Summer Internship at IIT Hyderabad
One-month Summer Internship organized by
TEQIP – III held at IIT Hyderabad
Name: - Kislay Kumar
Course: - Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech)
Branch: - Mechanical Engineering (M.E)
College Name: - Bhagalpur College of Engineering
Bhagalpur, Bihar - 813210
Faculty Advisor: - Dr. Pankaj S. Kolhe (Associate Professor)
(Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering)
Guide Advisor: - Abinash Biswal (Ph.D. Research Scholar)
(Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering)
Topic: - Testing Performance of SI Engine on Alternative Fuels
and Spray Characterisation for GDI mode.
Topic: - Testing Performance of Spark Ignition(SI) Engine on
Alternative Fuels and Spray characterization for Gasoline Direct
With depleting conventional source of energy, exhausting petroleum
deposits there is an ever increasing demand for alternative sources
of energy which are required to be renewable and less polluting and
at same time more efficient. There is a continuous battle between the
improving technology. So various researches and experiments are
proceeding to check their Spray characterisation and Performance,
Emission & Combustion characteristics of various alternative fuels
for Internal Combustion (IC) Engine.
In Spark Ignition (SI) Engine, fuels such as Lemon Peel Oil (LPO), Iso-
octane, blend of iso-octane & ethanol and blend of LPO & ethanol, etc.
are used for spray characterisation for autonomous. Fuels such as
Methanol, Ethanol, CNG, hydrogen and gaseous fuel, etc. are used for
testing Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics
should possess certain qualities to run the engine smoothly with
Alternative Fuels are biodegradable, renewable fuel and their
physical properties are quite more effective for testing performance
and spray characterisation.
With the experiments such as Spray Characterisation for Gasoline
Direct Injection (GDI) mode at Elevated pressure and temperature
conditions with constant volume combustion chamber and Testing
Performance on alternative fuels with PFI Injector, and constant
volume spray chamber to check their various properties which affect
the smooth running of IC engine and their efficiency.
GDI is a new trend in SI engine technology. Charge cooling, lower
oxides of nitrogen, higher compression ratio are the advantages of
GDI over conventional PFI. Fuel Spray understanding of GDI injector
plays an important role in engine operation.
In Spray Characterisation of GDI at elevated pressure and
temperature conditions is carried out through Gasoline Direct
Injection (GDI) Injector with the help of constant volume combustion
chamber and with fuel pump and injection control unit.
Materials and methods which are used in spray characterisation are
as follows: -
Constant volume combustion chamber: -
Idea is to mimic engine like pressure and temperature conditions and
study the behaviour of different fuels.
Elevated pressure and temperature created by using the pre-
combustion of air and acetylene.
Constant volume combustion chamber
Image Capture and Image Processing
Parameters like liquid and vapour penetration are studied.
Schlieren Shadowgraphy detects vapour, Mie Scattering gives liquid.
Image Processing done in MATLAB to detect the boundary of spray.
Phantom Control Camera
MATLAB for image processing through liquid penetration programme
For Liquid, Mie Scattering Set up is given below: -
Mie Scattering Setup
Image Processing in MATLAB for both process
In Testing Performance of SI engine on alternative fuels, the
experiments were carried out on conventional Port Fuel
Injection(PFI) Injector using ethanol/butanol – gasoline blend as the
test fuel and gasoline as the base fuel and without any modification
of the engine component.
Here are some diagrams, how the Port Fuel Injection (PFI) mode is
different with Gasoline Direct Injection(GDI). Given below: -
Port Fuel Injection VS Gasoline Direct Injection
The Engine Performance Characteristics with different ethanol/
butanol gasoline blends vary with the blend ratio. The Exhaust Gas
Analyser is used to measure the pollutants present in the fuel
which are injected through PFI injector. The percentage of
impurities decide the performance characteristics of SI engine. The
emission of carbon dioxide indicates the combustion of air fuel
mixture. The availability of carbon monoxide indicates the
incomplete combustion which shows the poor performance
characteristics as it affects the efficiency of engine.
In PFI injection mode for testing performance characteristics of SI
engine, fuel is injected with air mixture during the combustion
stroke of engine. During the exhaust stroke, the emission of
pollutants decides its performance characteristics and efficiency of
The schematic diagram of Port Fuel Injector and experimental setup
Process of injecting Fuel in Four Stroke Engine
Experimental setup for testing performance characteristics of SI engine