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  • Supplement to: Volker, Beate. 2017. ”Revisiting Broken Windows: The Role of Neighborhood and Individual Charac- teristics in Reaction to Disorder Cues” Sociological Science 4: 528-551.

    1

    Supplementary Materials Appendix 1 Table A1.1: Overview of field experiments by Keizer et al. (2008/2013)

    Experiment Conditions Behavior under study N

    Occurrence of behavior under study (%)

    20 13

    Fallen letter close to mailbox

    Order Clean surroundings Posting the letter 136 individuals 24

    Disorder Litter around mailbox 140 individuals 10

    Fallen bicycle

    Order1 Clean surroundings

    Picking up bike

    66 individuals/ 20

    26 groups 27

    Order2 Clean surroundings + respectful confederates 56 individuals 34

    43 groups 35

    Disorder Garbage bags near bike 77 individuals 6 21 groups 5

    Fallen oranges

    Order1 Clean environment

    Helping

    50 individuals 40

    Order2 = Order1 plus confederate picked up lost can

    56 individuals 64

    Order3 = Order2 plus confederate sweeping street

    61 individuals 82

    20 08

    Flyers on bike Order No graffiti

    Littering 77 individuals 77 individuals

    33

    Disorder Graffiti 69

    No trespassing sign

    Order Only sign

    Taking another route

    44 individuals 27

    Disorder

    Additional sign (“no bikes”), with bike attached to fence

    49 individuals 82

    Parking garage

    Order Without shopping cart Littering

    60 individuals 30

    Disorder With unreturned shopping cart 60 individuals 58

    Fireworks Order No sound of fireworks Littering 50 individuals 52 Disorder Sound of fireworks 46 individuals 80 Envelope with 5 Euros visible

    Order Clean environment Stealing 70 individuals 13 Disorder Littered environment 60 individuals 27

    S1

  • Volker Revisiting Broken Windows

    2

    Appendix 2: Sample observer sheet: Passenger Individual

    (0)/ Group (1)

    Sex Age cat

    Foreign appearance

    Noticed letter

    Other- regarding behavior

    1 1 Mixed 4 0 1 1 2 0 male 5 0 1 0 3 1 females 1-3 1 0 4 5 ….

    sociological science | www.sociologicalscience.com S2 October 2017 | Volume 4

  • Volker Revisiting Broken Windows

    3

    Appendix 3: Example photographs from experimental setup

    Figure 1 Order condition letter experiment

    Figure 2 Disorder condition letter experiment

    sociological science | www.sociologicalscience.com S3 October 2017 | Volume 4

  • Volker Revisiting Broken Windows

    4

    Appendix 4: Description of key variables Table A4.1: Individual level variable (n=12528)

    Frequency (n) % Experimental condition

    Order 6280 55.45555555550.1 50.1 Disorder 6248 49.9 Type of experiment

    Letter 9620 76,8 Bike 2482 19.8 Money 426 3.4 Observed individual characteristics Women 5787 46,2 Men 5959 47,2 Mixed group 782 6,2 Looks like migrant 3545 28.3 Age

    Up to 25 1950 15.6 26-35 2849 22.7 36-45 2901 23.2 46-55 2439 19.5 56-65 1541 12.3 65+ 848 6.8 Group

    2793

    22.3

    Table A4.2: Neighborhood level variables (n=33, source: Statistics Netherlands) Variable Average % Range

    % owned property

    32,98

    5,00-73,50

    % non-Western migrants 35,20 5,64-85,50 Residential fluctuation 118,2 90,00-137,80

    % married 27,06 14,50-40,74

    % elderly (65+) 12,52 7,00-39,50

    Neighborhood status -.806 -5,25-1,88

    sociological science | www.sociologicalscience.com S4 October 2017 | Volume 4