State NHD Bibliography ¢â‚¬› sites ¢â‚¬› default ¢â‚¬› files ¢â‚¬› nhd_ Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study

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    Works Cited   Primary Sources   Allen, L. C. "The Negro Health Problem." American Journal of Public Health 5.3 (1915):

    194-203. Print.  

    Allen talks about the problem of the African-American "diseases" in the community and states that the main reason for these diseases is a lack of knowledge. He further states that the reason for the high African-American prevalence of syphilis is "ignorance and contagion." We used this in our "Progressive Movement" tab.  

    The American Social Hygiene Association. Social Hygiene. Vol. 2. New York: American Social Hygiene Association, 1916. Print.

      This book deals with the Progressive Movement's ideologies and speaks to the reader regarding the views of people attempting to enhance the living conditions of 19th and 20th century America. It specifically mentions the higher prevalence of syphilis in the African American community.

    Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 140 (1925). Print.

    Robert R. Moton wrote this article in 1925 detailing the need for a National Negro Health Week to help African-Americans become healthier and less impoverished. His Negro Health Week was one of many movements to make the African- American population healthier and less susceptible to diseases. This can be found in the "Progressive Movement" section of our website.  

    Autopsies. 1940. Tuskegee Syphilis Study Administrative Records, compiled 1929 - 1972. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public Health Service. Health Services and Mental Health Administration. Center for Disease Control. Venereal Disease Branch (1970 - 1973), Atlanta. 650718. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. .

      The National Archives provided this primary document, which discusses the medical procedure regarding postmortem examination of Tuskegee Syphilis Study patients. This source details how doctors recorded the autopsy information in order to obtain results for the study.  

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    Belmont Report. Bethesda: The Commission, 1978. National Archives. Web. 19 Nov.

    2013. .   This is a scanned copy of the original Belmont Report provided by the National Archives. We used this in our “Informed Consent” tab in the form of a PDF supplement.  

    The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. N.p.: n.p., 1979. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. .

      The Belmont Report was written by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, at the urging of the National Research Act of 1974, in order to outline moral human subject research procedure. It discusses the basic guidelines for biomedical studies. This source is referred to in the “Informed Consent” tab.  

    Bettman, and Corbis. Penicillin is demonstrated to be an effective treatment for syphilis and gonorrhea. Nature. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. . This photograph depicts a pharmacist posting on his store window an advertisement for penicillin, which became a viable treatment for syphilis in the 1940s. We utilized this picture in the "Penicillin" section of our "New Directions" page.  

    Blood Test by Mr. William Bouie and Unidentified Woman. 1932. National Archives. Atlanta. The Minority Health & Health Equity Archive. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. .

      Though this image is located in the Minority Health & Health Equity Archive at the University of Pittsburgh, the original location of the photograph is the National Archives at Atlanta, Georgia. The picture depicts an African-American woman receiving a blood test during the early stages of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. It can be seen in the “The Study is Born” tab.  

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    Brown, Roscoe C. "The National Negro Health Week Movement." The Journal of Negro

    Education 6.3 (1937): 553-64. Print.  

    Brown, a health education specialist in the U.S. Public Health Service, wrote this article to discuss the National Negro Health Week Movement. We used a quote from the source by Dr. Robert Moton, President of the Tuskegee Institute from 1915, who led the movement and brought it to success.  

    Butler, Broadus, et al. Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Ad Hoc Advisory Panel. Washington: US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, 1973. Print.   This is the final report from the Ad Hoc Advisory Panel. We specifically used part 1-B of the document, which challenges the ethics of the study, especially once penicillin became a viable cure for syphilis. The report mentions the different syphilis treatments used in the study and ultimately concludes that the experiment should have been terminated after penicillin became more available. This source is implemented in the “Terminations” section.

    Byers, J. Wellington. "Diseases of the Southern Negro." Medical and Surgical Reporter

    (1888): 734. Print. In his article, Byers, a physician, argues that African-Americans are anatomically inferior than Caucasians. His beliefs run parallel to those of Social Darwinism at the time. The article was also published in a medical journal. We referred to this document in “Racial Inequality.”  

    Certificate for Participants in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. 1958. Tuskegee Syphilis Study Administrative Records, compiled 1929 - 1972. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public Health Service. Health Services and Mental Health Administration. Center for Disease Control. Venereal Disease Branch (1970 - 1973), Atlanta. 649413. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. .

      Upon the Tuskegee study's twenty-fifth anniversary, the Public Health Service issued twenty-five dollar certificates to participants of the study. This was done to ensure that study subjects, largely consisting of poor Southern sharecroppers, would feel financially bound to the study. A photograph of the certificate can be viewed in our “New Directions” page.  

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    "Chicago Will Control Syphilis You May Have Your Blood Test Free and Confidentially at one of the Following Stations : Chicago Board of Health, Herman N. Bundesen, Pres." Library of Congress. Lib. of Cong., n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2014. .

      This is a poster created by the Chicago Board of Health to advertise and warn the public of the dangers of syphilis. It shows that syphilis was of major importance to both the government as well as the general population at the time. This image is found in a slideshow in the "Syphilis and the Need for Treatment" tab of our website.  

    Clark, Taliaferro. Letter to J. N. Baker. 29 Aug. 1932. TS. National Archives. Macon County. Record Group 90, Box 239, Box 1.

      Taliaferro Clark in this letter states that the potential study provides an "unparalleled opportunity" if conducted in Macon County. Clark encourages Baker to follow him in his pursuit to have the study allowed by the Public Health Service, marking the start of the experiment. The document also provides one with useful documentation regarding when the study was thought of and discussed among the doctors of the time. We used this source in “The Study Begins” tab.  

    Clinton, William J. "Remarks by the President in Apology for Study Done in Tuskegee." Office of Press Secretary. The East Room. 16 May 1996. Tuskegee's Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. By Susan Reverby. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2000. 574-77. Print.

      Clinton made this speech at a ceremony in the White House honoring victims of the study. The transcript came from a comprehensive reference book compiling primary sources that related to the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, Tuskegee Truths. This document is located in the “Clinton Apology” section.  

    Colored People, Bad Blood, Free Blood Test, Free Treatment. ca. 1930s. Photograph. Images from History of Medicine. National Lib. of Medicine.

      The National Library of Medicine provides this photograph, which depicts an African-American woman holding a flyer advertising free treatment for "bad blood." Patients in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study were told they had "bad blood," not syphilis. The photograph can be found in “The Study is Born.”

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    Communicable Disease Center. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. N.p., 1970. Web. 7 Jan. 2014. . The CDC website uses this image of the Communicable Disease Center in a timeline of its history and contributions to health and medicine. The website page discusses notable events in its past from 1946 to 2013. This image of the CDC was taken a year after they held an ethics panel to review the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. We implemented this source in the “Termination” page.  

    Cumming, H. S. Letter to R. R. Moton. 20 Sept. 1932. TS. Tuskegee University Archives. Tuskegee Univ., Tuskegee. Box 180, Folio 1516.   This letter from United States Public Health Service (USPHS) Surgeon General Cumming to Dr. Moton, president of the Tuskegee Institute during the time of the syphilis study, gives a government approval of the study. We used a quote from this document to convey the desire for doctors to conduct syphilis research in Macon County. This source is referred to on the “The Study is Born” page.

    “D.W. Griffith’s Immortal Masterpiece ‘The Birth of a Nation’ First Time in Sound!” December 1936. Poster. Prints and Photographs Division