,

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    the vast majority of people will be fine with your apology and not hold a grudge against you. Don't outstay your welcome If you are meeting someone for the first time, 8 ___, or at least work out some kind of exit strategy if the meeting is not going well. Often, this is simple; all you have to do is say that you need to go talk to a friend you have just spotted across the room.

    Be sure to thank them for their time in speaking with you and 9 ___ and the door is open for you to go back to talk with them again.

    So, what to say when meeting someone for the first time should be light, open and friendly. It should 10 ___. It is enough to smile and be open and interested in the other person and make light conversation about the situation that brings you together. (adapted from


    A that you need the other person to connect with and to like B feels more happily disposed toward you C could ask how long the other person has worked for the company D it is out of your reach E you may well want to keep the meeting quite short F not probe too deeply into personal issues nor disclose too much of yourself G any particularly strong opinions H all of these situations offer you opportunities to strike up a conversation I leave on good terms so they are left with a good impression of you J nothing bad can happen K it connects the two of you L it was not your intention to cause offence

    2.2 Vocabulary development 2.2.1. Study the following phrases.

    a meeting of minds a situation in which people have similar ideas and opinions

    be on the same wavelength (informal) think in a similar way about sth be struck by sb/sth (informal) be impressed by or interested in sth (feel) at home (feel) comfortable and relaxed make sth of sb/sth understand or regard sb or sth on a particular way my heart was in my mouth used to say you felt very nervous or frightened

    about sth play it by ear deal with a situation by reacting as things happen rather than

    having a plan (right) from the word go (right) from the beginning to start/begin with at the beginning with open arms welcome sb in a very affectionate and enthusiastic way

    Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text:

    When I met my new boss, it wasnt exactly 1 ___. I didnt know what 2 ___ him really, and 3 ___, I just had to 4 ___. But were OK now.

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    My first host family are fantastic! We got on really well 5 ___ . They welcomed me 6 ___, and I 7 ___ almost immediately.

    I met my boyfriend on the Internet and I reckoned wed 8 ___. But as I was driving to meet him in person, 9 ___. He was lovely, though, and I 10 ___ his quirky sense of fun immediately.

    2.2.2. Replace the underlined word/phrases with another word/phrase that has the same meaning.

    1. Hows life? 2. They were very unwilling to leave. 3. She recognizes and is grateful for everything youve done. 4. In the beginning it was a difficult relationship. 5. He is prepared to take responsibility for what happened. 6. There is widespread admiration for what he has achieved. 7. Weve had good times and bad times in our relationship. 8. I had a tough time last year but things are improving now. 9. I like the situation as it is. 10. Because of the special connection parents have with their children, they often

    give up many important things for them.

    3. Business meetings

    3.1. Read the following text about meetings. Some of the underlined parts are correct; some have a mistake in them (a grammar mistake, a vocabulary mistake, a spelling mistake, a missing word, an unnecessary word, and inappropriateness in the context). Identify the mistakes and correct them.


    How can you know what is wrong? What should you do? Every time you have to solve such tasks: - read the sentences carefully and concentrate on spelling, the meaning of words, word order, agreement between subject and predicate, tenses, etc; - do not ignore logical meaning.

    Remember the tips! They are useful!

    Why are you presenting? This is the first thing that 1. you will need asking to ask yourself. Why are you presenting? Is 2. it there an important message to give or are you simply making up numbers? Are you looking 3. to rise raise your personal profile or are you standing in for someone who has dropped out? Are you comfortable 4. about with your subject matter or have you been given the topic of the presentation? If you have serious doubts now is the time to start 5. to consider considering if you need to be speaking or if you can start to change the topic of the presentation.

    Block out some time in your diary.

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    This is one of 6. the most commonly common mistakes that we see a lot of. For an important business presentation, we suggest 7. that you block out around 20 hours of your time. This is how much time it will take to do a good job - in research, planning and most importantly in rehearsing. 8. If you haven't got that much space in the diary then you will simply have to move something out, or you 9. will must have to work in evenings or weekends. This is what most of us end up doing.

    Your competitive advantage We have 10. sat in through thousands of business presentations - and many can be quite boring affairs. The one common factor that we see a lot is bullet points. These are 11. a very uneffective way of communicating. If there is only one piece of advice that you could follow from this site - it would be to use pictures rather than bullet points. Business research shows 12. that the chances of achieving your objectives increase from around 33% up to around 66%. And that is a major competitive advantage.

    Rehearsing This is an absolute must. You may be 13. quick-witted and like to ad lib, but I'll tell you one thing. Learn 14. your speech word with for word and you will be able to ad lib better! Remember the comedian Frankie Howard with his bumbling delivery - "ooh now where was I?" Every one of those remarks 15. was carefully scripted and practised for hours in front of a mirror.

    3.2. Fill in the gaps in the text below with the most appropriate words or phrases in the following box.

    irrelevant issues fall apart lifeblood more than enough all the way up to shapes and sizes on average any clear result evidence effective project coordination

    Business Meetings that Matter - it's Possible! Meetings come in all 1. ___. There are the everyday office meetings, board meetings, seminars 2. ___ major conferences. And meetings can now be face-to-face, teleconference, videoconference, or online via the Internet. And when is the last time you heard someone say, "Gee, we need to have more meetings."? There are 3. ___ meetings to go around these days, and for a good reason. Meetings are more important than ever. Modern workplaces are built on teams, sharing of ideas, and 4. ___.

    If communication is the 5. ___ of any organization, then meetings are the heart and mind. The place where we communicate our ideas, hash them out, share our passion for better or worse, develop new understandings and new directions. It's where deals can happen or 6. ___, where strategies are articulated and debated -- in short -- where we engage with others. That's what it's all about, people meeting with people.

    Survey results published by the Annenberg School of Communications at UCLA and the University of Minnesota's Training & Development Research Center show that executives 7. ___ spend 40%-50% of their working hours in business meetings. Further 8. ___ of the pervasiveness of meetings comes from a recent issue of Fast

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    Company magazine, where organizational psychologist Jon Ryburg says he advises corporate clients to provide twice as much meeting space as they did 20 years ago.

    How to Plan a Meeting Studies also point out a discouraging trend: Surveyed professionals agree that as much as 50% of that meeting time is unproductive and that up to 25% of meeting time is spent discussing 9. ___. Typically, they complain that meetings are too long, are scheduled without adequate time to prepare and end without 10. ___.

    3.3. Fill in the gaps in the following text with a word derived from the word given in brackets. (Remember the tips?)

    Most of us have been to seminars or conferences where we've left feeling inspired and 1. ___ (JUVENILE). But how many of us have ever left everyday meetings feeling the same way. Rarely, no doubt. The reason is that good seminars and conferences are organized precisely to engage us. Sadly, most office meetings are not.

    Believe it or not, meetings can and should be the most 2. ___ (INTEREST) and 3. ___ (PRODUCE) part of your day. And if you've ever been to a great conference or seminar, you already have seen some of the basic principles at work. These can be 4. ___ (SUMMARY) as:

    1) preparation 2) facilitation 3) inspiration 4) results Preparation means making sure your meeting has a clear, stated purpose, and an agenda. Participants are chosen carefully, invited in 5. ___ (PROFESSION) way and given sufficient prior information. Preparation also means attention to details including: room 6. ___ (BOOK), catering, a/v equipment, 7. ____ (MIND).

    Facilitation means that someone or a team is responsible for guiding the meeting, a plan for the meeting is reflected in the agenda and the facilitator (or chair) keeps things on time and on track. Inspiration is probably the most 8. ___ (LOOK) aspect of everyday meetings. All the attention to detail and process can push the opportunity for 9. ___ (SPONTANEOUS) and enthusiasm aside. Build in activites that engage participants, use strategies to generate discussion, or visual aids to grab attention.

    Results means that every meeting should be directed toward one or more 10. ___ (COME). Participants must feel that something has been accomplished, and they must see all of their meetings as part of the bigger strategy to involve them in the future of the organization. Achievements at one meeting should be recapped in the next, and so on.

    3.4. Vocabulary development Study the following phrases.

    forge ahead (with sth) make strong and steady progress with sth hold the floor speak during a discussion, especially for a long time so that

    nobody else can speak

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    in dribs and drabs gradually and in small amounts or numbers lay sth down officially state rules, principles, etc. that people must obey or

    follow leave sth hanging fail to make a definite decision or statement about sth ramble on (informal) speak about sth for a long time in a boring or

    confusing way run over continue for longer than planned rush into sth do something without thinking carefully about it first throw sth together make or produce sth in a hurry to the detriment of sth/sb resulting in harm or damage to sth/sb

    Use the phrases above to fill in the gaps in the following text.

    The chairperson may be responsible when a meeting goes badly. Heres why: - Participants are allowed to arrive 1 ___. - They dont know whats happening because the chairperson has 2 ___ the

    agenda at the last minute and hasnt 3 ___ clear rules for the conduct of the meeting.

    - Without firm guidance from the chair, one or two people may 4 ___ and 5 ___ for ages, and as a result, the meeting 6 ___ with nothing achieved.

    - Poor time management may mean people 7 ___ decisions, or that decisions are 8 ___.

    - One person at the meeting (often the chairperson) 9 ___ their own agenda, 10 ___ the meeting and the other participants.

    ATTENTION! Do not forget that any text should have an introductory part, a body and a conclusion. Each new idea should be approached in a distinct paragraph and illustrated by details and relevant examples. Short and clear sentences are always more convincing than the long but incoherent ones. Organise your paragraphs in a logical sequence. Consider who you are addressing and adopt the required register: formal or informal. Once you have decided on the register, be consistent! Pay attention to the length of your paper. If you write significantly more than 300 words, you might have referred to irrelevant aspects. If you write less, your paper might be incomplete.

    HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT 2 Write sentences of your own to illustrate the meaning of the phrases given in tasks 1.3 (page 28), 2.2.1 (page 30), and 3.4 (page 33). Deadline: 24 November

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    Students should be able to use the vocabulary under COMPANY STRUCTURE to communicate about:

    Business aims of companies Business activities of companies (according to the type of work they are involved with) Types of companies general characteristics Types of organisations by size Internal structure of companies Corporate culture

    acquisition noun [C,U] affiliate noun [C] agency noun [C] alliance noun [C] annual general meeting noun [C] associate adjective authority noun [C] blue chip company noun [C] branch noun [C] brokerage noun [C] bureau noun [C] buy sb out phrasal verb [M] chamber of commerce noun [C] clearing house noun [C] client noun [C] clientele group noun [S] Co. noun [U] commercial adjective consultancy noun Corp. noun [C] corporate adjective counterpart noun [C] daughter company noun [C] department noun [C] division noun [C] e-business noun [C, U] enterprise noun Est. adjective establishment noun [C] expand verb [I,T] family business noun [C] fellow noun [C] firm noun [C] franchise noun [C] head office group noun [C] human resources plural noun Incorporated adjective

    joint venture noun [C] make a takeover bid for sth manufacturers plural noun merger noun [C] monopoly noun [C or S] multinational noun [C] NGO noun [C] office noun [C, U] offshore adjective parent company noun [C] partnership noun personnel group noun [U] plc, PLC noun [C] position noun [C] private adjective proprietor noun [C] public company/corporation/enterprise noun [C] public utility noun [C] run a business verb [I] sister company noun [C] small business noun [C] spokesman noun [C] stakeholder society noun [C] status noun [U] strategic alliance noun [C] subordinate adjective subsidiary noun [C] SWOT noun [U] syndicate noun [C] tender noun [C] tertiary adjective trade verb [I, T] transact verb [T] FORMAL trust company noun [C] unlimited company noun [C] venture noun [C]

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    1. Types of Businesses

    1.1. Lead-in


    What makes a successful businessman/woman in your country?

    1.2. Reading Read the following text and fill in the gaps with ONE word. (Remember the tips?)

    Types of Companies under the Companies Act UK

    Legislation governing Companies The internal governance procedures and management, rights of shareholders and duties and responsibilities of company officers are governed 1 ___ the Companies Act 2 ___ 1985.

    Registering a Company To register a company, the required documents must be filed and certain conditions imposed by the Registrar of Companies satisfied. A certificate of incorporation will then be issued and the company brought 3 ___ existence. A companys first shareholders are subscribers and can be natural persons or other companies.

    Incorporation Documents The documents which must be filed include, importantly, the memorandum of association and the articles of association. The memorandum lists the company name, its objects, the country of its registered office, the liability of its shareholders and the share capital. The articles list the company regulations and rules 4 ___ the internal administration.

    After the certificate of incorporation is issued, the company is considered as registered and can commence trading. A public limited company must 5 ___ specific capital requirements before it can commence business. A private limited company requires only one member, whereas a public limited company requires a minimum of two.

    Classification of Companies The Companies Act broadly categorises companies as either public 6 ___ private companies. There are three categories of liability of the company shareholders, which refer to their liability for the companys debts if or when it enters liquidation:

    Shareholders' liability for companies limited by shares is limited to any amount still owing to the company for their shares. This is referred to as 'limited liability' and is

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    the 7 ___ popular form of company, as the directors and shareholders do not become personally liable for the debts and conduct of the company, except in special circumstances.

    For companies limited by guarantee, members liability is limited to their undertaking to pay certain sums on its winding 8 ___, and unlimited companies offer no protection to shareholders for company debts.

    Moving on from these basic models for shareholders' liability, the Companies Act permits incorporation of private companies limited by shares; public companies limited by shares; private companies limited by guarantee and private unlimited companies.

    Private Companies Private companies are defined by reference to public limited companies. All companies that are not public companies are private companies. A private company is not permitted to offer its shares to the public. Due 9 ___ the capitalisation requirements, the vehicle tends to be used for smaller businesses.

    Where a private company is limited by its shares, shareholders are liable to contribute to the assets any unpaid amount on shares issued to that shareholder. The nominal value of the shares, including premiums payable on subscription, determines the amount 10 ___ is payable. The memorandum of association has to be generally in the form prescribed by the Secretary of State.

    Where a private company is limited 11 ___ guarantee, shareholders will be liable to contribute to the assets of the company the amount required for payment of the companys debts and costs of winding up, up to the maximum set out in the memorandum. This is usually 1.

    Public Companies A public company must be limited by shares; the memorandum must explicitly state that 12 ___ is a public company. The name must end with public limited company or the abbreviation "PLC". The share capital must not be less 13 ___ 50,000. At least one-quarter of each shares nominal value and the whole of any premium on it must be paid before it can be allotted. If there are less than two shareholders of the company for more than six months, the single member will be jointly and severally liable with the company for its debts, thus limited liability protection 14 ___ be lost, as the company does not satisfy the requirements of the Act. The Stock Exchange may deal with the shares of a public company, or the Alternative Investment Market. Such companies are described as publicly quoted, publicly traded or listed companies.

    Unlimited Companies A member of such a company has no limit on their liability for a companys debts and obligations if it becomes insolvent. Shareholders may not 15 ___ sued by creditors, who must petition for the winding up of the company. Any share capital must be stated in the articles of association.

    Overseas Companies This is where the company has been incorporated 16 ___ than in Great Britain, though has an established business in Great Britain. The provision contained in the Act includes those concerning their constitution and officers and an address for

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    service within the jurisdiction, the preparation and delivery of accounts, and the registration of charges over property.

    The formation of a company for most trading enterprises means forming a company limited by shares.

    1.3. Vocabulary development 1.3.1. Match the following words from the text with the correct definitions:

    1. jurisdiction a. (legal) responsibility 2. partnership b. the right to use an official power to make legal

    decisions, or the area where this right exists 3. capital c. to use a particular amount of time for something,

    or give a pa