1
function is described. A modified 17-gauge Huber-point directional needle was used to place a catheter with stylet into either the epidural or subarachnoid space at the lumbosacral intervertebral junction. The catheter was positioned at either the midsacral ($2-3) subarachnoid space or caudal portion of the sacral (S-3 to S-5) epidural space in 7 mares. The position of the catheter was confirmed radiographically. A 2% solution of mepivacaine H CI was used at an average dose of 0.061 +/-0.013 mg/kg (1.3+/-0.3M1) to produce CSA and 0.196+/-0.034 mg/kg(4, l+/-0.7ml) to produce CEA. Onset of an analgesia to superficial and deep muscular pinprick stimulation was faster with CSA than it was with CEA (8.2+/-2.4 minutes vs 21.4+/- 3.8 minutes). Maximal caudal analgesia extended from spinal cord segments S-I to coccyx during CSA and CEA. Periods of analgesia were shorter with CSA than with CEA (70.0+/-21.8 minutes vs 102.1+/-13.2 minutes). Perineal (S-4 to S-5) dermatome subcutaneous temperature was increased after epidural and subarachnoid injections of mepivacaine HCI solution. Heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures, pulse pressure, rectal temperature, arterial blood gas tensions (Pa~o2,Pao2), pHa, hematocrit, and total solid concentrations did not change significantly from base-line values after injection. The benefits and potential complications of CSA and CEA in horses are discussed. Author's address: Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Structural Proteins of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus and their Antigenic Activity. Masaaki Nishimura, DVM,PhD, and Hideo Nakajima, DVM,PhD. Am J Vet Res 45:1, 5-9 (1984). Using purified equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus labeled with 3H-glucosamine or ~4C-protein hydrolysate, structural proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. As a result, 2 glycoproteins and 10 proteins with molecular weights (mol wt) ranging from 12,000 to 115,000 daltons were demonstrated. Of 12 structural proteins, 3 proteins, namely a glycoprotein with mol wt of 76,000 (gp76) and 2 proteins with mol wt of 25,000 (p25) and 12,000 (p 12), respectively, had distinct antigenic activity from one another in immunodiffusion. Development of antibodies against gp76 and p25 was compared in infected horses. The antibody to gp76 appeared earlier and stronger than to p25 in horses infected with the homologous virus strain. The fraction with glycoproteins was found to have hemagglutinating activity which was inhibited by the serum sample from horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus. Authors address:National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondi 3-1-1, Yatabemachi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 305 Japan. Present address is Nippon Vaccine Co, Ltd, 7 Oja- machi, Sakura-shi, Chiba-ken, 285 Japan. Hyperglycemia and Hypoinsulinemia during Xylazine- ketamine Anesthesia in Thoroughbred Horses. W.J. Tranquilli,DVM,MS: J.C. Thurmon,DVM,MS; C.A. Neff- Davis, MS; L.E. Davis,DVM,PhD; G.J. Benson, DVM,MS; W. Hoffman, DVM,PhD; T.F. Lock, DVM,MS. AmJ Vet Res 45:1, 11-14 (1984). Plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in Thoroughbreds administered Xylazine hydrochloride (1.1 mg/kg; IV) and ketamine hydrochloride (2.2 mg/kg; IV) at dosages sufficient to induce short periods of recumbency and anesthesia were measured. Samples of blood were collected from 6 adult horses before, during, and after the anesthetic Volume 4, Number 3 period. Plasma glucose (mg/dl) was significantly increased above control (-30 minute concentration) from 15 to 150 minutes after xylazine administration with the peak value occurring at 30 minutes. Serum insulin (1aU/ml) was significantly decreased from control from 5 to 90 minutes after xylazine administraion, with the nadir occurring at 15 minutes. The alterations in plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in xylazine-ketamine-anesthetized horses were similar to the changes in xylazine-sedated horses. Authors address: Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine (Tranquilli, Thurmon, Davis, Benson, Hoffman, Lock) and Veterinary Bioscience (Neff-Davis, Davis), University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 Blood-gas Tensions and Acid-base Status in Ponies during Treadmill Exercise. Christine M. Parks,DVM,PhD, and Murli Manohar, BVS,PhD.Am J Vet Res 45:1, 15-19 (1984). Blood-gas tensions and acid-base status were examined in 8 healthy grade ponies at rest (heart rate -- 55 +/- 3 beats/min) and during moderate (fast trot; heart rate = 155 +/- 3 beats/min) and severe (gallop; heart rate -- 218 +/- 7 beats/min) exercise performed on a treadmill. Arterial oxygen tension and hemoglobin-oxygen saturation of exercising ponies did not change from the resting values. Arterial oxygen content increased markedly during exercise, as a consequence of increased hemoglobin concentration. The total oxygen content, as well as the saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in the mixed venous blood, decreased at each intensity of exercise. Arterial carbon dioxide tension decreased with moderate (16%) and severe (29%) exercise, indicating hyperventilation. In galloping ponies, during steady-state severe exericise marked metabolic acidosis developed, as indicated by a sharp increase in the arterial concentration of lactic acid (11.6 +/- 1.3 mM/L during severe exercise vs 0.6 +/- 0.3 mM/L at rest). This increase in lactate was accompanied by a decrease in arterial p H and bicarbonate concentration. Authors address: Department of Veterinary Bioscience, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801. Detection of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus in Horse Leukocyte Cultures Derived from Horses in Various Stages of Equine Infectious Anemia Viral Infection. Karin Schiffer Evans, MS; Susan L. Carpenter, MS; Martin Sevoian, VMD,MS. Am J Vet Res 45:1, 20-25 (1984). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EL1SA) antigen- positive and agar-gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) -negative horses do not have infective equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus. The ELISA testing of horse leukocyte culture (HLC) supernatants did detect EIA virus in a H LC that was infected with the Wyoming strain of EIA virus and in H LC derived from horses in febrile, acute, or subacute stages of EIA infection. In supernatants of HLC derived from chronic and inapparent carrier horses, EIA virus was not detected with ELISA. Direct fluorescent antibody tests detected EIA virus in HLC infected with 106TCID 5° of the Wyoming strain of EIA virus and in 50% of the HLC from febrile acute or subacute horses. The direct fluorescent antibody testing of HLC derived from chronic and inapparent carrier horses did not detect cell- associated EIA virus. The pony inoculation test proved to be the most reliable and accurate method for detecting infective EIA virus in horses in various stages of EIA infection and accurately correlated with the AGID test. Authors address: Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. 145

Structural proteins of equine infectious anemia virus and their antlgenic activity

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Page 1: Structural proteins of equine infectious anemia virus and their antlgenic activity

function is described. A modified 17-gauge Huber-point directional needle was used to place a catheter with stylet into either the epidural or subarachnoid space at the lumbosacral intervertebral junction. The catheter was positioned at either the midsacral ($2-3) subarachnoid space or caudal portion of the sacral (S-3 to S-5) epidural space in 7 mares. The position of the catheter was confirmed radiographically. A 2% solution of mepivacaine H CI was used at an average dose of 0.061 +/-0.013 mg/kg (1.3+/-0.3M1) to produce CSA and 0.196+/-0.034 mg/kg(4, l+/-0.7ml) to produce CEA. Onset of an analgesia to superficial and deep muscular pinprick stimulation was faster with CSA than it was with CEA (8.2+/-2.4 minutes vs 21.4+/- 3.8 minutes). Maximal caudal analgesia extended from spinal cord segments S-I to coccyx during CSA and CEA. Periods of analgesia were shorter with CSA than with CEA (70.0+/-21.8 minutes vs 102.1+/-13.2 minutes). Perineal (S-4 to S-5) dermatome subcutaneous temperature was increased after epidural and subarachnoid injections of mepivacaine HCI solution. Heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures, pulse pressure, rectal temperature, arterial blood gas tensions (Pa~o2,Pao2), pHa, hematocrit, and total solid concentrations did not change significantly from base-line values after injection. The benefits and potential complications of CSA and CEA in horses are discussed.

Author's address: Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Structural Proteins of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus and their Antigenic Activity. Masaaki Nishimura, DVM,PhD, and Hideo Nakajima, DVM,PhD. A m J Vet Res 45:1, 5-9 (1984).

Using purified equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus labeled with 3H-glucosamine or ~4C-protein hydrolysate, structural p ro te ins were ana lyzed by sod ium dodecyl sul fa te- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. As a result, 2 glycoproteins and 10 proteins with molecular weights (mol wt) ranging from 12,000 to 115,000 daltons were demonstrated. Of 12 structural proteins, 3 proteins, namely a glycoprotein with mol wt of 76,000 (gp76) and 2 proteins with mol wt of 25,000 (p25) and 12,000 (p 12), respectively, had distinct antigenic activity from one another in immunodiffusion. Development of antibodies against gp76 and p25 was compared in infected horses. The antibody to gp76 appeared earlier and stronger than to p25 in horses infected with the homologous virus strain.

The fraction with glycoproteins was found to have hemagglutinating activity which was inhibited by the serum sample from horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus.

Authors address:National Institute of Animal Health, Kannondi 3-1-1, Yatabemachi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 305 Japan. Present address is Nippon Vaccine Co, Ltd, 7 Oja- machi, Sakura-shi, Chiba-ken, 285 Japan.

Hyperglycemia and Hypoinsulinemia during Xylazine- ketamine Anesthesia in Thoroughbred Horses. W.J. Tranquilli,DVM,MS: J.C. Thurmon,DVM,MS; C.A. Neff- Davis, MS; L.E. Davis,DVM,PhD; G.J. Benson, DVM,MS; W. Hoffman, DVM,PhD; T.F. Lock, DVM,MS. A m J Vet Res 45:1, 11-14 (1984).

Plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations in Thoroughbreds administered Xylazine hydrochloride (1.1 mg/kg; IV) and ketamine hydrochloride (2.2 mg/kg; IV) at dosages sufficient to induce short periods of recumbency and anesthesia were measured. Samples of blood were collected from 6 adult horses before, during, and after the anesthetic

Volume 4, Number 3

period. Plasma glucose (mg/dl) was significantly increased above control (-30 minute concentration) from 15 to 150 minutes after xylazine administration with the peak value occurr ing at 30 minutes. Serum insul in (1aU/ml) was significantly decreased from control from 5 to 90 minutes after xylazine administraion, with the nadir occurring at 15 minutes. The a l tera t ions in plasma glucose and serum insul in concentrations in xylazine-ketamine-anesthetized horses were similar to the changes in xylazine-sedated horses.

Authors address: Depar tment of Veterinary Clinical Medicine (Tranquilli, Thurmon, Davis, Benson, Hoffman, Lock) and Veterinary Bioscience (Neff-Davis, Davis), University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801

Blood-gas Tensions and Acid-base Status in Ponies during Treadmill Exercise. Christine M. Parks,DVM,PhD, and Murli Manohar, BVS,PhD.Am J Vet Res 45:1, 15-19 (1984).

Blood-gas tensions and acid-base status were examined in 8 healthy grade ponies at rest (heart rate -- 55 +/- 3 beats/min) and during moderate (fast trot; heart rate = 155 +/- 3 beats/min) and severe (gallop; heart rate -- 218 +/- 7 beats/min) exercise performed on a treadmill. Arterial oxygen tension and hemoglobin-oxygen saturation of exercising ponies did not change from the resting values. Arterial oxygen content increased markedly during exercise, as a consequence of increased hemoglobin concentration. The total oxygen content, as well as the saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in the mixed venous blood, decreased at each intensity of exercise. Arterial carbon dioxide tension decreased with moderate (16%) and severe (29%) exercise, indicating hyperventilation. In galloping ponies, during steady-state severe exericise marked metabolic acidosis developed, as indicated by a sharp increase in the arterial concentration of lactic acid (11.6 +/- 1.3 mM/L during severe exercise vs 0.6 +/- 0.3 mM/L at rest). This increase in lactate was accompanied by a decrease in arterial p H and bicarbonate concentration.

Authors address: Department of Veterinary Bioscience, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801.

Detection of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus in Horse Leukocyte Cultures Derived from Horses in Various Stages of Equine Infectious Anemia Viral Infection. Karin Schiffer Evans, MS; Susan L. Carpenter, MS; Martin Sevoian, VMD,MS. A m J Vet Res 45:1, 20-25 (1984).

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EL1SA) antigen- positive and agar-gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) -negative horses do not have infective equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus. The ELISA testing of horse leukocyte culture (HLC) supernatants did detect EIA virus in a H LC that was infected with the Wyoming strain of EIA virus and in H LC derived from horses in febrile, acute, or subacute stages of EIA infection. In supernatants of HLC derived from chronic and inapparent carrier horses, EIA virus was not detected with ELISA.

Direct fluorescent antibody tests detected EIA virus in HLC infected with 106TCID 5° of the Wyoming strain of EIA virus and in 50% of the HLC from febrile acute or subacute horses. The direct fluorescent antibody testing of HLC derived from chronic and inapparent carrier horses did not detect cell- associated EIA virus. The pony inoculation test proved to be the most reliable and accurate method for detecting infective EIA virus in horses in various stages of EIA infection and accurately correlated with the AGID test.

Authors address: Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003.

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