Survival and growth of alders (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Alnus incana (L.) Moench) on fly ash technosols at different substrate improvement

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  • Ecological Engineering 49 (2012) 35 40

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    Ecological Engineering

    j ourna l ho me page: www.elsev ier .com

    Surviva (L.)Moenc str

    Wojciech WoDepartment of , Pl. 31

    a r t i c l

    Article history:Received 25 AReceived in reAccepted 10 AAvailable online 29 September 2012

    Keywords:Fly ashBiological stabilizationAldersAfforestation

    ing fris oftbasedy ash

    (Central Poland). The research was conducted at 3 substrate variants: control with pure y ash (CFA), withaddition (3 dm3 in planting hole) lignite culm (CFA + L) and Miocene, acidic and carboniferous sands fromoverburden of Bechatw Lignite Mine (CFA + MS). Before putting the experience uniformly on the wholesurface sewage sludge (4 Mg ha1) mixed with grass seedling (200 kg ha1) and mineral fertilization (N 60, P 36 and K 36 kg ha1) were applied by hydroseeding. The results show the high adaptability ofalders for extremely hard site conditions on the landll ash. After 5 years of investigation the survival of

    1. Introdu

    Generatproduces la(Haynes, 20it is mainlyrest is trans2009). The iin the adjactransported2008; Dellateristics of hcontent of h(Tripathi etacterized byorigin of coa

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    0925-8574/$ http://dx.doi.oblack alder was from 61% (at CFA + MS) to 88% (at CFA + L), and grey alder from 81% (at CFA + MS) to 87%(at CFA). Black alder was characterized by higher growth parameters (diameter growth d0 and height h)compare to grey alder. The best substrate for y ash enhancement was lignite culm. Therefore, if the goalof biological stabilization of y ash landll would be the greatest increase of tree biomass for examplefor energy plantations, the recommend solution for substrate improvement is using of lignite culm andBlack alder. However, the introduction of alders directly on the y ash using start up NPK fertilising andhydroseeding with seed sludge may be recommend mainly for economic reasons, especially when theintroduced alders are to have primarily protective and phytomelioration functions and thus prepare thesubstrate for the afforestation and next generation of target species.

    2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    ction

    ion of electric power through the combustion of coalrge amounts of waste, of which 7075% is y ash09). Its use amounts to little more than 30% worldwide,

    utilised in the production of building materials, theported to various landlls (Asokan et al., 2005; Haynes,mpact of y ash landlls results in a number of changesent ecosystems as toxic substances are leached out and

    to the soil and groundwater (Juwarkar and Jambhulkar,ntonio et al., 2009; Haynes, 2009). Among the charac-aving an adverse impact on the environment, increasedeavy metals and radioactivity of ash are listed, as well

    al., 2004; Haynes, 2009). These properties are char- high variability, however, depending on the type andl burned in power plants (Haynes, 2009). Furthermore,

    ding author. Tel.: +48 12 6625302; fax: +48 12 4119715.ress: rlpietrz@cyf-kr.edu.pl (M. Pietrzykowski).

    ash from landlls is susceptible to wind erosion as it remains sus-pended in the air for a long time and thus becomes a major sourceof pollution. This negatively affects the health of the local popula-tion, causing irritation of the upper respiratory tract and a numberof adverse health effects, including even lung cancer (Dellantonioet al., 2009; Pandey et al., 2009).

    The primary method of preventing erosion of ash landlls istechnical and biological surface stabilization. Sealing lids made ofbitumen emulsion, asphalt and other substances are used for tech-nical stabilisation. These methods are, however, very expensive.Biological stabilization of ash landlls consists mainly of plantingturf or trees after an earlier application of an insulating layer inthe form of fertile sediment (Junor, 1978; Carlson and Adriano,1991; Jusaitis and Pillman, 1997; Cheung et al., 2000; Cermk,2008; Haynes, 2009). The introduction of vegetation directly onthe ash, without the insulating layer, is however most advanta-geous due to low cost and labour input; it is also benecial forthe landscape and effective as anti-erosion protection (Gupta et al.,2002). The accumulation of heavy metals from y ash in trees canbe important to limit the migration of xenobiotics into the waters

    see front matter 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.rg/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2012.08.026l and growth of alders (Alnus glutinosa h) on y ash technosols at different sub

    Krzaklewski, Marcin Pietrzykowski , Bartomiej Forest Ecology, Forest Faculty, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Al. 29 Listopada 46

    e i n f o

    pril 2012vised form 18 July 2012ugust 2012

    a b s t r a c t

    Difculties in disposal of y ash resultconcern. Establishment of vegetation presents an evaluation of adaptation grey alder introduced on the landll / locate /eco leng

    Gaertn. and Alnus incana (L.)ate improvement

    s-425 Krakow, Poland

    om coal combustion at electric power plants are of increasingen an effective means of stabilizing solid wastes. This paper

    on survival, growth and nitrogen supply of black alder andresulting from lignite combustion in Bechatw Power Plant

  • 36 W. Krzaklewski et al. / Ecological Engineering 49 (2012) 35 40

    and adjacent ecosystems (Tripathi et al., 2004; Gupta et al., 2007;Mal et al., 2010). The introduced vegetation is also an importantelement which initiates the processes of soil formation and theprocess of eindustrial snumerous including mwater ratioalmost comand in somTownsend, Pillman andcases such power statfuture. Thisof the site (on an artisoil horizonmethods ofrecreate soget tree speand chemiction it is alsto the condexperimentlowing speSilver Birchcacia L.), reL.), black al(Pietrzykowwas drawnangustifoliabuckthorn triacanthos of y ash lAmerica somsubstrate folike alders reported inAmerican sy ash afterAdriano, 19of the introthat they wmineral soiand DugganCermk, 20practice in asystem defthe surfaceis very impolater phaseis very expefore, at predirectly on

    The optiare highly dtion shouldpioneering Only after process is dairwater pents) shouas oaks) bealders (Alnu

    capability of atmospheric nitrogen xing by symbiotic bacteria ofgenus Frankia sp., they play an important phytomelioration role(Kuznetsova et al., 2010).

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    he sps of ampcological succession on completely anthropogenic post-ites. Combustion waste deposited in landlls displaysproperties which are unfavourable for plant growth,ainly: high susceptibility to compaction, poor air and, excessively alkaline reaction, high EC variability, anplete absence of nitrogen and available phosphorus,e cases high content of heavy metals (Hodgson and1973; Adriano et al., 1980; Gray and Schwab, 1993;

    Jusaitis, 1997; Cermk, 2008; Haynes, 2009). In someas Lubien landll belonging to Bechatw lignite

    ion (Central Poland), afforestation is planned in the is a very challenging project due to the considerable sizeabout 440 ha) and the necessity to recreate soil directlycial substrate (y ash), without the use of a mineral. For these reasons it is necessary to develop effective

    biological stabilization and reforestation allowing toils in situ on substrate and then to introduce the tar-cies. This is possible primarily by improving physicalal properties of the deposited ash. In case of afforesta-o necessary to test the adaptability of trees and shrubsitions on y ash landlls. In Europe in the course ofs concerning tree planting of y ash landlls the fol-cies were introduced: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.),

    (Betula pendula Roth), black locust (Robinia pseudoac-d oak (Quercus rubra L.), common oak (Quercus roburder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and willow (Salix sp.)ski et al., 2010; Cermk, 2008). In addition, attention

    to Nitrogen-xing tree species: silverberry (Elaeagnus L.), bladder senna (Colutea arborescens L.), common sea-(Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and honey locust (GleditsiaL.) which have fairly high tolerance to the conditionsandll (Hodgson and Townsend, 1973). In the North

    e investigation on pulverized coal ash was tested as ar woody plant species, included Nitrogen-xing speciesand other like maples (Scanlon and Duggan, 1979). As

    literature sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciua L.) andycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) grew acceptably on

    coal burning, as well (McMinn et al., 1982; Carlson and91). Previous experiments show a satisfactory growthduced woody plants species, but it should be notedere conducted mostly after the ash was topped withl (Hodgson and Townsend, 1973; Junor, 1978; Scanlon, 1979; Carlson and Adriano, 1991; Cheung et al., 2000;08; Haynes, 2009; Pietrzykowski et al., 2010). Such addition to substantial costs also entails the risk of root

    ormation due to the fact that it develops primarily in horizons containing mineral soil (Cermk, 2008). Thisrtant for the stability of the introduced afforestation in

    s of development. As mentioned above this technologynsive, and stocks of more fertile soil are limited. There-sent, research is needed on the introduction of treesto the ash.mum method of afforesting post-in