Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners

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<ul><li><p>8/4/2019 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners</p><p> 1/11</p><p>A Research Work in Educ105- Principles of Teaching II</p><p>DIFFERENT TEACHING STRATEGIES IN ENGLISH</p><p>Submitted by:</p><p>Rhincel John O. De Veas</p><p>BSED-III</p><p>Submitted to:</p><p>Mr. Estelito J. Punongbayan</p><p>August 16, 2011</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners</p><p> 2/11</p><p>Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners</p><p>A veteran teacher helps you understand current research and put theory into practice.</p><p>By Andrea J. Spillett</p><p>Read Andrea's Weekly Blog</p><p>When training teachers, I emphasize ways to put theory into practice by using ELD and SDAIE</p><p>strategies on a daily basis. You can learn about these proven methods each week on my blog,</p><p>Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners.</p><p>The activities and lessons can be used to support all learners, but I've found them to be</p><p>especially effective for teaching English language learners. Feel free to post your comments and</p><p>questions on the blog. I look forward to helping you find effective ways to meet your students'</p><p>needs.</p><p>If you're like most teachers, your classes have increasingly become more linguistically</p><p>diverse. If you're looking for ways to meet the needs of students who struggle with or are just</p><p>learning English, I am here to help! For the last eight years, I have had the fortunate</p><p>opportunity to work with many students who are English language learners. It's been an</p><p>exceptionally challenging and rewarding experience and I am thrilled to be able to share with</p><p>you some of the best practices that I've used in my classroom.</p><p>My background includes three years solely focused on English Language Development</p><p>(ELD). I have also taught the CLAD (Cross-Language and Academic Development) course at</p><p>California State University, Fullerton and worked with veteran teachers to help them integrate</p><p>ELD and SDAIE (Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English) strategies.</p><p>ELD &amp; The Natural Approach</p><p>ELD is an acronym for English Language Development. ELD is the systematic use of</p><p>instructional strategies designed to promote the acquisition of English by students whose</p><p>primary language is not English. According to Dr. Stephen Krashen, an expert in the study of</p><p>second language acquisition and the co-author of The Natural Approach, the best way to learn</p><p>a second language is through total immersion. ELD strategies support this learning method,</p><p>enabling students to acquire English language in a manner similar to the way they learnedtheir native language, naturally and through regular interaction with others who already know</p><p>the language.</p><p>In the natural process of language acquisition, students first develop basic</p><p>communication skills in English. The focus is on fluency and learning to speak English in a social</p><p>context with native speakers, which is why heterogeneous cooperative grouping is so important</p><p>to the Natural Approach. According to Krashen, this method allows for effortless acquisition.</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners</p><p> 3/11</p><p>Rather than getting caught up in grammar and the mechanics of language, non-native speakers</p><p>learn by interacting with English-only models. This approach is most successful when there are</p><p>two conditions:</p><p>1. Comprehensible input is provided, which means messages are made understandableand meaningful to the learner via a variety of techniques.</p><p>2. There is a low-affective filter, which means students are made to feel comfortable andthere is little pressure to learn "it all" right now.</p><p>Here are some ways you can create a classroom environment that supports natural acquisition:</p><p>y Use visuals that reinforce spoken or written words.y Employ gestures for added emphasisy Adjust your speech: Speak slowly; enunciate; use longer natural pauses; repeat words or</p><p>phrases; include shorter sentences, fewer pronouns, and simpler syntax.</p><p>y Exaggerate intonations at times.y Stress high-frequency vocabulary words.y Use fewer idioms and clarify the meaning of words or phrases in context.y Stress participatory learning.y Maintain a low anxiety level and be enthusiastic.</p><p>With these conditions in place, students can't help but learn the language!</p><p>How ELD Is Taught</p><p>ELD consists of five proficiency levels: Beginning, early intermediate, intermediate, early</p><p>advanced and advanced. The four domains of ELD are: Listening, speaking, reading, and writing.Students need to be instructed at their proficiency level for the different domains. It is crucial to</p><p>understand that students progress through the levels of proficiency at different rates. Research</p><p>has shown that it takes four to seven years to master advanced levels of fluency.</p><p>ELD focuses on four skill areas:</p><p>1. Function: Functions are the purposes of communication. This includes socialconversations, jokes, and inquiry.</p><p>2. Form: This refers to the structure of the English language such as grammar, sentencestructure, and syntax. These are used as building blocks.</p><p>3. Fluency: Fluency is the ease in speaking the language. English language learners needample amount of time just practicing speaking English in order to become fluent.</p><p>4. Vocabulary: The development of a wide and varied vocabulary is essential. Researchshows that English language learners should be taught key vocabulary, or brick words,</p><p>prior to a lesson in order to assist them in their language development. For example,</p><p>whatever concept you are teaching, it is recommended that you include vocabulary</p><p>words that will make the content more comprehensible to the learner. A key ELD</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners</p><p> 4/11</p><p>strategy is to provide comprehensible input for the English language learner by the use</p><p>of visuals, realia, and gestures.</p><p>Effective Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners</p><p>By: Karen Pellino</p><p>Students with English as a second language (ESL) constitute a significant percentage of</p><p>the population of our nation's schools. This population continues to increase more rapidly than</p><p>that of native English speaking students (Shore, 2001). The language minority population has a</p><p>high drop out rate. These students are also among the lowest ranking in academic achievement</p><p>and expectations. They represent an at-risk population faced with a wide range of challenges</p><p>(Thompson, 2000).</p><p>This presents a unique challenge for teachers as we strive to help these students achieve in</p><p>learning the English language and the academic material specified in our content area learning</p><p>standards. Every teacher who teaches subject matter in English to ESL students is not only a</p><p>teacher of the content area but is a teacher of English as well. As educators, we must</p><p>continually reflect on our teaching and update our practice to address the needs of this</p><p>population, placing a strong emphasis on the human side of teaching. We must continually</p><p>focus on these students and find effective ways to arrange their learning to help them achieve.</p><p>This tutorial is a summary and critical analysis of four recent journal articles on the above</p><p>subject. The articles focus on the challenges ESL students face and how they translate into</p><p>challenges for teachers. Following the summary of articles, strategies that teachers can use tohelp overcome these challenges will be discussed.</p><p>Learning English and Learning America: Immigrants in the Center of A Storm</p><p>(Olsen, 2000)</p><p>This article considers the challenges faced by language minority children at school as</p><p>they experience what is referred to as "language shock," a struggle to learn the English</p><p>language and be accepted in a society that is not always accepting and not always willing to</p><p>embrace diversity. These students are in a strange land trying to maintain a sense of identity</p><p>related to their native culture and also become American. What a heavy burden for a youngperson!</p><p>Social and political issues surrounding immigration and diversity in our nation</p><p>complicate the seemingly basic task of learning English. The role of schools in the</p><p>Americanization of immigrant students is formally identified as making them fluent English</p><p>speakers.</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners</p><p> 5/11</p><p>Hence, our schools label and serve these students based on their ability or inability to</p><p>speak English. However, ESL students encounter many obstacles in their efforts to become</p><p>proficient in the English language. They often come to realize that in order to be fully accepted,</p><p>they must abandon their native language, surrendering an aspect of their identity. They are</p><p>caused to feel they must either speak English or nothing at all. Thus, they become caught in a</p><p>painful power struggle over the use of English and their native language.</p><p>As educators we need to realize that education occurs in the context of a social climate.</p><p>The relationships between students and accompanying range of social behaviors have a major</p><p>impact on how well ESL students learn English and how well all students learn overall. Children</p><p>cannot achieve in an unwelcoming, hostile environment. Many children are made fun of when</p><p>they try to speak English and also when they speak their native language; so they end up silent</p><p>and withdraw from participation. This further interferes with their learning and achievement.</p><p>The English that ESL students are taught is academic English. They often lack the ability</p><p>to interact in social settings with English speaking peers because they are in separate</p><p>classrooms and often have limited opportunity to interact academically or socially. They often</p><p>have great difficulty learning the "slang" and social English because they have no one to learn it</p><p>from. These children come to prefer English out of necessity, often abandoning their native</p><p>languages to fit in. They end up without comfort in either language and may end up losing the</p><p>ability to communicate with family members and friends in their native land.</p><p>The author of this article concludes that our ESL students will remain torn between two</p><p>worlds until society truly embraces diversity and the notion that biculturalism and bilingualism</p><p>are assets. What is needed in the education of ESL children is the development of English and</p><p>maintenance of their native language.</p><p>Barriers toMeaningful Instruction for English Learners (Meyer, 2000)</p><p>This article focuses on effective ways teachers can help ESL students overcome barriers</p><p>to meaningful instruction. Teachers can use strategies based on social interactionist theory,</p><p>such as that of Vygotsky, to create classroom conditions that foster learning by modeling,</p><p>scaffolding and helping students to construct understanding, with the eventual goal of</p><p>becoming independent thinkers and problem solvers. The author identifies four loads as</p><p>barriers to meaningful instruction: cognitive load, culture load, language load and learning load;</p><p>and she states teachers must be skilled at lowering these barriers and sparking student interest</p><p>and curiosity by developing a creative, wise and passionate curriculum.</p><p>Cognitive load refers to the number of new concepts embedded in a lesson. It is critical</p><p>that we consistently assess prior knowledge of all students, ESL students particularly, and look</p><p>to identify the concepts and skills the students do and do not possess. We must then fill in any</p><p>conceptual gaps by trying to relate new concepts to life experiences of ESL students. Thus, it</p><p>becomes more critical to get to know and understand these students.</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019 Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners</p><p> 6/11</p><p>'Culture load' refers to the way language and culture are related and the amount of</p><p>cultural knowledge required to comprehend meaning or participate in an activity. Meanings of</p><p>words are determined by the uses of words within linguistic and cultural settings, never the</p><p>same in any two cultures. English learners need to learn the words in English as well as the</p><p>cultural background that gives the words their English meaning. They need to learn words in</p><p>context to understand the meaning. Additionally, the information conveyed in our textbooksand lessons is culturally embedded. Some texts or topics can actually be culturally offensive.</p><p>Culture load also refers to how teachers expect interaction to occur in a classroom. This would</p><p>include when to speak, when to stay silent, when to raise hands and when to write. These</p><p>expectations vary from one culture to the next. English learners are often expected to</p><p>determine the classroom behavioral norms independently.</p><p>The author offers several strategies to help teachers lighten the culture load for</p><p>students. Teachers should treat English learners with respect, not judgment, and try to build</p><p>personal relationships with students, their families and communities. Teachers can use</p><p>information gained through these relationships to develop lessons and activities that help</p><p>students understand the American culture while still respecting the culture of the student. By</p><p>demonstrating respect for students, teachers allow a door of trust to open that can serve to</p><p>further deepen a nurturing teacher-student relationship.</p><p>The next barrier, the 'language load,' refers to the number of unfamiliar words</p><p>encountered as an English learner reads a text or listens to teacher or peer academic talk.</p><p>Teachers can lighten this load by rewriting or explaining text material. Complex sentences can</p><p>be broken down into comprehensible parts. Academic vocabulary can be presented at the start</p><p>of a lesson and highlighted. Several different texts can be available covering the same content</p><p>but at different reading ability levels. Additionally, teachers should model both academic and</p><p>social language and scaffold its appropriate use to help the learner acquire it, use it effectivelyand move to more sophisticated levels of speaking and writing.</p><p>The 'learning load' represents what teachers expect students to do with English in the</p><p>learning activities. An example offered by the author is brainstorming, an activity that is oral</p><p>and fast-paced, with few visual examples and minimal clarification in the initial stages. An</p><p>English learner would have difficulty following such an activity, let alone participating. Thus,</p><p>teachers must carefully consider the learning load of all activities involving English learners,</p><p>making adaptations and offering supports accordingly. One such strategy is the language bath.</p><p>This strategy involves the teacher doing the initial talking about a new topic and students</p><p>listening before any brainstorming or other activity is assigned. This strategy is also effective</p><p>with English speaking students. It prepares students to participate by helping to familiarize</p><p>them with vocabulary and develop their thoughts on a topic.</p><p>The last concept discussed is what the author calls the "yearning goad," which is</p><p>intrinsic motivation, a drive to know and learn more. This needs to be cultivated by teaching,</p><p>whenever possible, through topics of high student interest. Teachers should also endeavor to</p><p>broaden student interests by sharing their passions with students. Critical selection and</p></li><li><p>8/4/2019...</p></li></ul>