Sud Chemie Catalysts

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<p>Future Perspectives</p> <p>Content</p> <p>Page</p> <p>Introduction Feed Purication ActiSorb Catalyst Series Acidic Catalysts (K-Catalysts) Zeolites Catalysts for the Petrochemical Industry Catalysts for the Production of Chemicals Catalysts for the Oil Renery Industry Air Purication Reduction of Iron Ore, Production of Towngas, Inert &amp; Support Material Custom Catalysts la Carte Catalysts Fuel Cell Technologies Research and Development Service and Performance Guarantees Catalyst Index and Contact Details</p> <p>4 12 26 30 34 48 80 102 110 114 118 122 126 130</p> <p>Introduction IntroductionCreating masterpieces for high performanceOur catalysts are created according to our performance technology philosophy. Crafting state-of-the-art catalyst solutions is like creating a piece of art. Whether it is produced for rening, chemical, petrochemical or environmental solutions, our catalysts vary in shape, colour and formulations to suit your needs but they are always avant-garde to offer you the highest performance.</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>The History of Sd-Chemie The BeginningSd-Chemies initial operations were launched in 1857 by one of the worlds leading chemists of the time, Justus von Liebig. The Munich-based company began producing mineral fertilisers in 1906. It subsequently branched out into the chemistry of surface reactions, producing highly active bleaching earth. In 1959, a joint venture with Girdler Catalyst in Louisville, Kentucky, was formed. Production of Girdler catalysts in Germany started in 1961.</p> <p>Going GlobalAfter 15 years of partnership, Sd-Chemie took over Girdler Catalysts operations in their entirety, including the companys share in the Japanese Nissan Girdler Catalyst (NGC). In 1976, Sd-Chemie acquired the Louisville-based Catalyst and Chemicals Inc. (CCI), including partnerships with CCIL, India and CCIFE, Japan. US Girdler and CCI catalyst operations were then merged to form United Catalyst Inc. (UCI). In the Asia-Pacic region, production of CCI catalysts for Indonesia has been handled by PT-Kujang United Catalysts since the mid-eighties. In 1981, African Catalyst started manufacturing oligomerisation catalysts in Sasolburg, South Africa. Sd-Chemie has been producing zeolite catalysts via Syncat/SC Zeolites in South Africa since 1991. In 1990, Sd-Chemie purchased Houdry process and catalyst manufacturing technology operations from Air Product and Chemical Inc., USA. The Houdry process is used for dehydrogenation in the production of octane boosters, and for dealkylation in the production of pentene. Today, process technology is handled by ABB Lummus Global Inc.</p> <p>6</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>In 1997, Sd-Chemie acquired the Italian Montecatini Technology, which was to continue under the new name of Sd-Chemie MT S.r.l. The companys catalysts are mainly used for oxychlorination in uid or xed-bed operation and in the production of terephthalic acid for PET, resins and polyester bres. Sd-Chemie acquired Prototec Inc., USA in 1992, with a view to expanding its operations in the environmental sector. Prototec specialises in catalysts and equipment for air purication in food preparation and other industries. Today, Sd-Chemies environmental solutions include catalysts for virtually all types of air and gas purication. In 2003, Sd-Chemie acquired Scientic Design, Little Ferry, USA, as part of a joint venture with the major Saudi Arabian manufacturer SABIC. Scientic Design specialises in processes involved in the production of ethylene oxide. The global identity of all of these companies is reected in the common name and slogan: Sd-Chemie Creating Performance Technology </p> <p>7</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Shapes make the DifferenceAll of Sd-Chemies catalysts are available in a wide variety of different shapes and sizes, so that the user can always select the optimum catalytic technology to suit his needs. There are basically two different types of catalyst:</p> <p> Precipitated catalysts Carrier catalystsPrecipitated catalysts are of identical chemical composition throughout the entire particle, whereas in a carrier catalyst, the active component is impregnated on an inert carrier.</p> <p>Typical shapes include: Tablets Rings Ribbed rings Multiholed rings Extrusions Pellets Spheres Monolithic structures Saddles Foams (ceramic and metallic) Wire mesh Wall ow lters Fibre mats Screens Flakes Granules Powder</p> <p>8</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>TabletsA variety of tablet sizes can be produced, depending on the catalyst formulation and the intended application. The most common sizes range from 3 x 3 mm to 9 x 9 mm. Most of our tablets are domed, ensuring less dust formation thanks to more stable edges and a more uniform and dense loading. Smaller tablets generally have greater activity, but a higher pressure drop.</p> <p>ExtrusionsExtrusion is the preferred method for precipitated catalysts. The key types of extrusions are:</p> <p> Plain extrusion Ribbed extrusion TRIAX extrusion CDS extrusionCDS extrusion creates the most sophisticated extruded shape. CDS stands for Computer Designed Shape, and represents an optimum combination of physical strength, activity, poison resistance and pressure drop. For this reason, Sd-Chemie offers a wide range of catalysts in this shape.</p> <p>9</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>RingsRings are the ideal shape for carrier catalysts. The carrier is a strong inert material in a wide variety of ring shapes, such as:</p> <p> Raschig ring Ribbed ring (RR) 3-holed ring (THS) 6-holed ring (gutling gun, GG) 10-holed ring (low differential pressure, LDP shape) Spoked-wheel (EW shape)</p> <p>SpheresSpherical catalysts can include both palletised and tabletted, precipitated and carrier catalysts. They can be as small as 1 mm and as large as 75 mm.</p> <p>Honeycombs and FoamsWhere an application is sensitive to pressure drop, as is the case for ambient pressure operations, or where a high space velocity is needed, honeycombs and foams - whether ceramic or metallic - are the optimum shape. Honeycombs and similar shapes form the basis of almost all catalysts used for air purication and for the reformer upstream of fuel cells.</p> <p>10</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Other ShapesSome catalysts are available in the form of akes or irregular granules. For application in a uidised bed or in liquid phase, powder is the ideal shape. Please note that the shapes and sizes listed in this catalogue represent the standard for the respective product. Please contact our sales division for information on non-standard dimensions.</p> <p>Reduced and Stabilised CatalystsMost catalysts consist of one or more metal oxides. Most of Sd-Chemies catalysts can be supplied in any of the following formats:</p> <p> oxidic reduced and dry stabilised (RS version) reduced and submerged in an organic liquid (R version)</p> <p>The RS and R versions are safe to transport and ready to use with only a short start-up time.</p> <p>11</p> <p>Feed Purication IntroductionPure and clearJust like old master pieces brilliance and clarity come from the nest and purest selection of materials. Just like your feeds only with Sd-Chemie catalysts will you be able to create the valueadded position resulting from high performance products.</p> <p>Feed Purication</p> <p>ActiSorb Catalyst SeriesSd-Chemie developed the ActiSorb series of catalysts and adsorbents for the purication of almost all hydrocarbon feedstocks. This purication is normally a combination of a reaction using a pre-treatment catalyst, i.e. hydrogenation, followed by adsorption with the ActiSorb adsorbent. The following table gives a general overview of the different families of ActiSorb materials.</p> <p>Silica Compounds</p> <p>Organic Chlorides</p> <p>Organic Nitrogen</p> <p>Organic Fluorine</p> <p>Organic Sulfur</p> <p>Heavy Metals</p> <p>Thiophens</p> <p>HCN</p> <p>COS</p> <p>ActiSorb S ActiSorb CI ActiSorb F ActiSorb Hg ActiSorb 300 ActiSorb Si ActiSorb O ActiSorb N Tonsil APT-N G-92D</p> <p>14</p> <p>H 2O</p> <p>NH3</p> <p>PH3</p> <p>H 2S</p> <p>HCI</p> <p>HF</p> <p>O2</p> <p>Feed Purication</p> <p>Sulphur RemovalSulphur in the form of organic compounds can be removed either as such or by hydrogenation to H2S followed by adsorption of the latter. The ActiSorb S 7 catalyst is recommended for the removal of H2S, mercaptans, disulphides and thiophens in hydrocarbon feedstreams, ranging from naphtha to middle distillates. The achieved purity is less than 0.1 ppm wt. sulphur.ActiSorb S 7Nominal Content [wt.%] NiO Binder Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>66 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5</p> <p>HydrodesulphurisationThe standard catalysts for the hydrogenation of organic sulphur compounds in hydrocarbon feedstocks are the cobalt-molybdenumtype catalysts from the HDMax 200 series. These catalysts are used in both liquid and gas phase for all types of hydrocarbons, such as naphtha, LPG, natural gas and off-gases. For the hydrogenation of organic nitrogen compounds and/or olen saturation, our nickel-molybdenum-based HDMax 310 catalyst is recommended.HDMax 200Nominal Content [wt.%] CoO NiO MoO3 Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>HDMax 310 36 10 25 Balance CDS Extrusions TRIAX Extrusions 2.5 3</p> <p>35 13 21 Balance CDS Extrusions TRIAX Extrusions 2.5 3</p> <p>15</p> <p>Feed Purication</p> <p>H2S RemovalThe ActiSorb S series of ZnO based adsorbents is used for the removal of sulphur components such as hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans and COS from hydrocarbon feedstreams. ActiSorb S 2 is the perfect solution when operating at high space velocities and elevated temperatures, while ActiSorb S 3 is recommended in applications with lower space velocities and higher inlet sulphur concentrations. The maximum bulk density catalyst ActiSorb S 1 is ideal in applications where the feed contains high inlet sulphur concentrations, and where maximum sulphur pick-up per loaded unit volume is required.ActiSorb S 1Nominal Content [wt.%] ZnO Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>ActiSorb S 2 90 Balance Extrusions 4.5</p> <p>ActiSorb S 3 90 Balance Extrusions 4.5</p> <p>100 Extrusions 4.5</p> <p>In some cases, it is necessary to remove the sulphur to a level below 10 ppb H2S. ActiSorb S 6, a copper-promoted zinc oxide, is placed in the bottom of the standard zinc oxide reactor and removes the remaining H2S to a value &lt; 10 ppb H2S under a wide range of operating conditions.ActiSorb S 6Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO Al2O3 Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>Proprietary Proprietary Balance Tablets 6x3</p> <p>16</p> <p>Feed Purication</p> <p>Desulphurisation of natural gas and light hydrocarbon feedstocks is also possible under ambient conditions using activated carbon. G-32J is coconut-shell-based and promoted with copper oxide. It should be noted that propane and C4+ hydrocarbons are absorbed by the activated carbon, thereby minimising the sulphur pickup capability of G-32J.G-32JNominal Content [wt.%] CuO Activated Carbon Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>6 Balance Granules 1 5 and 0.5 1</p> <p>Purication of natural gas containing low concentrations of total sulphur can also be performed by ActiSorb G 1, a promoted ZnO catalyst. Simultaneous hydrodesulphurisation and H2S pick-up is a feature unique to ActiSorb G 1. Even when saturated, the ActiSorb G 1 catalyst fully retains its hydrogenation capabilities.ActiSorb G 1Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO MoO3 ZnO + Binder Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>1.5 3.5 Balance Extrusions 4.5</p> <p>17</p> <p>Feed Purication</p> <p>COS HydrolysisThe ActiSorb 410 catalyst selectively promotes the simultaneous hydrolysis of COS and hydrogenation of CS2. HCN is also hydrolysed. The high selectivity of ActiSorb 410 means that process gases with very high CO concentrations can be treated. The feed to the COS hydrolysis reactor usually contains nickel and iron carbonyls. These carbonyls decompose on the ActiSorb 410 catalyst into CO and the respective metals, leading to deactivation of the ActiSorb 410 catalyst. It is therefore necessary to install a guard reactor with ActiSorb 400 to decompose any traces of metal carbonyls selectively on the guard catalyst.ActiSorb 400Nominal Content [wt.%] Cr2O3 K2O AI2O3 SiO2 Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>ActiSorb 410 11 6 Balance Tablets 4.5 x 4.5</p> <p>16 Balance Spheres 5</p> <p>COS and Arsine RemovalRenery feeds and C3 streams from steam crackers often contain both COS and AsH3, and sometimes PH3 traces. CuO catalysts such as ActiSorb 300 and ActiSorb 310 are currently used with great success, mainly to purify propylene. Absorption of poisons can be accomplished in either the gas or liquid phase. The product purity achieved is normally below the detectable limit. As a result, the selective hydrogenation catalyst installed downstream is perfectly protected and can pursue its basic activity and selectivity. The consumption of polymerisation catalysts is drastically reduced with a poison guard. Feed polishing prior to polymerisation is therefore extremely valuable for downstream operations.</p> <p>18</p> <p>Feed Purication</p> <p>ActiSorb 300Nominal Content [wt.%] CuO ZnO MnO2 AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>ActiSorb 301 53 27 Balance Extrusions 3</p> <p>ActiSorb 310 16 25 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5</p> <p>41 41 Balance Tablets 4.8 x 3.2</p> <p>Chlorine RemovalSd-Chemie offers a range of adsorbents for the removal of HCl, ammonium chlorides and organic chlorine compounds, depending on the hydrocarbon feedstock and operating conditions. ActiSorb Cl 2 and ActiSorb Cl 6 are used for liquid phase applications, while ActiSorb Cl 2 and ActiSorb Cl 3 adsorbents are recommended in the gas phase.ActiSorb CI 2Nominal Content [wt.%] Na2O ZnO Promoter Binder AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>ActiSorb CI 3 40 40 Balance Pellets 4.8</p> <p>ActiSorb CI 6 48 25 Balance CDS Extrusions 1.5</p> <p>7 Balance Spheres 35</p> <p>Fluorine RemovalActiSorb F adsorbs organic uorine compounds and HF in hydrocarbon feedstocks.ActiSorb FNominal Content [wt.%] Na2O AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>0.3 Balance Spheres 35</p> <p>19</p> <p>Feed Purication</p> <p>Metal Removal Mercury RemovalThe catalysts of the ActiSorb Hg series absorb traces of mercury from all types of feed to non-detectable levels. ActiSorb Hg catalysts are used for Hg removal from:</p> <p> Natural gas LPG Mercury ore furnace gas Incinerator vent gas Vent streams from laboratories Off-gases in manufacture of electrical devices and operation of power plants</p> <p>The ActiSorb Hg 1 catalysts are extremely effective in removing Hg in chlorine plants, and purifying hydrogen given off as a by-product in sodium amalgam decomposition and cell room ventilation air.ActiSorb Hg 1Nominal Content [wt.%] S Activated Carbon Shape</p> <p>ActiSorb Hg 2 15 Balance Granules</p> <p>10 Balance Granules ActiSorb Hg 5</p> <p>Nominal Content [wt.%] Ag AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>6 Balance Spheres 24</p> <p>20</p> <p>Feed Purication</p> <p>Silica RemovalActiSorb Si is a specially promoted alumina which is designed to remove silicon-based antifoaming agents from hydrocarbon feeds.ActiSorb SiNominal Content [wt.%] Na2O AI2O3 Shape Size [mm]</p> <p>0.3 Balance Spheres 35</p> <p>CO RemovalVarious feed-streams contain CO in concentrations of several ppm up to one percent, which has to be removed to levels below 10 ppb. The type of catalyst is chosen according to the feed, e.g. Ni catalysts to methanate CO in hydrogen streams and CuO-catalysts to remove CO from ethylene and nitro...</p>