STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION, ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE orca.cf.ac.uk/112237/1/ آ  STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION,

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  • STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION, ORGANIZATIONAL

    CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE IN TURKISH LOCAL

    GOVERNMENT

    BY

    ELIF GENC

    A Thesis Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirements for

    the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of Cardiff University

    Management, Employment and Organization Section of

    Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University

    December 2017

  • i

    DECLARATION

    This work has not been submitted in substance for any other degree or award at this or any

    other university or place of learning, nor is being submitted concurrently in candidature for

    any degree or other award.

    Signed (candidate) Date 12/06/2018

    STATEMENT 1

    This thesis is being submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    …………………………(insert MCh, MD, MPhil, PhD etc, as appropriate)

    Signed (candidate) Date 12/06/2018

    STATEMENT 2

    This thesis is the result of my own independent work/investigation, except where otherwise

    stated, and the thesis has not been edited by a third party beyond what is permitted by Cardiff

    University’s Policy on the Use of Third Party Editors by Research Degree Students. Other

    sources are acknowledged by explicit references. The views expressed are my own.

    Signed (candidate) Date 12/06/2018

    STATEMENT 3

    I hereby give consent for my thesis, if accepted, to be available for photocopying and for inter-

    library loan, and for the title and summary to be made available to outside organisations.

    Signed (candidate) Date 12/06/2018

    STATEMENT 4: PREVIOUSLY APPROVED BAR ON ACCESS

    I hereby give consent for my thesis, if accepted, to be available for photocopying and for inter-

    library loans after expiry of a bar on access previously approved by the Academic

    Standards & Quality Committee.

    Signed (candidate) Date 12/06/2018

  • ii

    DEDICATION

    To my beloved mother and father, To my dear sister -Zeynep-

    And

    In memory of my grandparents

  • iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    I would like to express my thanks and appreciation to everyone who supported me and

    contributed to the completion of this thesis.

    Above all, I would like to offer my deepest gratitude to my primary supervisor

    Professor Rhys Andrews. His constant guidance, timely advice and vital feedback

    helped this work take shape. I will always be indebted to him for his patience and

    expertise in teaching me how to become a researcher, from his professional approach

    to his ethical attitude. It’s hard for me to find adequate words to express the gratitude

    that I feel for the help and support he offered throughout my PhD. It was a great

    privilege to work with and learn from such an inspirational person. I would also like

    to express my gratitude to my secondary supervisor, Professor Malcolm Beynon, who

    helped me so much by sharing his valuable insights and constructive comments. His

    encouragement and optimism also made a significant contribution to my PhD. My

    third supervisor, Professor Tom Entwistle, showed me different ways to approach my

    work, and I will always be grateful for the methods he taught me. Special thanks must

    also go to Professor Rachel Ashworth for her valuable comments and suggestions,

    which shaped the final steps of the thesis. It was really a great honour to work with

    such leading scholars at Cardiff Business School.

    I would like to thank my sponsor, the Ministry of National Education of the Republic

    of Turkey for giving me this opportunity of turning my dream of undertaking a PhD

    into a reality.

    Special thanks to Professor Hamza Ates for his continuous help and support in

    improving the quality of my work and helping me to develop my skills as a researcher.

    Thanks also to Professor Ramazan Sengul for his guidance and help during this

    process.

    My personal gratitude goes to my true friend Melis Mustafa for her support and

    affection throughout my PhD journey in the UK. I am truly grateful for her moral

    support and patience, especially when I was going through difficult times.

    My love and deepest thanks go to my mother and father and sister for their unstinting

    encouragement. Thank you so much for your love, patience and endless support.

    To all who assisted me whose names are not mentioned here, there are just too many

    of you to list, but thanks to all of you. You helped me so much.

  • iv

    ABSTRACT

    It is widely acknowledged that effective strategy implementation, as one of the most

    crucial stages of the strategy making process, leads to better organizational performance.

    In particular, the literature indicates that implementation style is essential for directing

    strategies towards good organizational outcomes. For public sector organizations, there is

    a common belief that the implementation of strategies mostly fails in practice. However,

    there is still very little research addressing whether implementation style is related to

    better public service outcomes. This study explores the relationships between rational and

    incremental strategy implementation styles and the performance of public sector

    organizations. In addition, it investigates the effects of organizational culture, another

    important organizational characteristics seen as an effective tool for enhancing

    performance. While there are numerous studies in the literature investigating the

    relationship between organizational culture and performance in both the private and the

    public sector, most of this research investigates the direct effects of culture. Here, I

    examine the separate and combined effects of strategy implementation style and

    organizational culture on performance by applying the Competing Values Framework, a

    comprehensive typology which includes four types of culture together with specific

    organizational effectiveness criteria. By doing so, the current research is intended to

    contribute to the literatures on strategy implementation, organizational culture and

    performance. Contextually, the relationships were examined in Turkish local government

    organizations, specifically in metropolitan municipalities – large multi-purpose public

    organizations serving many citizens. The study therefore contributes new evidence on

    public sector strategic management in a non-Western environment.

    A mixed method research design is applied using 134 survey responses and 16 semi-

    structured interviews. Survey data, as the main quantitative component of the study, were

    analysed using multiple and robust moderated regression models. Qualitative data

    collection was then undertaken to clarify the relationships uncovered by the quantitative

    data analysis. The study results confirmed the presence of a significant positive

    relationship between rational strategy implementation and organizational performance. In

    regards to organizational culture types, only the hierarchy culture showed a consistently

    positive influence on performance. Nevertheless, a rational strategy implementation style

    appeared to strengthen the effects of a hierarchical and a market-based culture on

    performance, while an incremental strategy implementation style seemed to enhance the

    effects of a clan-oriented culture and an adhocracy culture on performance. Qualitative

    data analysis largely supports the quantitative findings on the independent and moderating

    effects of strategy implementation style and organizational performance. However, it also

    identified some positive performance effects from a hierarchy culture, a market-based

    culture, a clan culture and an adhocracy culture. Theoretical and practical implications of

    the findings are discussed in the conclusion.

    Key words: Strategy Implementation Styles, Organizational Culture, Competing Values

    Framework, Organizational Performance, Turkish local government.

  • v

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................ xi

    LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................ xiii

    ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................... iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................. iii

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................. xv

    CHAPTER 1 ........................................................................................................................... 1

    INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 1

    1.1 Research Background ............................................................................