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Subject Index ABC model 255 abscisic acid (ABA) 21,22,26,27 -- in guard cell compartments 50 -- leaf epidermis 45-47 -- membrane permeability 45-47 -- metabolism 45-47 Acacia 343 - eocarribbeanensis 275 Acanthamoeba castellanii 301 Acarospora 320 Acarosporaceae 313,325 Acer rubrum 339 Acetabularia 54,69,70 7-0-acetyl-salutardinol ·120,121 Achlya 59 - bisexualis 301 acid invertase activity 150 acidification, cellular 26 Aconitum napellus 378 Acourtia runcinata 385 Acremonium psychrophilum 330 actin 68,71 - filaments 58,69,75,160 - (myosin interaction 159 Actinidia deliciosa 376,397 Adelococcaceae 330 Adelococcus 330 Adiantum 69,74-76,78 - capillus-veneris 73 Aegilops ventricosa 178 Aerangis ellisii 369 aerenchyma formation 24 Aethelia bombacina 301 Agapanthus 60,61 Agonimiella 321 Agraulis vanillae 385 Agrobacterium 183,189,229 - tumefaciens 177 air pollution 328 Ajuga 162 alcohol dehydrogenase 25 Alectoria sarmentosa 326 alga(e), molecular phylogenetics 284-288 - plastid phylogeny 288-298 - red 202 - systematics and evolution 281-305 algal lineages, phylogeny 298-305 alkaloids, benzylisoquinoline 114-135 - cularine-type 123-125 - morphinan-type 118-121 - protoberberine 126-129 Allium cepa 375 - jistulosum 375 Alnus 326 Aloe littoralis 375 Alternaria alternata 237 Alveolates 304 Amandinea 320 - petermannii 313 Amaranthus hybridus 207 Amazonian region 9 ammonium assimilation 100 ammonium uptake 93-110 -- high affinity transport system 96 -- induction 96 -- linear component 96 - - mechanisms 96 -- saturable mechanisms 96 amplification of genes 173 Amylora 320 Anabaena 293 Anacardium occidentale 374 anaerobic polypeptides 25 analysis of single-strand conformation polymorphisms 210 Anastrabe integerrima 376 Anaxagorea 269 Anchusa strigosa 377 Andrena bicolor 373 Anemone debilis 403 Anemonia sulcata 301 anemophily 388,389 Angelika 373 angiosperms 262-276

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Page 1: Subject Index - link.springer.com

Subject Index

ABC model 255 abscisic acid (ABA) 21,22,26,27 - - in guard cell compartments 50 - - leaf epidermis 45-47 - - membrane permeability 45-47 -- metabolism 45-47 Acacia 343 - eocarribbeanensis 275 Acanthamoeba castellanii 301 Acarospora 320 Acarosporaceae 313,325 Acer rubrum 339 Acetabularia 54,69,70 7-0-acetyl-salutardinol ·120,121 Achlya 59 - bisexualis 301 acid invertase activity 150 acidification, cellular 26 Aconitum napellus 378 Acourtia runcinata 385 Acremonium psychrophilum 330 actin 68,71 - filaments 58,69,75,160 - (myosin interaction 159 Actinidia deliciosa 376,397 Adelococcaceae 330 Adelococcus 330 Adiantum 69,74-76,78 - capillus-veneris 73 Aegilops ventricosa 178 Aerangis ellisii 369 aerenchyma formation 24 Aethelia bombacina 301 Agapanthus 60,61 Agonimiella 321 Agraulis vanillae 385 Agrobacterium 183,189,229 - tumefaciens 177 air pollution 328 Ajuga 162 alcohol dehydrogenase 25 Alectoria sarmentosa 326

alga(e), molecular phylogenetics 284-288 - plastid phylogeny 288-298 - red 202 - systematics and evolution 281-305 algal lineages, phylogeny 298-305 alkaloids, benzylisoquinoline 114-135 - cularine-type 123-125 - morphinan-type 118-121 - protoberberine 126-129 Allium cepa 375 - jistulosum 375 Alnus 326 Aloe littoralis 375 Alternaria alternata 237 Alveolates 304 Amandinea 320 - petermannii 313 Amaranthus hybridus 207 Amazonian region 9 ammonium assimilation 100 ammonium uptake 93-110 - - high affinity transport system 96 - - induction 96 - - linear component 96 - - mechanisms 96 - - saturable mechanisms 96 amplification of genes 173 Amylora 320 Anabaena 293 Anacardium occidentale 374 anaerobic polypeptides 25 analysis of single-strand conformation

polymorphisms 210 Anastrabe integerrima 376 Anaxagorea 269 Anchusa strigosa 377 Andrena bicolor 373 Anemone debilis 403 Anemonia sulcata 301 anemophily 388,389 Angelika 373 angiosperms 262-276

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418

angiosperms (Contd.) - basal 258, 259 - eudicots 270-275 - Laurales 266-269 - Magnoliales 269 - monocots 266

paleoherbs 264-266 - winteroids 270 aniline blue 356 Annona 380 - reticulata 115 Anthocephale chuchlensis 267 Anthonomus grandis 381 anthophyte(s) 257,261,262 - clade 257 anthropogenousloads 1 anti-beta tubulin antibodies 70 antibiotic resistances 208, 209 antifungal proteins 190,191 - - chitinase 190 - - P-l,3-glucanases 190 -- osmotin 191 - - pathogenesis-related protein 191 - - ribosome-inactivating proteins 190 Antirrhinum 255,402 - majus 210,371 Antithamnion 293 Anzia 316 - colpata 316 - hypoleucoides 316 - japonica 316 - opuntiella 316 - ornata 316 - stenophylla 316 Aphanothece halophytica 23 Aphelandra 386 Aphlebia lautneri 261 Apiaceae 390 apicomplexans 304 Apios americana 382 Apis 398 - mellifera 378,397 apomixis 399,400 apoplasmic invertase 158 - loaders 151-158 - phloem loading 143,144 - species 143 aporphine 114 - alkaloids 125 Appomattoxia ancistrophora 266 Aquia brookensis 271 Aquilegia 369,386 Arabidopsis 35,60,63,64,95,107,158,172,218,

225,226,255,256,402 - thaliana 206,225,226,255,363,365

Subject Index

Arabis 370 Archimagnolia rostratostylosa 263 Arctocetraria 319 Arenaria uniflora 400 Argyroxiphium 34 Aristolochia littoralis 381 aromoline 121,122 Artemia salina 301 Arthonia 313 Arthoniaceae 313 Arthoniales 320 Arthopyrenia 313 Arum macula tum 381 Asarum 265,274 Asclepiadaceae 390 Asclepias 340 - exaltata 346,374,400 - syriaca 374 ascomycetes 312 - lichenized 318 ascospores, ontogeny 314 ascus structure 312 Asimia parvifiora 381 Asparagus 257 - officinalis 403 Aspicilia 329 Aspidotheliaceae 322 Astasia longa 293 Asteraceae 390 Asteropollis 268 Astragalus cymbicarpos 400 Astrocaryum mexicanum 345 Aureobasidium pullulans 301 Avena 63 avenacinase gene 246 avirulence gene 248

Bacidia 313,314,320 Bacidiaceae 313 Bacillus thuringiensis 214 bacterial diseases 179,180 -- lysocyme 189 - - ornithine carbamoyltransferase 189 - - phaseolotoxin 189 -- tabtoxin 189 Bactrospora 321 Badimia 320 Badimiella 320 Baeomyces 321 Banksia spinulosa 349,370,388,400 Bapalmuia 320 Baptisia 340 Barclaya 265 barley, leaf epidermis 33 Barnebyanthus buchananensis 275

Page 3: Subject Index - link.springer.com

Subject Index

Bauhinia 271 - ungulata 388 Bellemerea 320 Bellis 160 Bennettitales 257-259 benzophenanthridine(s) 114,115 - alkaloids 127,129-133 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids 114-135 berbanrine 121,122 berbamunine 122 berberine 114,115,126-130 - bridge enzyme 126-128 Berberis 127, 128 - beaniana 127 - koetineana 116 - stolonifera 114,116,121,122,128 - thunbergii 370 Berlin 9 Bernettia inopinata 261 Besleria triflora 349,403 betaines 22 Betula 326,389 Biatora 320 Biatoraceae 320 Biatorella 320 Biatoridium 320 Bibio turneri 395 bicosoecids 304 Bignoniaceae 391 biocenoses 6, 7 bioecology 3 biomass 326 biomembranes, order and dynamics 84-88 - thermotropic responses 81-90 biotic factors 5 biotope 8 bisbenzylisoquinoline (s) 114 - alkaloids 121-123 blue light phosphorylation 55 -- receptor 74,75 bogs 9 boldine 125 Bombacopsis calophylla 388 Bombus 383 - hortorum 382 - impatiens 398 - lapidarius 382 - pascuorum 382 - terrestris/lucorum 382 Boraginaceae 391 Boreoplaca 320 Botrytis cinerea 191,237,246,248 Bowkeria cymosa 376 Brassica 255 - campestris 107,207,348,399

- kaber 378 - napus 182,190 - nigra 182 - oleracea 48, 182 - - var. botrytis 256 Brassicaceae 391 breeding systems 398-403 Bremen 9 Buellia 314,320 Bulborrhiza 319 Bulbothrix 319 Bunodophoron 321

Ca2+ 86,88 - buffers 61 - channels 55,56,61 - cytosolic 60-63 - gradients 56,60 - influx 55 Cactaceae 391 cadmium, leaf epidermis 45 Caesalpinia gilliesii 376 Caesalpiniaceae 391 Cafeteria roenbergensis 301 calcium, effects on chloroplast

orientation 76,77 - leaf epidernris 42, 43 - reconstituted motility 72 - transporters 220,221 -- Ca2 + /nH+ antiporters 220,221 - - P-types ATPase 220,221 - - uniporters/channels 220,221,224 calcium-activated through calmodulin 72 - protein kinase 72 calcium-binding physodes 76 Callicarpa 403 Callistemon viminalis 374 Callitriche 389 callose 358 callus 356,358,359 - tissue 362, 363 calmodulin 64,72,77,221,222,247 - Ca 2+ ATPase 222

419

- calcium binding domain (EF-hand) 221 Caloplaca 320,324 CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) 81-90 - field studies 83 - plants 86,88-90 - temperature effects 83 - tonoplast fluidity 88-90 - transport of malic acid 82 - vacuole 82 Campanula rotundifolia 378 Camptotheca acuminata 41,48 campylidia 322

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420

canadine 126-128,131 Candelariella 325 canopy 12 - density 11 - natural variability 12 - in old forests 326 cantharophily 379-381 Capsicum annuum 398 carbohydrate metabolism 140,146-151 - - intracellular compartmentation 146-151 - processing in the mesophyll

trajectory 140-164 fJ-carboxylation, phosphoenol pyruvate 82 Carnoconites 262 Carpinus 273 Carpobrotus edulis 339 Caryocar brasiliense 388 Caryophyllaceae 391 Castilleja 386 Catalpa 160 - bignonioides 163 Catapyrenium 321 Catarraphia 321 Catarrhospora 320 catchment areas 7 Catharanthus 160 Caytonia 260,261 Cdc2 169 CDPK 221-223 Ceiba pentandra 399 Celastraceae 391 cell arrangement, spatial 162 - growth 54-64 - - and turgor pressure 58,59 - polarity 54 cellular morphogenesis 54-56

responses to hypoxia 24 Central Europe 4, 8 Centris tarsata 383 Cephalanthus occidentalis 377 Ceratocapnos heterocarpa 400 Ceratonia 271 Ceratophyllum 257,258,264,265 Cercis 271 Cercospora nicotiana 190 Cetonia 381 Cetraria 314,319 - aculeata 319 - cucullata 319 - nivalis 319 Cetrariella 319 chalcone synthase 48 ChamaecristaJasciculata 347 Chamaesiphon subglosus 293 channels 82

Chara 57,69,154 characean internodal cells 71 Chaunopycnis ovalispora 330 cheilanthuoline 131,132 chelirubine 132 chemical factors 5 Chenopodium album 207 Chiastocheta 381 Chile 9 Chiloglottis refiexa 396 - trilabra 370 Chimaphila 383

Subject Index

Chinographis japonica 403 Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 207-209,212,

225, 301 Chloranthistemon crossmanensis 268 - endressii 268 Chloranthus 267,268 Chlorarachnion 301 - reptans 301 chlorarachniophytes 297,303 Chlorella e/lipsoidea 293 - vulgaris 293 chloroplast genome 290 - movement 68 - mutator 206 - orientation 74-78 chloroplast -cytosol gradient 150 Chlorostilbon maugaeus 395 Chondrus crispus 301,302 chromatin 169 Chroococcidiopsis 293 ciliates 304 Cistaceae 391 Cladonia 314,320,321 - cariosa 315 - chlorophaea ribosomal DNA 316 - Jurcata 327,329 Cladoniaceae 318, 325 Cladoniae 324 CladosporiumJulvum 237,245,247,248 Clarkia tembloriensis 399 Clauzadeomyces 330 Clavatipollenites 268

. Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis 180

Claviceps purpurea 236,237,243,244,246,248 cleistogamy 399,400 Cleome 365 climate 4-6 - meso- 6 clonal growth 351,352 - - aquatic plant 352 - - colonization 352 - - vegetation regeneration 351

Page 5: Subject Index - link.springer.com

SUbject Index

Closterillm 56 - ehrenbergii 293 Co2+ 76 Cochliobollls carbonllm 244,245

heterostrophlls 38,243,245,247 coclaurine 115-117 codeine 120,121 codeinone 120, 121 colchicine 77 Colells 158,160,356,359

blllmei 361 Colletotrichllm 237 - gloeosporioides 237 - lagenarillm 246 - orbiclliare 237 columbamine 126, 128 Combretaceae 391 Combretumfrllticosllm 376 Commelina commllnis 41 Comparettia Jalcata 375,396 compartment collection 142,162 - export 142 - production 142, 151-158 compartmentation of apoplasmic

loaders 151-158 - chloroplastic 148, 149 - cytosolic 148, 149 - intercellular 151-162 - intracellular 146-151 - of sucrose 148-150 - of symplasmic loaders 158-162 - vacuolar 148,149 compatibility/incompatibility 399,400 compatible solutes 21 computer programs 285 conidium (a) 314,319 conservation 329 Convolvulaceae 391 Cop tis 128 - japonica 114,116,127-129 Cornlls drllmmondii 342 corydaline 129, 130 Corydalis ambiglla 370 - cava 129,373 - claviclIlata 123 Coryills 273 CosciniumJenestratum 128 crassifoline 123-125 CrassulaJasciclIlaris 384 Crassulaceae 391 Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (see CAM) Craterostigma 19 Cresponea 320 Cretaceous angiosperm flowers 263, 264,

267-269, 271-273, 275

Crllciptera 273 Cryphonectria parasitica 237 Cryptella 302 Cryptomonas 291,293,301 cryptophytes 297,299; 302 Cllcllmis 159,160 - meta 396,403 - sativlIs 402 Cllcllrbita 158, 162 - pepo 107,362 cularine 124 cularine-type alkaloids 123-125 cuticle, synthesis of compounds 40 cutinase 242,244 - virulence 38 cyanelles 293,294 cyanide hydratase 246 Cyanidillm 282,304 - caldarillm 293 cyanobacteria 282,290-296 - gene clusters 291 cyanobacterial origin of plastids 290-296 Cyanophora 291 - paradoxa 292,301 Cycas 380 Cyclocephala 380 Cyclographina 321 Cylindrospermllm 293 Cymbopetaillm eunellrum 380 Cynoglossllm officinale 405 Cynorkis IIniflora 395 Cyphomandra 383 Cypripedillm calceoills 373 Cyrtopodillm 394 cytochalasin D 70

421

cytoplasmic ammonium concentrations 98 - nitrate concentrations 97 - streaming 69-73 - - calcium-activated protein kinase 72 - - mechanism 72 - - protein phosphatase 72 cytoskeleton 54,57, 159 cytosolic calcium 219-223 - - imaging 219 - - plant hormones 220 - sleeves 152 - sucrose gradient 152

Dalechampia 383 - capensis 383 Daniellia pynaertii 387 Dasycladales 282 DauclIs carota 48 dauricine 122, 123 Decodon verticillatlls 352,401

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422

decomposition 326 defoliation 11 Degelia plumbea 329 Deherainia 373 dehydrins 21 dehydrogenase alcohol 25 - lactate 25 1,2-dehydroreticuline 119 dehydroscoulerine 126 Delphinium nelsonii 347,348,399 7-0-demethyl-norjuziphine 124 Dendrocalamus strictus 389 desmotubular corridors 152 Deuterocohnia longipetala 374 diacylglycerol 77 Dialium 271 Diascia 376 Dibaeis 321 Dictyostelium 224 - discoideum 301 Didelphis marsupialis 388 Dieunomia triangulifera 382 differential display technique 248 3,3' -dihexyloxacarbocyanine 70 dihydrochelirubine 132, 133 dihydromacarpine 132,133 dihydrosanguinarine 131-133 diltiazem 76 Dimeloenna oreina 313 dinoflagellates 303 Dinophysis 303 dioecism/monoecism 402,403 Diplacus 369,386 Diploschistes 324 Disa atricapilla 396 - bivalvata 396 - filicornis 395 - obtusa 395 - uniflora 395 Disperis 394 dispersal agents 339-343 - by clonal growth 351,352 - and microevolutionary change 343-351 Diuraphis noxia 180 DNA amplification 173 - damage 172 - fingerprinting 173 - repair 168, 169 - - mechanisms 170-172 -- in plants 172 - replication 168-173 - sequence analysis 265 Dodecatheon 383 domains (biomembranes) 85

Subject Index

dopamine 115,117,118,123,124 drought stress 20 - - protective compatible nitrogen

compounds 21 Dunaliella 282 - salina 225 Dyckia 374

Ecballium 403 - elaterium 402 Echeveria 34 - gibbiflora 346 Echinochloa phyllopogon 26 ecological pattern 4,7 - research 2 ecology of landscape 1-12 - town 9 - vegetation 1 ecosystem(s) 7,8 - research 1,10 - tropical highland 9 ecotope(s) 3,8 - types 3,4 ecozones 7 Ectolechiaceae 320,322 efflux of Hzmal 82 Eichhornia paniculata 401 Elleschodes 380 Elsemaria kokubunii 273 Emiliania huxleyi 301 endemism 325 Endocarpon 321 endocytobiosis 281-305 - phyletic primary 289,290-296 -- secondary 289,296-298 endoplasmic turgor 159 endopolyploidy 170 environment 4, 5 environmental conditions - factors, activity on plants and leaf

epidermis 34-39 - impact assessment 8 Ephedra 258 Ephedripites 261 epidermal cell(s) 32,33 - - specificity 47 - compartmentation 43 - functions 33,34 - metabolism 39,40 epidermis biochemistry 39-41 - function in mineral nutrition 41-45 - of leaf 32-50 Epifagus virginiana 198,290 Erdtmanitheca 261

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Subject Index

Eristalis tenax 372 Erwinia 38,182 - carotovora 189 - - ssp. atroseptica 182 - - ssp. carotovora 182 - chrysanthemi 182 Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei 238 Erythrina 387 Erzgebirge 12 Escalloniaceae 391 Escherichia coli 171,172,291 Eschscholzia 134 .- californica 114,116,127,129,131,133 Esgueiria adenocarpa 275 - miraensis 275 ethanol fermentation 24 Eucalyptus 375,387 - geinitzii 267 Eucommia 263 Eucommioites 261 - orientalis 263 eudicots 259,270-275 Euglena 205,290 - gracilis 198-202,207,209 - - chloroplast DNA 200 euglenophytes 300 Euglypha rotunda 301 Euglyphina 303 Euphorbiaceae 391 Eupomatia laurina 380 Euryglossa 376 Euxoneura 395 Evernia prunastri 327 excision repair 171 exocytosis 55,61,63

Fabaceae 391 F ellhanera 320 Fibonacci pattern 265 Ficus 393

aurea 394 - lutea 393,394 - pollination 393,394 Flavocetraria 319 flavonoid synthesis 35,40,48 Flavoparmelia baltimorensis 330 flood-tolerant plants 26 f10rals ecology 368 -405 - genes, phylogenetic reconstruction 255 Florissantia 274 - ashwillii 274 - quilchenensis 274 - speirii 274 f1ower( s) classes and evolution 379-390

423

- color vision 371,372 - Cretaceous 263,264,267-269,271-273,

275 - diversity 262 - evolution 253-276 - evolutionary aspects 254 - ground plan 256 - longevity 369,370 - metabolism 369,370 - microclimate 373 - mimesis 369,370 - movement 369,370 - mutants 256 - odors 372 - oil 374-376 - origin 260 - pigmentation 371,372 - scent profiles 373 - sex expression 256 - Tertiary 271-275 - thermogenesis 373 - UV reflection 372,386 - visitors, orientation 371 flowering initiation 370 - phenology 403-405 fluid-mosaic model 84 fluorescence deplorization 88 forest( s), boreal coniferous 12 - burning 11 - decline 10, 11 - dieback 10 -- general 1,11 -- novel 12 -- problems 10 - productivity 12 - summergreen 12 - tropical 339 F ortunaria 272 Fortunearites endressii 272 fossils, permineralized 272 Fournier-transform Laser Mass

Spectrometry 315 Fragaria ananassa 397 frost, late 6 - premature 6 fructans 150 fruit-frugivore relationship 340 Fucus 58,60,64 - distichus 301 - serratus 55 Fulgensia 320,321 fugal genes 244,245 fungi,lichenicolous 330 - lichenized 312-330

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424

fungi, lichenicolous (Contd.) -- biology 317 -- chemotaxonomy 314,315 - - chorology 325 - - classification 317-322 - - conservation 329 - - cultivation in vitro 327,328 - - ecology and physiology 325-328 -- floristics 322-325 -- molecular biology 316 -- mycobiont 312-314 -- photobiont 315,316 -- phylogeny 317 - - pollution monitoring 328,329 Furcellaria lumbricalis 301 Fusarium 23,239 - crockwellense 238 - culmorum 238 - graminearum 238 - oxysporum 238,247 - - Lsp.cubense 238 - - L sp. dianthi 238 - - L sp.pisi 238 - - L sp. vasinfectum 238 - sambuccinum 238 - setions 239 Fuscopannaria 321 futile cycling 150

G-protein( s) 223-227,230,231 - effectors 224 - GTPase domains 223 - heterotrimeric 223-226 - small monomeric 224-227 Gaeumannomyces graminis 239,244,246 galactinol 160,161,162 galactosyl oligosaccharide synthesis 160, 161 Galdieria sulphuraria 293 Gamanthera 266 gases, cuticular permeability 36 Geberella zeae 245 gender distribution 398-403 gene( s) disruption 243-245 - expression 204 -- leaf epidermis 47-50 - flow 343,344,347,349,350 - - effective population size 344 - - genetic neighborhood area 343,344 - - neighborhood area 347 - LEA 21 - transfer, horizontal 289 gene-for-gene relationships 230 genetic engineering of crop plants 214 Geniomonas truncata 302

Gentianaceae 392 geoecology 3 Geoiikologie 3 Geraniaceae 392 Geranium 34 - maculatum 405 germination 340,342,343 Gibberella filjikuroi 239,246 - pulicaris 245,246 Gilia splendens 386 Gladieria 304

Subject Index

Glaucocystis nostochinearum 293,301 glaucocystophyte( s) 294,302 Glaucosphaera vacuolata 293 Gleditsia 271 Glenodiniumfoliaceum 303 Globodera pallida 181 Gloeobacter violaceus 293 Gloeocercospora sorghi 244,246 Gloeochaete wittrockiana 293,294,301 Glomerella cingulata 244 Glossopteris 261 glutathione-S-transferase activity 37 - epidermis 37 Glycine 49 - max 293 Gnetales 257-260 - dispersed pollen 261 - fossils 261 Gnetum 259 - gnemon 380 Golgi apparatus 62 Goniomonas truncata 301 Gossypium 381 - hirsutum 397 Giittingen 9 Graci/aria verrucosa 302 Graci/ariopsis lemaneiformis 301 Gremmeniella abietina 239 Grevillea robusta 374 Greya 384 growth localization 59 GTP-binding protein 223-227 guattegaumerine 122 Guettarda scabra 401 Guiera 275

Hadena 385 Hafellia 320 Haleomyces 330 Hamatia elkneckensis 271 haptophytes 304 Hartmannella vermiformis 301 Hawaiian Island 9

Page 9: Subject Index - link.springer.com

Subject Index

heat 4,5 heat-shock proteins 90 heavy metal stress 44 Hedyosmum 268 H elianthus annuus 382 herbicide resistances 206-208 - - of plastome mutants 206 H erschelianthe graminifolia 395 Heterobasidion annosum 239 heterokonts 304 Heterosigma akashiwo 293 heterostyly 400,401 Hibiscus moscheutos 398,400 Hildebrandia rubra 301 historical analysis 7 H obsonia christiansenii 330 holistic character 4 - structure 2 Holmskioldia 274 homeo-viscous adaptation 88 Homo sapiens 301 Hordeum bulbosum 179 - vulgare 49,107,179 - - ssp. spontaneum 180 - - ssp. vulgare 180 Hornstedtia scottiana 387 HPTLC method for lichens 315 hybridization 177-193 - addition lines 178-180 - embryo rescue 177,179,193 - intergeneric 180 - interspecific 177,179,182,192,193 - recombination 177,178,182 - somatic 177,179-182,193 - sexual 177,180,182 - translocation 178-180 hydrophily 388,389 hydrophobin 246 Hydrophyllaceae 392 3' -hydroxy-N-methy1coclaurine 117 12-hydroxychelirubine 132 12-hydroxydihydrochelirubine 132 10-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine 132 3'-hydroxyjuziphine 124,125 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde 117,118 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate 117,124 6-hydroxyprotopine 132 10-hydroxysanguinarine 132 Hyles lineata 385 hypersensitive response reaction 248 Hypocenomyce 320 hypoxia, cellular responses 24 - disturbance effects on intermediary

metabolism 26, 27

hypoxic conditions 24,25 Hystrix 330

I cmadophila 321 Icmadophilaceae 321 I diospermum 259 Illicium fioridanum 398 immissions, chemical 1 immunoblots 365

425

immunofluorescence light microscopy 364 Impatiens 155,160,339 - capensis 378 inbreeding depression 347 incompatibility/compatibility 399,400 - system 401 indicator plants 6 Inga 374 Ingolstadt 9 inheritance, extranuclear 197 - 215 interdisciplinary collaboration 7 intermediary cells 144 intracellular movement 68-78 intramolecular label distribution in 13 C-

malate 83 introns in plastid DNA 201 - external 201 - internal 201 - terminology 201 ion compartmentation 41 Jpomoea purpurea 371 I pomopsis 369,386 - aggregata 375,398,403 isoci tra te 88 I sodon shikokianus 382 - umbrosus 382 isopropyl-N-phenyl carbamate 77 isoquinolone alkaloids 114

jasmonic acid 134 jatrorrhizine 126, 128 juziphine 124, 125

Kalanchoe daigremontiana 83,88-90 Kalmia 352 - angustifolia 351 Kielmeyera 383 kinetic parameters of ammonium uptake 97 - - of nitrate uptake 95 kinetoplastids 300 Klebsormidiumfiaccidum 301 Knightiella 321

L' p phase 85 L'. phase 85

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426

La3+ 76 labyrithulids 304 Labyrinthuloides minuta 301 lakes 9 land use planning 9 landscaper s) 2 - agricultural 6 - cultural 6 - ecological studies 8,9 - - regional examples 8,9 - ecology 1-12 - - public importance 10 - elements, evaluation 8 - European 8 - functions and turnovers 7 - household 3 - natural 1 - planning 6 Landschaft 2 Landschaftsokologie 3 laser microscopy 54 Lasioglossum 395 Lathraea clandestina 375 Lathyrus chlorantus 371 - chrysanthus 371 - japonicus 382 - latifolius 346,382 - vernus 369,370 Lauderlindsaya 322 Laurales 259,266-269 - pollination 267 - protogyny 267 Laurera 321 laurotetanine 125 Lavandula latifolia 405 LEA genes 21 leading models 10 leaf area index 12 - epidermis 32-50 -- environmental factors 34-39 Lecanactis 320,321 - grumulosa 330 Lecanographa 321 Lecanora 313,320 - conizaeoides 330 - schistina 314 - subfusca 324 Lecanoraceae 313,320 Lecanorales 319 Lecidella 315 Leifidium 321 Leiothrix lutea 385 Leitbilder 10 Lemna minuta 352 Leonotis 376

- nepetifolia 376 Leontopodium alpinum 381 Lepidodinium viride 297,303 Lepidozamia 380 Leporella 395 Leptogium 323

Subject Index

Leptosphaeria maculans 236,239 - nodorum 240 lichenized and Iichenicolous fungi 312-330 Lichenoconium lecanorae 330 lichens, foliicolous 322,326,327 light 4,5 Ligustrum 160 Lilium 57-61,64 - longiflorum 63 - philadelphicum 370 Limnanthemum circularis 274 Limoniella 330 lincomycin 208,209,213 Linum lewisii 381 lipid transfer proteins 40 lipid-protein interaction 86 Lithophragma parviflorum 384 Litsea glutinosa 125 live-stock grazing 1 living conditions 4 Lobaria oregana 326 Lobelia infiata 405 Lonicera etrusca 385 - involucrata 386 Lotus corniculatus 373 Lucas pattern 265 Lychnis fios-cuculi 347,400 Lycopersicon 158,255 - chi/ense 181 - esculentum 48,49,180,226 - peruvianum var. humifusum 180 Lythrum salicaria 401

Mabea 388 - fistulifera 387 macarpine 132,133 Macginicarpa 272 macrochore 4 Macrozamia 380 MADS box gene family 255 M agnaporthe grisea 236,240,244,245-248 Magnolia 160,260,270 - tripetala 163 Magnoliales 259,269 - ovule development 269 - proterogynous flowers 269 - staminodes 269 Mali 9 malic acid 82

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Subject Index

Malpighiaceae 392 M anduca sexta 384 Mantoniella squamata 301 Marcgraviaceae 392 Marchantia 290 - polymorpha 197,293 Mastigoc/adus laminosus 293 maximum likelihood estimation 286 - - - bootstrap analysis 286,287 - - - fastDNAml 286 - - - jackknife analysis 288 - - - likelihood ratio test 294

long branch attraction 287 - PHYLIP 286,295

- - - weighted maximum parsimony 287 M ayetiola destructor 180 mechanical factors 5 Megachi/e 382 Megaselia 381 M egaspora 320 Melampyrum 340 M elandrium 402 Melastoma affine 383 melittophily 382,383 Meloidogyne incognita 180 membrane asymmetry 86

dynamics 86, 87 - lateral diffusion 87 - lipids 90 - rotational diffusion 87 Meneris tulbahia 384,395 Menispermum daurieum 122 M ereurialis 402 - annua 389 M esembryanthemum crystallinum

20,36,49,89 mesochore 4 mesophyll domain 140 - paraveinal 163 - trajectory 140-164 Mesotaenium 69,74-78 N-methyl-stylopine 131,132 N-methylcoclaurine 116,117,122 Micrasterias 54,56 - dentieulata 56 microchore 4 Mierocystis aeruginosa 293 microinjection 55,61 Mierotis 395 microtubule ( s) 68,77,78 - motor proteins 68 mildew 39 Mimosa pigra 338 Mimosaceae 392 Mimulus 371,375,386,400

mineral nutrition, function of epidermis 41-45

rruUllchromosome 246 Minium Viable Population 350 minor vein configuration 142 M irabilis mul tij/ ora 385 molecular genetics 253 -- of flower development 254-257 Monardella 386 Moneses 383 monoclonal antibody 363,364 monocots 266 monoecism/ dioecism 402,403 morphinan-type alkaloids 118-121 morphine 114,119-121 motor proteins 68 Mougeotia 69,74-78 - sealaris 78 movement, chloroplast 68 - intracellular 68-78 - organelle 68 Mucuna altissima 388 - fiagellipes 388 - urens 388 multiscientific institutes 10 Musaespora 322 mycobiont, morphology, anatomy and

ontogeny 312-314 Myeosphaerella 243 - graminicola 240 myo-inositol 160,161 myosin(s) 68,71 - mouse-nonmuscle, antibody 71 Myrieanthium amentaeeum 267 Myrtaceae 392

N compounds 101,102 - - amides 101 - - amino acids 101 -- ammonium 101 - - nitrate 101 -- reduced nitrogen compounds 101 Narcissus 61 - longispathus 373 - tazetta 401 nature conservation 9,403-405 - protection 338 nectar 374-376 - extrafloral 374 - production 375 - sugar concentration 375 nectaries 374-376 Neetria 39 - haematococca 38,243,244 Negev highland 9

427

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428

neopinone 120,121 Nepenthes gracilis 384 Nerium oleander 89,370 Netherlands 8 neutral red 76 Nicotiana 57,59,60,63,64,158,255,374 - plumbaginifolia 207 - tabacum 49,62,197,207,212,229 Niebla 320 nifedipine 76 Nimisia 319 Nitella 58,69,73 nitrate load 10 - reductase activity 104-110 --- CO2 availability 105 - - - cytosolic acidification 108 - - - oxygen availability 105

pernleating base 108 - - - photosynthetic carbon metabolism 105 - - - soil flooding 105 - - - weak permeating acids 108 - - assimilatory 103 - - inhibitor protein 107 - - posttranslational control 104 - - protein kinase 107 -11 0 --- phosphatase 107-110 - - - phosphorylation/dephosphoryla-

tion 104 - - reversible protein phosphorylation 106,

107 -- sugar phosphates 109 - reduction, rapid regulation 103-110 - - synchronization with carbon

metabolism 104 - uptake 93-110 - - energy dependency 97 - - high affinity transport system 94-99 - - induction 94 - - linear component 95 - - low affinity transport system 94-99 - - mechanisms 94-96 -- Michaelis-Menten kinetics like system 95 - - passive 97 - - saturable system 94 -- system 96 nitrogen assimilation 100,101 - - increasing nitrate supply 100 - - nitrate reduction in the shoot 100 -- root 100 - long-distance transport 99 - - - phloem 99 --- xylem 99 - partitioning 102,103 - transported N compounds 101,102 - uptake 93

Subject Index

- - ammonium 93 - - nitrate 93 - utilization 102 NLS (nuclear localization signal) 228-230 - bZIP proteins 229 - MAT 2-like 228,229 - NBPs 230 - Opaque-2 228 - R-proteins 229 - SV 40-type 228,229 N orantea brasiliensis 386 norboldine 125 norcoclaurine 116-118,123 norjuziphine 124, 125 norlaudanosolin 115 N ormandina 322 N osmea apis 396 Nothofagus 272 nuclear localization signal (see NLS) - magnetic resonance, water status 34 - pore(s) 227,228 - - nucleoporins 228 - - pore complex 227,228 - - ring-spoke-plug 228 - positioning ( of organelles) 73, 74 - - interphase strands 74 - - prophase 74 - transport 227-230 - - nuclearbinding proteins 230 nuclear-encoded SSU rRNA 299,301 - rRNA 300 nucleomorph 296,297,303 nutrient turnover 7 Nymphaeaceae 392 Nymphoides circularis 274

Ochromonas danica 301 Ochrosphaera 293 Ocimum 160 Oemleria cerasiformis 403 Oidium lycopersici 180 oil flowers 374-376 okadaic acid 106,107, 110 Olea 162 Ondinea 265 Onoc1ea 64, 73 oomycetes 304 Opegrapha 313,321 Opegraphaceae 313 Ophiostoma novo-ulmi 240 - ulmi 240 optimal foraging theory 377 orchid pollination 394-396 Orchidaceae 392 Orchis morio 402

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Subject Index

order (in biomembranes), modalities 85 - orientational 85 organelle movement 68 organic acids 88 oriented positioning of organelles 69,73-78 ornithophily 385-387 Ornithoptera priamus poseidon 375 Oropogon lopezii 330 Oryza 255 - australiensis 179 - minuta 179 - sativa 179,197,226 oryzalin 70 Osmia cornuta 398 osmotin 20 outbreeding depression 348 ovary architectures 265 12-oxophytodienoic acid 134 Oxytricha nova 301

P'p phase 85 P-protein 360,362,363,365 Pachyanthium cordatum 383 Pachycereus pringlei 403 Pachyphytum 49 Paeonia 270 Palaeocarpinus 273 - joffrensis 273 Paleoenkianthus sayrevillensis 273 paleoherbs 259,264-266 - ovules 265 Paleomyrtinea prineetonensis 275 Paleorosa similkameensis 275 Palmaria palmata 293,301 palma tine 126, 130 Pannaria 321 - rubiginosa 329 Papaver somniferum 118,119,120,122 Papaveraceae 392 papaverine 114 Paramecium tet/·aurelia 301 P arategeticula 384 parenchyma palisade 162,163 - - hydrostatic potential 163 - photosynthetic performance 163 - spongy 162,163 Parkia bieolor 387 Parmelia 319 Parmeliaceae 319,324 Parmotrema reticulatum 329 parsimony 285 Parthenocissus tricuspidata 358 particle gun 212 pathogenesis, epidermis 38 Paulinella ehromatophora 301,303,305

PCR-SSCP 210,211 Pedicularis 369,383,386 - palustris 383 pedinellids 304 Peliaina cyanea 302 Peltigera 321,323 Peltigerales 319 Peltula 327 Pelvetia 55,60,61 Penicillium olsonii 244 Pentastemona 266 Pentoxylon 257,262 Perenospora tabaeina 191 Peridinium balticum 303 permeabilities of membrane 86 Peronospora parasitica 240 Persea 268 - americana 397 Perseanthus crossmanensis 268 Pertusaria 320,325 Pertusariales 319,320 petal evolution 270 Pet/·oselinum erispum 48 Petunia 64,255,370 Peumus boldus 114,116,125 pH stat hypothesis 26 Phace/ia linearis 403 Phaeocystis antarctica 301 - globosa 301 Phaeophyscia 325 Phaeosphaeria nodorum 240 Phalaris paradoxa 207 phalenophily 384,385 phalloidin, fluorescein-conjugated 76 - fluorescein-labeled 70 phase transition 85 Phaseolus coccineus 173,180 - vulgaris 180,358 Phenakospermum 387 phenological stages 6 phenylalanine 48 Phillyrea angustifolia 403 Philodendron selloum 374

429

phloem function in cultured tissues 361,362 - loading 140-164,362 - - apoplasmic 143,144 - - - galactosyl oligo saccharides 144 --- sucrose 144 - - - sucrose/proton symport 144 --- sugar alcohols 144 - - definitions 140-143 -- modes 143-146 -- symplasmic 143-145 - molecular biology 365,366 - mRNAs 366

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430

phloem function in cultured tissues (Contd.) - structure formed in vitro 359-366 - in tissue cultures 356-366 - in vitro 357-359 Phoebis sennae 385 Phoma lingam 182 Phomopsis subordinaria 241 Phormidium minutum 293 phosphate, leaf epidermis 42,43 phosphatidylserine 77 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase,

epidermis 39 photobiont 315,316 photoreactivation 170 photoreceptors 74 photosynthate movement 164 -- intercellular 149,151,152,158,159 - - - endoplasmic model 159 --- polymerization trap model 159 - release 155,156 photosynthesis 204 photosynthetic deficiencies 209-211 phthalideisoquinolines 115 Phylidonyris nigra 379 - novae-hollandiae 379 Phyllobaeis 321 phylogenetic framework 257 - models 260 - reconstruction 255 phylogenetics of algae 284-288 - - cladistics 285 - - distance matrix methods 286 - - Jukes-Cantor correction 286 - - Kimura two-parameter model 286 - - neighbor-joining method 286 - - parsimony 285 -- PAUP 285 - - phylogenetic tree 285 phylogeny of major algal lineages 298-305 Physarum 58,72 Physeia 325 Physciaceae 313,320,325 Physeomitrella 69,73 - patens 73 Physeonia 325 Physma omphalarioides 321 phytoalexin(s) 134,135,191 - stilbene synthase 191 phytochrome 74 - monoclonal antibody 74,75 Phytolaeea dioiea 374 phytopathogenic fungi, genetics 235-249 - - host-pathogen interaction 236 - - molecular diversity 235,236 - - pathogenicity genes 242

Subject Index

- - population genetics 236 - - race/cultivar specificity 248 - - virulence genes 242 Phytophthora 20 - infestans 179,181,182,191,240,247 - parasitiea 249 - - var. nieotianae 191 - sojae 241 phytoplankton 283 phytotoxins 242 Picea 325 - pungens 34 Pieris napi 378 Pinus thunbergii 198, 199 -- chloroplast DNA 199 Piper 265 Piroeonites kuespertii 261 pisatin demetylase 243,244 Pisum sativum 107,226, 361 Plaeopsis 330 plant populations 336-352 plasma membrane, abscisic acid

permeability 46 plasmalemma 81 - anchorage sites 75 plasmodesmata 145 - bundle sheath 145 - cytosolic sleeves 152 - size exclusion limit 145 - vacuolar-vesicular network 145 plasmodesmatal gating 153 - frequencies 155 Plasmodiphora brassieae 182 Plasmodiumfaleiparum 304 plastid(s), complex 296 - cyanobacterial origin 290-296 - DNA 198 - - of Euglena gracilis 199 - - introns 201 - - inverted repeats 198 - - tandem repeats of the rONA operon 200 - genetics 197-215 - genome sequencing 197-205 - nucleomorph 296,297,303 - origin 296-298 - phylogeny (algae) 288-298 - rbeL gene sequences 292 - ribosomal RNA genes 292 - RNA editing 211,212 - RubisCO genes 296 -- operon 292,295,296 - simple 296 - small subunit ribosomal RNA 292 - transformation 212-215 - - biolistic 212

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Subject Index

-- DNA replication 214 - - gene replacement 214 --- transfer 214 - - targeted insertion of foreign genes

214 plastome mutant(s) 205-211

herbicide-resistant 206 - - photosynthetic deficiencies 209-211

- transition 211 - - transversion 210 Platanocarpus brookensis 271 - elkneckensis 271 Platanus 272 Platismatia glauca 327 Pleopsidium 320 Plumbago 374 Poa annua 207 Poaceae 392 Podocarpus 338 polar cell growth 54-64 - - - molecular biology 63 Polemonium viscosum 375 pollen 376, 377 - carryover 347 - dispersal 344-351 - grains of gnetalean affinity 261 - presentation 376,377 - - secondary 377

tubes 57-64 pollen-pistil interaction 398 pollination 262,265, 266 - abiotic 388 - by ants 382-384 - biology 368 - of crop plants 396-398 - of early angiosperms 379-381 - economy 396-398 - of Ficus 393,394 - mammal 387,388 - of orchids 394-396 - particular groups 390-398 - studies at community level 403-405 pollinator(s) behavior 348,349,377-379 - efficiency 377-379 - flies, thrips and gall midges 379, 381 - flight distances 346 - flower constancy 377-379 - foraging strategies 377 - 379 pollution monitoring 328 Polyalthia 269 - hypoleuca 399 Polymeridium 321 Polystachia rosea 396 polyubiquitin 247 Porana 274

Porina 325 Porphyra purpurea 202-205,290,291 - - chloroplast genome 203 - - plastid genome 203 - umbilicalis 301 Porphyridium aerugineum 293 Porpidiaceae 320 postreplication repair 171,172 Potentilla palustris 400 Primula sieboldii 401 Primulaceae 392 Prochlorococcus 292 Prochloron 292 - didemni 293,294 Prochlorothrix 292 - hollandica 291,294 Prodoxus 384 proline 21 Prorocentrum micans 301 Prosopis 23 Protea laurifolia 387 Proteaceae 392 protein kinase(s) 77,219,221-223 -- calcium dependent 221-223 - - serine/threonine 219 - membrane-integrated 86 - phosphatase 107-110 - phosphorylation 106-107 - - divalent cations 106 - - mannose 106 - - okadaic acid 106 - - seryl residues 106 protoberberine(s) 114,115 - alkaloids 126-129 Protofagacea allonensis 272 protogyny 265,266,269 protopine 115,131, 132 protoplasts 363 Prunella 378 Prunus dulcis 375 - mahaleb 342,369,403 prymnesiophytes 304,305 Pseudeverniafurfuracea 327 Pseudobaeomyces 321

431

Pseudobombax grandiflorum 388 Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides 178,241 Pseudocyphellaria 315,321 - rainierensis 326 Pseudohepatica pachyderma 322 Pseudomonas 38 - syringae 189 - - pv phaseolicola 189 - - pv tabaci 189 Pseudowintera colorata 379 Psidium 275

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432

Psychoda phalaenoides 381 psychophily 384,385 Pteridium aquilinum 351 Puccinia monoica 370 - striiformis 241 pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis (PFGE)

230-241 purple bacteria, IX 295 - - fJ 295 -- Y 295 Pylaiella littoralis 293 Pyrenomonas salina 201,293,296,301 Pyrola 383 - rotundifolia 373 Pyrrhospora 320 Pythium aphanidermatum 190 Pyxine 320

Qualea cordata 383 Quercus 326

rabbit myosin light chain 77 radical scavengers 23 raffinose 151,152,160 Raftlesia 256 Ramalina 315,324 - farinacea 327

siliquosa gene flow 317 Ramboldia 320 Ramphodon naerius 387 random-amplified-polymorphic DNA

(RAPD) 235-241 Ranunculaceae 392 Ranunculus adoneus 369 - inamoenus 370 - lingua 352 - scleratus 21 Raphanus 20 - sativus 182,403 Rauchschaden 11 Ravenala madagascariensis 387 recombination 177-193 - homologous 214 Rediviva gigas 376 Reichenau . 8 relief 4-6 repair of DNA 168,169 - - excision 171 - - mechanisms 170-172 - - in plants 172 - - postreplication 171, 172 - - transcription-coupled 171 - - UV -induced 172 replication 168-173,204 reproduction costs 402,403

Subject Index

resistance 177 - 193 - to bacterial pathogens 189 - genetically engineered 183-191 - to fungal pathogens 190, 191 - transgenic 177,184-189,191-193 - virus 183-189,192 restriction enzyme-mediated integration

technique 247 restriction-fragment-Iength-polymorphism

(RFLP) 230-241 reticuline 115-120,125,126,129,132 Reynoutria 352 Rhizoctonia solani 190,191,241,248 rhizoid 57,60,61 rhodamin phalloidin 75 Rhodobacter sphaeroides 295 Rhododendron 320,326 rhodomine B 76 Rhodophyta 283 rhodoplasts 293,294 Rhopalosiphium padi 180 Rhopalospora 320 Rhynchosporum secalis 248 Ribes sanguineum 387 ribosomes 204 ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/

oxygenase (Rubisco) 19-21,82,295 Ricinus 98,100-103 Rimulariaceae 320 Rinodina 314,320,323 - anomala 314 - kalbii 313,314 - madeirensis 314 - sophodes 313 risk assessment 8 RNA editing 211,212 Roccella 330 Roccellaceae 313,321 Romulea bulbocodium 403 root hair cells 57,60, 61 Rorippa indica 374 Rosaceae 393 Rosmarinus officinalis 374 Rubiaceae 393 Rubus chamaemorus 403 - idaeus 397 Rumex acetosa 403 - acetosella 403 ruthenium red 76

Saccharomyces cerevisiae 247,301 Sagediopsis 330 Sagema 320 Salicaceae 393 Salix 373

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Subject Index

salt stress, leaf epidermis 44 salutaridine 119-121 - synthase 120 salutaridinol 119-121 Salvia pratensis 371 Sanguinaria canadensis 133,134 sanguinarine 131-133 Santalaceae 393 Sapindopsis 271 saponines 246 Saprolegnia ferax 60 Sarcocapnos crassifolia 123 Sarcocystis muris 301 Sargentodoxa 271 - barghoorniana 271 Saruma 265 Saurauia 403 Sauromatum guttatum 373 Saururus 265 - cernuus 265 Saxilragaceae 393 Scabiosa columbaria 400 Schismatomma 321 scoulerine 126-129,131,132 Scrophularia montana 379 seaweeds 283 Secale cereale 178 seed dispersal 336-345,349 -- agents 339-343 - - effects 337,338 - - spectra 337 - shadows 336 Selasphorus rufus 379 Sephanoides galeritus 387 Septoria lycopersici 246 Sequoia 356 serial endosym biosis theory 288 sex distribution 402,403 sexual dimorophism 403 Shorea 399 Sidalcea oregana 403 sieve element/companion cell complex

140-144,146,152,153,154,155,162 - - differentiation 357 - - isolation from callus tissue 362,363 - - loading 141 - - reticulum 359 signal transduction 218-231 - - blue-light 218 -- ethylene 219 - - pathogenesis related genes 218 - - salicylic acid 218 signaling pathway 219 Sigridea 317,321 Silene 257,349,375

- acaulis 403 - dioica 348 - latifolia 403 - vulgaris 385 Sinapis 60 - alba 61 Sinowilsonia 272 Siparuna 381 Siphocampylus sulfureus 388 Siphulella 321 Sipmania 321 site 4,5 - conditions 12

maps/mapping 8 smoke damage 11 soil 4-6 Solanum 158 - bertaultii 182 - brevidens 182 - circaeifolium ssp. ciraeifolium 179,181 - etuberosum 182 - hirtum 403 - nigrum 207 - torvum 181 - tuberosum 49,181,182 - - ssp. tuberosum 179,181,182 Sorghum 19,101 spectinomycin 208,209,213 spectroscopy, electron spin resonance 84 - fluorescence 84 Sphaeradenia hamata 381 Sphaerophorus 321 sphingophily 384,385 spinach, leaf epidermis 33 Spiranthes cernua 400 Spirogyra 73 Spirulina 293 splicing 201 Spodoptera Jrugiperda 127 - littoralis 327 SSCP analysis 210 Staberoha banksii 389 stachyose 150,151,160 Stachyura spicata 267 staminodes 269 Standort 4 Standortskartierung 8 Staurastrum 301 Staurolemma 321 Stellatopollis pocockii 263 Stellifraga 330 Stephania cepharantha 121 Sticta 320 stramenopiles 304 StraBenbegleitgriin 9

433

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434

Streptanthus tortuosus 357,360, 361, 363-365 streptomycin 208,209,213 stress avoidance 28 - drought 20 - heavy metal 44 - proteins 20 - salt 44 - water 18,44 Strigula 314 Strongylodon craveniae 387 Stuttgart 9 stylopine 131, 132 Suaeda 23 sucrose compartmentation 148-150 - gradient, cytosol-to-apoplast 157 - - cytosolic 152 - uptake 149 - - biphasic 154 -- high-affinity component 154,155

low-affinity component 155 suitability map 8 sulfur dioxide 11 swamps 9 Symphocampylus 376 Symphytum officinale 383 symplasmic loaders 158-162 - phloem loading 143-145 - species 143 Symplocarpus renifolius 373 Synechococcus 293 Syringa vulgaris 357 Systemforschung 10

Tamarix pentandra 375 Tanyoplatanus 272 taxol 77 Tegeticula yuccasella 384 telomerase 172 telomeres 172 Telopea speciosissima 370 Teloschistaceae 319 Teloschistales 319 Ternstroemia 383 Tertiary flowers 271-275 test plants 6 tetrahydrocolumbamine 126-128 tetrahydropapaverine 16 Tetrastylis ovalis 388 thalictricarine 129, 130 Thalictrum 114,127,128,271 - bulgaricum 133 - minus 114,115 - tuberosum 129 Thea sinensis 45 thebaine 119-121

Thelymitra circumsepta 395 - ixioides 395 Theobroma cacao 373 Thinopyrum distichum 179 - ponticum 179 thylacoid membranes 81 Thymelaea hirsuta 402 Thymus vulgaris 403 TWa 274,375,376 tip growtth 54, 56 - - of pollen tubes 57-64 - - rhizoid 57 - - root hair cells 57 tissue cultures 356-366

Subject Index

TMV-MP transgenic plants 153,154 tomatinase gene 246 tonoplast, abscisic acid permeability 46 - fluidity in CAM plants 88-90 - H+ ATPase 82 - permeabilized cell model 72 Torenia fournieri 370 town areas 9 - ecology 9 tracheary differentiation 357 Tradescantia 63 trans-bilayer motion (flip-flop) 87 trans-gauche isomerization 87 transcription 169 - under anaerobiosis 25 transcription-coupled repair 171 transfer cells 144 transformation 177,182,184,187,188,192,193 transgenic crops 351 - plants 153,154 translocation 361 transport, active of protons 82 - of malic acid 82 Trebouxia 316 - gelatinosa 316 - potteri 316 - showmannii 316 tree damage 10 Trialeurodes vaporarium 180 trichodiene synthase 246 Trichotheliaceae 324 trifluoperazin 77 Trifolium 378 - hirtum 403 - repens 351,370,399 trinuc1eotides, amplification 173 triose-phosphate 147 - P,-shuttle 148 Triticum aestivum 177 -179 - tauschii 178 - turgidum 178

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Subject Index

Trollius 381 Trypetheliaceae 321 Trypethelium 321 tubulin 71 Tuckneraria 319 turgor pressure 58,59 twintron 201 tyramine 117 tyrosine 117,124

Umbilicaria enzyme diversity 316 Unwelt 4 Usnea hirta 317,327,328 U stilago hordei 241 - maydis 244,245,247,248 UV, blue light 77 - DNA damage 172 - patterns 262 - reflection 372,386 UV-B 34

Vaccinium macrocarpon 398 vacuole (s) 35,82 - transport of flavonoid glucosides 35 - uptake of sucrose and hexoses 149-150 Vanilla planifolia 89 Vaucheria 69 - sessilis 69 vegetation 4 - ecology 1 - along highways 9 - potential natural 6 Verbenaceae 393 Verrucariaceae 322 Verrucariales 330 Verticilium dahliae 181 Verticordia aurea 376 - nitens 376 Vezdaea 321 Viburnum opulus 342,381 - prunifolium 342 Vicia 155,156,160,378 - faba 48,157,162,172,220,225 Villarsia lasiosperma 401 Virginianthus calycanthoides 268,269 virus resistance 183-189,192 - - antisense RNA 185,186

- - coat protein-mediated 183-185,188 -- movement proteins 186,187 - - replicase-mediated 188, 189 Viscaria vulgaris 349 Vriesea 387 Vochysia 382 Vulpicida 319

W -compounds 77 Waadtland 9 Waldsterben,neuartiges 12 water 4,5

435

- deficit, effects on cellular processes 18-24 - flowing 9 - relations of epidermis 35 -- of plants 17-28 - stress 44

oxidative damage 23 - - and protein biosynthesis 18 -- and transcription 19 - surplus and plant performance 24-27 waterlogging 24 weather conditions 11 Welwitschia 259 Wikiaea 326 winteroids 259,270 wobbling 87

X-ray microanalysis 42 X anthomonas 38 - campestris pv phaseoli 180 - orycae 179 xenobiotics, epidermis 36,37 Xerosicyos 161 Xylopa violacea 382

yeast 90 Yucca elata 384

Zea 257 - mays 107,220,226,229,255,293 zinc, leaf epidermis 44 Zinnia 357,359,366 - elegans 356 Zippelia 265 zoophily 379-388 Zostera marina 339,389