Steel ConstructionDesign and Research
Hybrid steel plate girders subjected to patch loading New resistance model for plate girders under patch loading Design of trapezoidal corrugated web girders under combined actions Intermediate transverse stiffeners in plate girders Reduced stress design of plates under biaxial compression Innovation brokers for managing interdisciplinary research Chinas longest single-pylon cable-stayed bridge span Reconstruction of Olympic stadium in Kiev
1Volume 5Februar 2012ISSN 1867-0520
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Form + Function = DETANDETAN tension rod systems. Your solution for transparent design.
Many advantages with one result: HALFEN-DEHA provides safety, reliability and effi ciency for you and your customers.
F orm and function are perfectly combined in the DETAN tension rod system. Individual system solutions make it possible to realise even the most complicated designs and aesthetic details both indoors and outdoors.
DETAN tension rod structures can consist of one or all of the standard components shown in this example.
SimpleWith screw connections, no welding is required. Standard tools mean simple and convenient installation.
SafeDETAN stands for reliable planning through certifi cation, type testing and dimensioning software. A high load capacity allows safe use in a wide range of applications and gives more design freedom for aesthetic architecture.
Effi cientMaterials such as carbon steel S 460 and cast steel for the fork ends have signifi cantly increased the effi ciency
of the tension rod system. The high strength of the tension rods makes them thin and saves on material use: cost optimisation and design in a single stroke.
coupler with sailtension rod
connection plate to structure
HALFEN GmbH Liebigstr. 14 D-40764 Langenfeld Tel.: +49 (0) 2173/970-0 www.halfen.comHALFEN GmbH Engineering Support Tel.: 02173/970-90 35 www.halfen.de
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11 Ulrike KuhlmannEurocode 3 Part 1.5: Plated Structures new chances and developments
13 Rolando Chacn, Marina Bock, Enrique Mirambell, Esther RealHybrid steel plate girders subjected to patch loading
10 Rolando Chacn, Benjamin Braun, Ulrike Kuhlmann, Enrique MirambellStatistical evaluation of the new resistance model for steel plate girders subjected topatch loading
16 Lszl Dunai, Balzs Kvesdi, Ulrike Kuhlmann, Benjamin BraunDesign of girders with trapezoidal corrugated webs under the interaction of patchloading, shear and bending
23 Franc Sinur, Darko BegIntermediate transverse stiffeners in plate girders
33 Benjamin Braun, Ulrike KuhlmannReduced stress design of plates under biaxial compression
41 Gregor Nuesse, Mukesh Limbachiya, Roland Herr, Alan EllisManaging interdisciplinary applied research on sustainability in construction withthe help of an innovation broker
53 Yingliang Wang, Chengzao Huang, Yuncheng FengHuangpu Pearl River Northern Channel Bridge, Guangzhou the longest single-pylon cable-stayed bridge span in China
61 Aleksandr V. ShimanovskyAwaiting the 2012 European Football Championship: some features of the reconstruction of the stadium of the Olympic National Sports Centre in Kiev
19 Peoples15 News (see 40, 60)52 Conferences66 ECCS news
A4 Products & Projects
The Huangpu Pearl River Bridge is the key project on the second ring highway ofGuang zhou, China. The main bridge over the northern channel is a single-pyloncable-stayed bridge with a main span of 383 m and a steel box girder, which wasconstructed using the balanced cantilever method (see p. 53).
Volume 5February 2012, No. 1ISSN 1867-0520 (print)ISSN 1867-0539 (online)
Wilhelm Ernst & SohnVerlag fr Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KGwww.ernst-und-sohn.de
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A4 Steel Construction 5 (2012), No. 1
Products & Projects
ing damper mass of 150 kg each is separated into several steelplates such that it can be adjusted retroactively. The plate stackrests on four steel coils which are mounted on a base plate. Thebase plate is bolted to the longitudinal girders. For each damper,the frequency of the coils is tuned to the natural frequency ofthe platform and lie between 2.03 and 2.68 Hz.
Coils plus hydraulicsHowever, the countereffect of the swinging mass plates alonewould not suffice to damp the structure against vibrations whichare created by groups acting willfully. For this reason, Maurerintegrated in the centre of the mass damper an additional hy-draulic damping element which is connected with the mass andacts as internal brake. It converts motional energy into heat, andthis way structural vibrations decay very fast. In comparison tothe undamped state (i.e. without hydraulic damping element)it not only takes more people to trigger a perceptible vibration,but the vibration also decays in the course of a few seconds. The four mass dampers were installed from above in summer2011, by way of detaching the grid irons, lifting the damper boxesto their location and fixing them. After the inauguration, finalmeasurements were made as well as a fine adjustment of thedamper mass.
Further Information:Maurer Shne GmbH & Co. KG, Frankfurter Ring 193, 80807 Mnchen, Tel. + 49 (0)89 32394-0, Fax + 49 (0)89 32394-234, email@example.com, www.maurer-soehne.de
Tamed, but not tameThe name AlpspiX depicts a spectacular viewing platform about1,000 m over the Hell Valley, being opposite of Germanyshighest mountain, the Zugspitze. Two light platforms protrudein the shape of an X into the abyss. However, in case of pur-poseful movements of the visitors, these platforms vibratedthat much that the operator, the Bayerische Zugspitzbahn Berg-bahn AG, decided to make the platform also accessible totourists which are more sensitive to vibrations. The Dampingwith residual adventure factor was implemented by MaurerShne, the world wide renowned specialist for structural pro-tection systems.
The inauguration of the AlpspiX platforms was in July 2010. Theyare located at the Osterfelderkopf, which is only 50 m abovethe mountain terminus of the Alpspitz Track, and thus they alsocan be reached by inexperienced hikers. This in contrast to theAlpspitz peak which is 550 m further up and which will usuallybe reached by means of a fixed rope route.The AlpspiX viewing platform facilitates an undisturbed view atits finest. Only a glass plate prevents the free fall at the tip of theplatform. And a grid iron allows a look into the abyss 1,000 mbelow. But that the steel platform were prone to undamped vi-brations was not exactly palatable for many visitors. Already afew individual visitors created continuing vibrations in the plat-forms not to mention the jaunty groups who purposely createdthese vibrations.
Dampen, but not fixateThe job instruction for the damper experts of Maurer Shne wastherefore to reduce the vibrations but not completely eliminate,by way of tuned mass dampers. Next to the higher attractivenessof the visitors the owner also considered the service life of theplatforms: the less vibrations, the less material fatigue, and thuslonger maintenance intervals and longer service life.The two AlpspiX arms which are each about 17.50 m long aresituated on top of each other and protrude in the shape of an Xinto the abyss. Their load carrying structure consists of two eachdouble-T-girders with cross members. The two platforms are sep-arately constructed and clamped into two foundations each.The tuned mass dampers had to be installed at the tip of thecantilever, because there the vibrations are the strongest. Further-more, the 2 tuned mass dampers each should not disturb the freeview. Therefore, the 340 mm high dampers were placed underthe grid iron, between the longitudinal girders at the tip of theplatform.The four tuned mass dampers of each 340 kg have the shape offlat square boxes with a footprint of 650 650 mm. The swing-
A W i l e y C o m p a n y
Bild 1. AlpspiX: spektakulre Aussichtsplattform 1.000 m ber dem Hllental und ge-genber der Zugspitze
Bild 2. Querschnitt durch Massendmpfer: Die viereckigen, flachen Boxen (orange) be-herbergen die schwingende Tilgermasse (grn) von je 150 kg, die in mehrere Plattenaufgeteilt ist. In der Mitte ist ein zustzliches hydraulisches Dmpfelement (gelb) inte-griert. Der Plattenstapel liegt auf den vier Federn (blau) auf, welche auf der Boden-platte (rot) befestigt sind. Die Befestigung am Bauwerk erfolgt mittels vier Schraubenzu den Doppel-T-Trgern. (Foto/Grafik: Maurer Shne)
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It was in summer 2011 that Ceram KoteInternational GmbH launched the inno-vative, solvent-free coating product PRO-GUARD CN-OC with its excellent pro-tective properties. Extensive test seriesin cooperation with an independent re-search institute as well as relevant prac-tical experience verify the outstandingperformance of PROGUARD CN-OC.
The new solvent-free coating product hasan excellent chemical resistance. Thatmeans stability against: various acids and alkaline solutions
(pH value 411), in some cases up tooperating temperatures of 110 C,
all kinds of hydrocarbons, and killer-solution already > 8000 h
(> 11 months!) of uninterrupted storagein 98 % sulphuric acid, pure methanoland 3 % sodium chloride solution witha mixing ratio of 1:3 in each case anda constant temperature of 50 C.
Furthermore, it has phenomenal adhe-sion: on concrete (direct application without
the need for a primer first is possible), on carbon steel, and on stainless steel.Remarkable results are achieved whencuring at room temperature and there isa great increase in adhesion at elevatedtemperatures. The test procedures and re-sults are described below.
Adhesion tests withPROGUARD CN-OC To identify the adhesion value, shearstrengths were tested with specimens ofstainless steel (see Fig. 1). Firstly, cylindersand base plates were sandblasted, then acoating of PROGUARD CN-OC was ap-plied in the centre of the base plates andthe cylinders placed on these without ap-plying pressure. The coating was allowedto cure at room temperature for 24 h. Af-terwards, different tempering steps werecarried out to examine the behaviour ofthe coating under thermal influences. The prepared specimens were sheared offwith an Instron 4469 tensile testing ma-chine. The determination of bondingstrengths included different analyses of
shear strengths (average of five specimensof each kind) and the fracture behaviourof the coating.
Interpretation of test results The progression of adhesive strength onstainless steel for PROGUARD CN-OCis highly interesting from the scientificviewpoint. After curing at room tempera-ture, the adhesion on stainless steelreached an average value of 17.7 MPa.Tempering at 100 C increases the adhe-sion dramatically by 74 %.A cohesion fracture occurred in the coat-ing at the average value of 30.7 MPa.That means the internal strength of PRO-GUARD CN-OC in shear tests is definedby this value. The true adhesion of thecoating on stainless steel can be consid-erably higher. To assess the actual bond-ing strength, further tensile tests with otherprocedures would be necessary. Whatcauses this extreme increase in adhesionon stainless steel? More surface analyseswere carried out to obtain the scientificexplanation for this phenomenon.
Surface analyses of stainless steelsamples using x-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (XPS)Preparation: All the base plates of thestainless steel specimens from the previousshear tests were cleaned in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) at 60 C and for 72 husing an ultrasonic process to remove thecoating thoroughly. The plates were coatedbeforehand only in the area of the affixedcylinder. Thus, a direct comparison be-tween the coated and uncoated metalwas possible to define the effect of PRO-GUARD CN-OC.Test apparatus: Theta Probe Thermo VGScientific, 400 mm region of examination,10 nm penetration depthAssay method: (source: Wikipedia)X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)is a method by which the chemical com-position of solid objects and their surfacescan be determined. It uses qualitative ele-mental analysis, i.e. it reveals the chemicalelements contained in a solid object. Merelyhelium and hydrogen cannot usually be de-tected because of their low cross-sections.
Products & Projects
Application of organo-ceramic coating product gives phenomenal adhesion on stainless steel
Fig. 1. Shear test in accor-dance with DIN EN 1465
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XPS analysis findings result of examination, exemplary after tempering at 100 C for 4 hThe different C1s spectra of the two surfaces demonstrate un-equal chemical carbon constitutions in terms of their oxidationstate or molecular character.
A6 Steel Construction 5 (2012), No. 1
Products & Projects
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A W i l e y C o m p a n y
Steel Structures The Finite Element Method (FEM) has become a standard tool used in everyday
work by structural engineers having to analyse virtually any type of structure. After a short introduction into the methodolgy, the book concentrates on the
calculation of internal forces, deformations, ideal buckling loads and vibration modes of steel structures. Beyond linear structural analysis, the authors focus on various important stability cases such as fl exural buckling, lateral torsional buckling and plate buckling along with determining ideal buckling loads and second-order theory analysis. Also, investigating cross-sections using FEM will become more and
more important in the future. For practicing engineers and students in engineer-
ing alike all necessary calculations for the design of structures are presented clearly.
Author information:Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rolf Kindmann teaches steel
and composite design at the Ruhr University in Bochum and is a partner of the Ingenieursoziett Schrmann-Kindmann und Partner in Dortmund.
Dr.-Ing. Matthias Kraus is a research assistant at the same chair.
R O L F K I N D M A N N ,
M AT T H I A S K R A U S
Steel StructuresDesign using FEM
2011. 54 pages.
. Softcover. 59, *
eStainless steel, uncoated (red graph): The carboniferous film on the surfaces caused by environmen-
tal influences features a constant chemic...