Strategy Formulation Implementation

  • View
    146

  • Download
    8

Embed Size (px)

Text of Strategy Formulation Implementation

STRATEGY FORMULATION and IMPLEMENTATIONMANAGEMENT 6th Ed. By: Richard Daft

Prepared by: GREGAR DONAVEN E. VALDEHUEZA, MBA Lourdes College Instructor

Learning Objectives

Define the components of strategic management Describe the strategic planning process and SWOT analysis Understand Grand Strategies for domestic and international operations Define corporate-level strategies and explain the portfolio approach Describe business-level strategies, including Porters competitive forces and strategies and partnership strategies Explain the major considerations in formulating functional strategies Enumerate the organizational dimensions used for implementing strategy

What is Strategic Management?Strategic Management The

set of decisions and actions used to formulate and implement strategies that will provide a competitively superior fit between the organization and its environment so as to achieve organizational goals.

Grand Strategy The

general plan of major action by which an organization intends to achieve its longterm goals.Growth can be promoted internally by investing in expansion or externally by acquiring additional business divisions. Stability (pause strategy) that the organization wants to remain the same size or grow slowly and in a controlled fashion. Retrenchment that the organization goes through period of forced decline by either shrinking current business units or selling off or liquidating entire business.

Three general categories:1.

2.

3.

Global Strategya

separate grand strategy as the focus of global business.Globalization the standardization of product design and advertising strategies throughout the world. Multidomestic strategy the modification of product design and advertising strategies to suit the specific needs of individual countries. Transnational strategy a strategy that combines global coordination to attain efficiency with flexibility to meet specific needs in various countries.

Three global strategies:1.

2.

3.

Purpose of Strategy Choosing

how the organization will be different.

Strategy The

plan of action that prescribes resource allocation and other activities for dealing with the environment and helping the organization attain its goals.

To remain competitive, companies develop strategies that focus on:1.

Core competence

A business activity that an organization does particularly well in comparison to competitors.

2.

Synergy

The condition that exists when the organizations parts interact to produce a joint effect that is greater than the sum of the parts acting alone.

3.

Value Creation

The heart of strategy. Value can be defined as the combination of benefits received and costs paid by the customers.

Levels of Strategy

Corporate-Level Strategy

The level of strategy concerned with the question, What business are we in?. Pertains to the organization as a whole and the combination of business units and product lines that make it up. The level of strategy concerned with the question, How do we compete?. Pertains to each business unit or product line within the organization. The level of strategy concerned with the question, How do we support the business-level strategy?. Pertains to all of the organizations major departments.

Business-Level Strategy

Functional-Level Strategy

Three Levels of Strategy in OrganizationCorporate-Level Strategy: What business are we in?

CorporationBusiness-Level Strategy: How do we compete?

Textile Units

Chemicals Unit

Auto Parts Unit

Functional-Level Strategy: How do we support the business-level strategy?

Finance

R&D

Manufacturing

Marketing

Corporate-Level Strategy: What business are we in?

CorporationBusiness-Level Strategy: How do we compete?

Textile Units

Functional-Level Strategy: How do we support the business-level strategy?

Finance

R&D

Manufacturing

Marketing

Strategy Formulation Versus Implementation

Strategy Formulation The

stage of strategic management that involves the planning and decision making that lead to the establishment of the organizations goals and of a specific strategic plan.

Strategy Implementation The

stage of strategic management that involves the use of managerial and organizational tools to direct resources toward achieving strategic outcomes.

The Strategic Management ProcessScan External Environment: National Global Identify Strategic Factors: Opportunities Threat Implement Strategy via Changes in: Leadership / Culture Structure Human Resources Information and Control System

Evaluate Current: Mission Goals Strategies

SWOT

Define New: Mission Goals Grand Strategy

Formulate Strategy: Corporate Business Functional

Scan Internal Environment: Core Competence Synergy Value Creation

Identify Strategic Factors: Strengths Weaknesses

Situation Analysis Analysis

of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) that affect organizational performance.

StrengthsPositive internal characteristics that the organization can exploit to achieve its strategic performance goals. Internal characteristics that organizations performance. might inhibit or restrict the

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Characteristics of the external environment that have the potential to help the organization achieve or exceed its strategic goals.Characteristics of the external environment that may prevent the organization from achieving its strategic goals.

Threats

Formulating Corporate-Level Strategy Portfolio Strategy

A type of corporate-level strategy that pertains to the organizations mix of SBUs and product lines that fit together in such a way as to provide the corporation with synergy and competitive advantage. Strategic

Business Unit (SBU) A division of the organization that has a unique business mission, product line, competitors, and markets relative to other SBUs in the same corporation.

The BCG Matrix

A concept developed by the Boston Consulting Group that evaluates SBUs with respect to the dimension of business growth rate and market share.

Four Alternative Positions:

Question Marks

The business unit has low market share compared to competitors, however it is doing business in highgrowth market.

Stars

The business has high market share compared to competitors and it is doing business in high-growth market. The market is not very attractive low market growth rate, however the business has high market share compared to competitors.

Cash Cows

Dogs

This business has low market share and operates in low-growth market.

Formulating Business-Level Strategyit is a strategy formulation within the strategic business unit in which the concern is how to compete.

the same three generic strategies (growth, stability, and retrenchment) apply at the business level, but they are accomplished through competitive actions rather than the acquisition or divestment of business divisions.

Porters Five Competitive ForcesInternet reduces barriers to entryPotential New Entrants

Internet blurs differences among competitorsThreat of Substitute Products Internet creates new substitution threats Bargaining Power of Suppliers Internet tends to increase bargaining power of suppliersRivalry among Competitor s

Bargaining Power of Buyers

Internet shifts greater power to end consumers

Competitive Strategies1.

Differentiation

a type of competitive strategy with which the organization seeks to distinguish its products or services from competitors. A type of competitive strategy with which the organization aggressively seeks efficient facilities, cuts costs, and employs tight cost controls to be more efficient than competitors. A type of competitive strategy that emphasizes concentration on a specific regional market or buyer group.

2.

Cost Leadership

3.

Focus

Partnership StrategiesHigh Organizational Combination C O L L A B O R A T I O N

Acquisitions Mergers

D E G R E EO F

Strategic Alliances

Joint Ventures

Strategic Business Partnering

Preferred Supplier ArrangementsLow

Formulating Functional-Level Strategythe action plans adopted by major departments to support the execution of business-level strategy.major organizational functions include marketing, production, finance, human resources, and research & development.

Strategy Implementation and ControlImplementation is the final step in the strategic management process and it is how strategy put into action.Some people argue that strategy implementation is the most difficult and important part of strategic management.

Tools for Putting Strategy into ActionEnvironment Organization

LEADERSHIP Use persuasion Motivate employees Shape culture/values

STRUCTURAL DESIGN Design organization chart Create teams Determine centralization Arrange facilities, task design

HUMAN RESOURCES Recruit/select employees Manage transfers/promotions/training Direct layoffs/recallsPerformance

Strategy

INFORMATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS Revise pay, reward system Change budget allocations Implement information systems Apply rules and procedures

Implementing Global StrategiesIn the international arena, flexibility and superb communication emerge as mandatory leadership skills. Structural design must merge successfully with foreign cult