Survival and growth of alders (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Alnus incana (L.) Moench) on fly ash technosols at different substrate improvement

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Ecological Engineering 49 (2012) 35 40Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirectEcological Engineeringj ourna l ho me page: www.elsev ier .comSurviva (L.)Moenc strWojciech WoDepartment of , Pl. 31a r t i c lArticle history:Received 25 AReceived in reAccepted 10 AAvailable online 29 September 2012Keywords:Fly ashBiological stabilizationAldersAfforestationing fris oftbasedy ash (Central Poland). The research was conducted at 3 substrate variants: control with pure y ash (CFA), withaddition (3 dm3 in planting hole) lignite culm (CFA + L) and Miocene, acidic and carboniferous sands fromoverburden of Bechatw Lignite Mine (CFA + MS). Before putting the experience uniformly on the wholesurface sewage sludge (4 Mg ha1) mixed with grass seedling (200 kg ha1) and mineral fertilization (N 60, P 36 and K 36 kg ha1) were applied by hydroseeding. The results show the high adaptability ofalders for extremely hard site conditions on the landll ash. After 5 years of investigation the survival of1. IntroduGeneratproduces la(Haynes, 20it is mainlyrest is trans2009). The iin the adjactransported2008; Dellateristics of hcontent of h(Tripathi etacterized byorigin of coa CorresponE-mail add0925-8574/$ http://dx.doi.oblack alder was from 61% (at CFA + MS) to 88% (at CFA + L), and grey alder from 81% (at CFA + MS) to 87%(at CFA). Black alder was characterized by higher growth parameters (diameter growth d0 and height h)compare to grey alder. The best substrate for y ash enhancement was lignite culm. Therefore, if the goalof biological stabilization of y ash landll would be the greatest increase of tree biomass for examplefor energy plantations, the recommend solution for substrate improvement is using of lignite culm andBlack alder. However, the introduction of alders directly on the y ash using start up NPK fertilising andhydroseeding with seed sludge may be recommend mainly for economic reasons, especially when theintroduced alders are to have primarily protective and phytomelioration functions and thus prepare thesubstrate for the afforestation and next generation of target species. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.ctionion of electric power through the combustion of coalrge amounts of waste, of which 7075% is y ash09). Its use amounts to little more than 30% worldwide, utilised in the production of building materials, theported to various landlls (Asokan et al., 2005; Haynes,mpact of y ash landlls results in a number of changesent ecosystems as toxic substances are leached out and to the soil and groundwater (Juwarkar and Jambhulkar,ntonio et al., 2009; Haynes, 2009). Among the charac-aving an adverse impact on the environment, increasedeavy metals and radioactivity of ash are listed, as well al., 2004; Haynes, 2009). These properties are char- high variability, however, depending on the type andl burned in power plants (Haynes, 2009). Furthermore,ding author. Tel.: +48 12 6625302; fax: +48 12 4119715.ress: (M. Pietrzykowski).ash from landlls is susceptible to wind erosion as it remains sus-pended in the air for a long time and thus becomes a major sourceof pollution. This negatively affects the health of the local popula-tion, causing irritation of the upper respiratory tract and a numberof adverse health effects, including even lung cancer (Dellantonioet al., 2009; Pandey et al., 2009).The primary method of preventing erosion of ash landlls istechnical and biological surface stabilization. Sealing lids made ofbitumen emulsion, asphalt and other substances are used for tech-nical stabilisation. These methods are, however, very expensive.Biological stabilization of ash landlls consists mainly of plantingturf or trees after an earlier application of an insulating layer inthe form of fertile sediment (Junor, 1978; Carlson and Adriano,1991; Jusaitis and Pillman, 1997; Cheung et al., 2000; Cermk,2008; Haynes, 2009). The introduction of vegetation directly onthe ash, without the insulating layer, is however most advanta-geous due to low cost and labour input; it is also benecial forthe landscape and effective as anti-erosion protection (Gupta et al.,2002). The accumulation of heavy metals from y ash in trees canbe important to limit the migration of xenobiotics into the waters see front matter 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.rg/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.08.026l and growth of alders (Alnus glutinosa h) on y ash technosols at different sub Krzaklewski, Marcin Pietrzykowski , Bartomiej Forest Ecology, Forest Faculty, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. 29 Listopada 46 e i n f opril 2012vised form 18 July 2012ugust 2012a b s t r a c tDifculties in disposal of y ash resultconcern. Establishment of vegetation presents an evaluation of adaptation grey alder introduced on the landll / locate /eco leng Gaertn. and Alnus incana (L.)ate improvements-425 Krakow, Polandom coal combustion at electric power plants are of increasingen an effective means of stabilizing solid wastes. This paper on survival, growth and nitrogen supply of black alder andresulting from lignite combustion in Bechatw Power Plant36 W. Krzaklewski et al. / Ecological Engineering 49 (2012) 35 40and adjacent ecosystems (Tripathi et al., 2004; Gupta et al., 2007;Mal et al., 2010). The introduced vegetation is also an importantelement which initiates the processes of soil formation and theprocess of eindustrial snumerous including mwater ratioalmost comand in somTownsend, Pillman andcases such power statfuture. Thisof the site (on an artisoil horizonmethods ofrecreate soget tree speand chemiction it is alsto the condexperimentlowing speSilver Birchcacia L.), reL.), black al(Pietrzykowwas drawnangustifoliabuckthorn triacanthos of y ash lAmerica somsubstrate folike alders reported inAmerican sy ash afterAdriano, 19of the introthat they wmineral soiand DugganCermk, 20practice in asystem defthe surfaceis very impolater phaseis very expefore, at predirectly on The optiare highly dtion shouldpioneering Only after process is dairwater pents) shouas oaks) bealders (Alnucapability of atmospheric nitrogen xing by symbiotic bacteria ofgenus Frankia sp., they play an important phytomelioration role(Kuznetsova et al., 2010). papn of CH) t. In culm of tash wowthssess andteriaudy schatich b, in te 600 7.6999rrentconte usaste t of A oxio nopositcentstitutolental lciume ionss an intres, u010)scrip exption rt of , it g hafootorum 60 13stripere replg layf lignil samhe sps of ampcological succession on completely anthropogenic post-ites. Combustion waste deposited in landlls displaysproperties which are unfavourable for plant growth,ainly: high susceptibility to compaction, poor air and, excessively alkaline reaction, high EC variability, anplete absence of nitrogen and available phosphorus,e cases high content of heavy metals (Hodgson and1973; Adriano et al., 1980; Gray and Schwab, 1993; Jusaitis, 1997; Cermk, 2008; Haynes, 2009). In someas Lubien landll belonging to Bechatw ligniteion (Central Poland), afforestation is planned in the is a very challenging project due to the considerable sizeabout 440 ha) and the necessity to recreate soil directlycial substrate (y ash), without the use of a mineral. For these reasons it is necessary to develop effective biological stabilization and reforestation allowing toils in situ on substrate and then to introduce the tar-cies. This is possible primarily by improving physicalal properties of the deposited ash. In case of afforesta-o necessary to test the adaptability of trees and shrubsitions on y ash landlls. In Europe in the course ofs concerning tree planting of y ash landlls the fol-cies were introduced: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), (Betula pendula Roth), black locust (Robinia pseudoac-d oak (Quercus rubra L.), common oak (Quercus roburder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and willow (Salix sp.)ski et al., 2010; Cermk, 2008). In addition, attention to Nitrogen-xing tree species: silverberry (Elaeagnus L.), bladder senna (Colutea arborescens L.), common sea-(Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and honey locust (GleditsiaL.) which have fairly high tolerance to the conditionsandll (Hodgson and Townsend, 1973). In the Northe investigation on pulverized coal ash was tested as ar woody plant species, included Nitrogen-xing speciesand other like maples (Scanlon and Duggan, 1979). As literature sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciua L.) andycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) grew acceptably on coal burning, as well (McMinn et al., 1982; Carlson and91). Previous experiments show a satisfactory growthduced woody plants species, but it should be notedere conducted mostly after the ash was topped withl (Hodgson and Townsend, 1973; Junor, 1978; Scanlon, 1979; Carlson and Adriano, 1991; Cheung et al., 2000;08; Haynes, 2009; Pietrzykowski et al., 2010). Such addition to substantial costs also entails the risk of rootormation due to the fact that it develops primarily in horizons containing mineral soil (Cermk, 2008). Thisrtant for the stability of the introduced afforestation ins of development. As mentioned above this technologynsive, and stocks of more fertile soil are limited. There-sent, research is needed on the introduction of treesto the ash.mum method of afforesting post-industrial sites, whichifcult from the point of view of biological reclama- be to stimulate natural succession by introducing rstspecies which also have phytomelioration functions.habitats are prepared and the initial soil formationynamized by the pioneering species (improvement ofroperties, accumulation of organic matter and nutri-ld species with higher habitat requirements (such introduced. In Central Europe different species ofs sp.) have potential signicance as, owing to theirThisductioMOENbustion(lignitevicinityto the and grwere aspecies2. Ma2.1. StBell wh19 27)550 toaround(Wos, 1and cuwaste with thtion wcontencalciumerally dash dethe connot con1987; Sronmeand caof theshardneviouslyof slopet al., 22.2. DeThementathe stasurfaceof 4 MCocks-multiwith Ning 6 mbuffer alder w(with 4beddinlayer o2.3. SoIn tteristicEijkelker presents the results of experiments on the intro-alders (A. glutinosa (L.) GAERTN. and Alnus incana (L.)o a landll containing y ash generated by lignite com- the experiment, enhancing substrates were applied and Miocene acidic sands) available in the immediatehe site and a variant in which trees were introduced onith no insulating layer was also included. The survival rate of trees within 5 years of staring the experimented. This period is crucial for survival of introduced tree rst phase of biological and methodsitew power plant and Lubien combustion waste land-elongs to it are located in Central Poland (N 51 27; Emperate climate zone with precipitation ranging from mm annually and an average annual temperature of8 C. The vegetation period lasts from 210 to 218 days). The Lubien landll has been in operation since 1980ly takes up approximately 440 ha. of land. Combustionaining about 85% ash and 15% slag is deposited theree of hydro-transport. The main component of combus-are thermally processed aluminosilicates. The averagel2O3 and SiO2 compounds is from about 60 to 70%, andde CaO about 20%. The content of trace elements gen-t exceed the average reported for natural soils. In theed on the tested landll radioactivity determined byration of isotopes K40, Ra226 and Th228 is low and doeste a threat to the environment (Kobus and Ostrowicz,cki, 2005). In the case of landlls, Lubien adverse envi-impact is caused mainly by leaching sulfate, chloride, which in turn affects the growth of concentrationss, increased mineralization and increased the overalld alkalinization of ground water (Stolecki, 2005). Pre-oduction of vegetation was conducted mainly in partssing an insulating layer of mineral soil (Pietrzykowski.tion of the experimenteriment stared in September 2005 in a part of a sedi-tank at shelf set up between 2003 and 2004. Beforethe experiment and the planting of trees on the entirewas rst subject to hydro-seeding with seed sludge1 (dry mass) mixed with the seeds (200 kg ha1) of grass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium Lam.). Next NPK start up mineral fertilising was applied, P 36 and K 36 kg ha1. Afterwards 24 plots measur- m were laid out. They were separated using 2-m-wide. On the plots 50 seedlings each of black alder or greyplanted in holes of 40 cm 40 cm 40 cm in 3 variantsications for each variant): control (y ash CFA), with aer of Miocene acidic sand (CFA + MS) and with a beddingite culm (CFA + L).pling and laboratory testsring of 2006 in order to determine the output charac-the deposited substrate (y ash), a soil stick from an set was used to collect soil samples from 0 to 40 cmW. Krzaklewski et al. / Ecological Engineering 49 (2012) 35 40 37horizon and 16 points regularly distributed along the diagonalof the plot intended for the experiment; eventually four mixedsamples were made out of them. Additionally, one sample was col-lected fromacidic sand (Table 1).In 2008,erties of suCFA + MS, Csamples wewere regulaproximity tindividual pMixed ssample) to ples were dparametersratory prochydrometerpH was dettrical condusolution ratthermal conable acidityNa+, K+, Caform availa((CH3CHOH(by the Egndate blue coalkaline catacidity (Hh)elements (cdetermined60% HCl04 aet al., 1991)2.4. AssessmtreesIn each a percentagtrees introdan accuracyof 0.01 m (autumn of later based calculated ftionally, samdecient elfrom 5 treefrom the to1970). Nitro2000 (Ostr2.5. StatistiData setsgramme (Stvalues of bacharacteristvariants) (Tprocedure gated featuShapiroW Table1Some characteristics ofsubstratestestedinplot experiment ony ashlandll.Substrate pHEC(S cm1) Na+K+Ca2+Mg2+CECBS Nt P ZnCuPbCdCr(cmol(+) kg1) (%) (mg kg1)Sturtupcharacteristic9.57954.5 0.190.1243.86 0.9445.17 99.90 272.251.0557.822.310.10.8 19.9Acidicmiocene sand3.38255.0 0.460.2040.30.613.7455.84 317.0 1.4 0.7 4.7 3.2 0.0 9.0Lignite culm5.49162.0 26.17 2.301624.078.81 104.4784.92 4800.04.6 5.9 0.1 2.3 0.0 5.7Characteristics ofsubstratesafter 2 years ofinvestigationCFA7.93018a*493.2 156.0a0.130.04a0.120.02a59.92 17.77a0.820.23a61.50 18.06a99.06 0.27a526.8 162.9a8.6 6.4a45.06.4a20.33.3a17.42.1a0.9 0.3a18.43.7aCFA+ MS 7.890.16a478.8 141.5a0.120.03a0.110.03a52.38 17.20a0.780.17a53.98 17.46a98.70 0.48a472.3 152.4a9.7 8.0a45.86.6a17.33.2a16.52.3a1.0 0.3a17.53.0aCFA+ L 7.690.17a550.6 174.7a0.150.03a0.110.03a60.32 15.56a0.890.19a62.43 15.94a98.38 0.42a629.4 227.6a7.6 4.5a43.86.9a20.73.2a17.52.3a1.1 0.3a16.32.9a*MeanandSD; letters (a, b) indicate signicant differences betweenmeanvalues of propertiesofthe combinationofsubstratesafter 2 years ofinvestigations. each mixed enhanced substrate from piles (Mioceneand lignite culm) brought to the site for the experiment samples were collected again to determine the prop-bstrates formed after using the combination of (CFA,FA + L) from seeding holes. For this purpose, in each plot,re collected from 0 to 40 cm horizon in 5 points whichrly distributed along the diagonal of each plot in closeo tree root collar. 24 mixed samples representative oflots were selected from them.amples of technosols were taken (1.0 kg mass of freshdetermine basic soil properties. In the lab, soil sam-ried and sieved through a 2.0 mm sieve. The basic soil were determined in the soil samples using soil labo-edures: particle size distribution was determined by analysis method and sand fractions by sieving. Soilermined in 1 M KCl at a 1:2.5 soil:solution ratio; elec-ctivity (EC) by conductometric methods at a 1:5 soil:io with 21 C temperature; total nitrogen (Nt) using theductivity method with the Leco CNS 2000; exchange- (Hh) in 1 M Ca(OAc)2; basic exchangeable cations (Sh)2+, Mg2+ in 1 M NH4Ac by AAS; phosphorus (P) in able by plants was assayed in calcium lactate extractCOO)2Ca) acidied with hydrochloric acid to pH 3.6erRiehm method) and in total form using the molyb-lorimetric method. CEC was determined by the sum ofions (Sh) extractable in 1 N NH4OAc and exchangeable (Van Reeuwijk, 1995). The content of some metalliclose to the total forms): Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Cr were after digestion in the mixture of HNO3 (d = 1.40) andcid in 4:1 proportion, using the AAS method (Ostrowska.ent of survival, growth and nitrogen supply in theexperimental plot the survival rate was assessed (ase of live trees in comparison to the total number ofuced), diameter at root collar was measured (d0) with of 0.1 cm and height (h) of all trees with an accuracyTable 2). Tree measurements were conducted in thethe rst year (2006) and 5 years after planting (2011),on these measurements the current annual growth wasor tree collar diameter (d0) and height (h). Addi-ples of leaves to determine nitrogen content (the mainement in the ash substrate) were collected in autumn,s regularly distributed along the diagonal of each plot,p of the crown of the exposition SW (Baule and Fricker,gen content in leaves was determined using Leco CNSowska et al., 1991).cal procedures were statistically analyzed using the Statistica 9.1 pro-atSoft Inc., 2009). Signicant differences between meansic soil characteristics (Table 1), survival and growthics of alder sp. from differing groups (e.g. substrateable 2) were tested by RIR-Tukey multiple comparison(at p = 0.05). Distribution conformity of the investi-res was compared to normal distribution using theilk test. The average values of analyse characteristic for38 W. Krzaklewski et al. / Ecological Engineering 49 (2012) 35 40Table 2Survival and growth of alders at the different substrate variants.Species Variant Survival [%] d0 [cm] h [cm]2011 2006 2011Black Alder 5.17 1.52a 90.36 22.25b 302.61 80.14b4.81 1.67a 82.68 26.01a 251.36 86.52a5.92 1.80b 90.33 27.89b 349.87 81.45cGrey Alder 4.26 1.78a 76.94 22.70a 233.47 70.17a4.73 1.93b 77.81 22.60a 264.06 78.03b4.61 1.77ab 74.27 16.32a 258.00 76.71b* Mean and acteristics after 2 years on different substrate combination.substrate wance homog3. Results3.1. SubstraThe outpintroduced pH amountlow nitrogephosphoruscentration w10.1 mg kgThe prosubstrate inas well as tent (1.4 mThe conten0.7 mg kg19.0 mg kg1Lignite 5.49, EC ofof 4800 mg104.47 cmoconcentrati2.3 mg kg1Two yeaof the appequalised ato 550.6 S7.6 to 9.7 mfrom 98.38tion was reto 20.7 mg 1.1 mg kg13.2. AldersAfter 1 (CFA + MS) (CFA + MS) tof starting (CFA + MS) (CFA + MS) 3.3. AldersBlack aldthe experimant with adwere signihe ave 2006 yditionddeder growth (d0) in the 4-year period (autumn 2006springwas from 0.79 cm yr1 (CFA + MS) to 0.94 cm yr1 (CFA + L),ese differences were not statistically signicant (Fig. 1). The (h) of black alder on control plots (CFA) was on average cm which is considerably higher in comparison to the vari-th an addition of acidic sand (CFA + MS) (251.36 cm) anderably lower in comparison to the variant with an additionite culm (CFA + L) (349.87 cm) (Table 2). The average heighte (h) was from 33.50 (CFA + MS) to 53.63 cm yr1(CFA + L),ese differences were statistically signicant (Fig. 2).2006 2011 2006 CFA 82 5a* 76 11a 0.97 0.26aCFA + MS 73 6a 61 3a 0.98 0.28aCFA + L 93 4b 88 4b 1.23 0.36bCFA 91 4a 87 4a 1.04 0.32aCFA + MS 85 17a 81 20a 1.14 0.34bCFA + L 88 7a 82 13a 1.02 0.30a SD; letters (a, b) indicate signicant differences between mean values of trees charere compared using ANOVA preceded by Levens vari-eneity test.te characteristicsut properties of y ash were very unfavourable for thevegetation and tended to be a strongly alkaline withing to 9.57; hight EC with an average of 954.5 S cm1,n content (Nt) (272.25 mg kg1) and trace amounts of (P) (1.05 mg kg1). The content of heavy metals con-as respectively: Zn 57.8 mg kg1, Cu 22.3 mg kg1, Pb1, Cd 0.8 mg kg1 and Cr 19.9 mg kg1 (Table 1).perties of Miocene acidic sand used as an enhancingcluded acidity and pH of 3.38, EC of 255.0 S cm1low nitrogen (317.0 mg kg1) and phosphorus con-g kg1), CEC of 3.74 cmol(+) kg1, and BS of 55.84%.t of heavy metals concentration was respectively: Zn, Cu 4.7 mg kg1, Pb 3.2 mg kg1, Cd 0.0 mg kg1and Cr(Table 1).culm used as enhancing substrate exhibited pH of 162.0 S cm1, nitrogen content (mainly geogenic) kg1 and phosphorus content of 4.6 mg kg1, CEC ofl(+) kg1, and BS of 84.92%. The content of heavy metalson was respectively: Zn 5.9 mg kg1, Cu 0.1 mg kg1, Pb, Cd 0.0 mg kg1 and Cr 5.7 mg kg1 (Table 1).rs after the experiment was begun the propertieslied substrate combinations at tree root collar werend amounted to: pH from 7.69 to 7.93; EC from 478.8 cm1; Nt from 472.32 to 629.4 mg kg1 and P fromg kg1; CEC from 53.98 to 62.43 cmol(+) kg1, and BS to 99.06%. The content of heavy metals concentra-spectively: Zn from 43.8 to 45.8 mg kg1, Cu from 17.3kg1, Pb from 16.5 to 17.5 mg kg1, Cd from 0.9 toand Cr from 16.3 to 18.4 mg kg1 (Table 1). survivalyear of starting the experiment an average of 73%to 93% (CFA + L) black alder seedlings and from 85%o 91% (CFA) grey alder seedlings survived. After 5 yearsFig. 1. T(autumnCFA + MSculm adwith adiamet2011) and thheight302.61ant wiconsidof lignincreasand ththe experiment, black alder survival ranged from 61%to 88% (CFA + L), while the grey alder survival from 81%to 87% (CFA) (Table 2). growth parameterer root collar diameter (d0) after 5 years of setting upent on control plots (CFA) was 5.17 cm. In the vari-ded acidic sand (CFA + MS) it was 4.81 cm. These valuescantly lower than the ones obtained on the variantFig. 2. The av(autumn 2006CFA + MS yculm additionrage diameter growth (d0) of alders after 4-year vegetation periodsspring 2011) on the different substrate variants (CFA control; ash with acidic Miocene sand addition; CFA + L y ash with lignite). lignite culm (CFA + L) (5.92 cm) (Table 2). An averageerage height growth (d0) of alders after 4-year vegetation periodsspring 2011) on the different substrate variants (CFA control; ash with acidic Miocene sand addition; CFA + L y ash with lignite).W. Krzaklewski et al. / Ecological Engineering 49 (2012) 35 40 39Root collar diameter (d0) of grey alder on control plots (CFA)was 4.26 cm, which was considerably lower in comparison tovariants CFA + MS (4.73 cm) and CFA + L (4.61 cm) (Table 1). Theaverage diato 0.72 cm ynot statisticvariant wascomparisonheight incre(CFA + MS), (Fig. 2).3.4. NitrogeNitrogen25.73 g kg1to 29.11 g ktistically sigNitrogened betweevariant, thrCFA variant4. DiscussiIn biologthe selectioconditions (et al., 2002;2008; Juwa2009; Bilskature, this gBrassicaceaefamilies (Jumainly herbprotection. ash landllsof trees andplant growt(mainly N ato provide sform minerthrough hyApplicationering the palso their avmine. Miocthe mine ustend to have>0.5% and lodeposits aremine soils fand Haubolical stabilizlowering thsands. In thout of using(Kwiatkows2009). Lign(SOM) due tphysical procontent of nlignite and humic acid may improve y ash properties and growth conditionsof vegetation introduced to y ash landlls.Within 2 years of starting the experiment the properties ofliedith mplbseruch sudgete prost 9.6 tm 27 7.6meta doesabatta frc thrstioncombd diiantsatesexperther of aed blost s the high87% btainterizs: sedyl chuzneial anditio, or , espenimuis an o extfrom kg1cond011ineraing clus resusentt totainehowegoodn imsionst sur welld meter increase (d0) of grey alder was from 0.63 (CFA)r1 (CFA + MS and CFA + L), and these differences wereally signicant (Fig. 1). The height of grey alder in CFA on average 233.47 cm, which was considerably lower in to variant CFA + MS (264.06 cm) (Table 1). The averagease (h) was from 30.87 cm yr1 (CFA) to 36.37 cm yr1and these differences were not statistically signicantn supply (N) content in black alder leaves was on averagein CFA + MS variant, 28.55 g kg1 in CFA + L variant upg1 in CFA variant, and these differences were not sta-nicant. (N) content in grey alder leaves was poorly diversi-n the variants and ranged from 25.49 g kg1 in CFA + MSough 25.95 g kg1 in CFA + L variant to 26.08 g kg1 in.onical stabilization of y ash landlls the key issue isn of plant species with high tolerance to adverse siteCarlson and Adriano, 1991; Cheung et al., 2000; Gupta Pavlovic et al., 2004; Pietrzykowski et al., 2010; Cermk,rkar and Jambhulkar, 2008; Haynes, 2009; Pandey et al.,i et al., 2011). Based on experiments described in liter-roup includes rst of all the species belonging to the, Chenopodiaceae, Fabiaceae, Leguminoceae and Poaceaesaitis and Pillman, 1997; Pandey et al., 2009). They areaceous plants which may form turf and provide erosionIn the course of tree planting or afforestation of some it is important to recognize the adaptability potential shrubs. As already mentioned, the main factors limitingh in these conditions are primarily a decit of nutrientsnd P) and very high pH (Table 1). Therefore, in ordertart up doses of nutrients in extreme conditions, uni-al NPK fertilization was applied with initial stabilizationdroseeding with seed sludge uniformly on all surfaces. of the tested substrates was primarily aimed at low-H. The rationale for testing the above substrates wasailability in the vicinity of Bechatw opencast ligniteene acidic sands widely present in the overburden ofually have a high content of carbon and sulphur. They sulphur content higher >0.2%, geogenic carbon contentw pH values (even 40 W. Krzaklewski et al. / Ecological Engineering 49 (2012) 35 40survival rate was reported in the control plots where no enhancingagents were used (CFA). In this variant the smallest dimensionsof alders were reported (average root collar diameter d0, heighth, annual growth d0 and h) in comparison to other substratevariants (CFA + MS; CFA + L), where the assessed parameters werecomparable. Comparing the growth of the introduced alder speciesand the applied experimental variants it was found that the bestresults were obtained in the case of black alder in the variant usinglignite (CFA + L). This solution is important, e.g. when planningthe producpurposes, wClose proxiof this apprthe use of experimentthe y ash seed sludgeEspecially wspecies arefunctions, aspecies witAcknowledThe authrepresentinBechatwLasy Panstwaccess permMSc. from analyses. 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As follows from the conducteds, the introduction of two species of alders directly onusing start up NPK fertilising and hydroseeding with may be recommend mainly for economic reasons.hen one considers the fact that the introduced alder to have primarily protective and phytomeliorationnd thus prepare the substrate for the major and targeth higher habitat requirements (such as oaks).gementsors acknowledge and appreciate the efforts of partiesg mining rms: KWB Bechatw and Power Plant, and The State Forests National Forest Holding PGLowe, Forest Districts: Bechatw, who provided siteissions and assistance. Thanks to Iwona SkowronskaLab of Department of Forest Ecology for laboratoryis study was nancially supported by the Polish Min-nce and Higher Education in frame of DS 3420 KEkLrtment of Forest Ecology, Agricultural University ofage, A.L., Elseewi, A.A., Chang, A.C., Straughan, I., 1980. Utilization andf y ash and other coal residues in terrestrial ecosystems: a review. 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Biomass production and nutrient accumulationtation grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) plantation on abandonedl land. For. Ecol. Manage. 161 (13), 169179. L.P., 1995. Procedures for Soil Analysis, 5th ed. ISRIC, FAO, Wagenin-ical Paper 9. Polish Climate. PWN, Warsaw, pp. 1301 (in Polish).Survival and growth of alders (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Alnus incana (L.) Moench) on fly ash technosols at differe...1 Introduction2 Materials and methods2.1 Study site2.2 Description of the experiment2.3 Soil sampling and laboratory tests2.4 Assessment of survival, growth and nitrogen supply in the trees2.5 Statistical procedures3 Results3.1 Substrate characteristics3.2 Alders survival3.3 Alders growth parameter3.4 Nitrogen supply4 Discussion5 ConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferences


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