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SPPA 4030 Speech Science1 Physical Quantities GOOD LINK

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  • Slide 1
  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science1 Physical Quantities GOOD LINK http://www.isd.mel.nist.gov/projects/omacapi/Software/MeasuresAndUnits/Measure sandUnitIntroduction.html
  • Slide 2
  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science2 Physical Quantities Base quantities vs. Derived quantities
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science3 Base or Fundamental quantities Quantities that must be measured Base measures from which all others are derived
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science4 Selected Base Quantities 1. Distance or Length (l) 2. Mass (m) 3. Time (t)
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science5 Systems of Measure English system: fps system F: foot P: pound S: second Metric system cgs system c: centimeters g: grams s: seconds Metric system (System International) mks system m: meter k: kilogram s: second
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science6 What is the mass of speech structures? Vocal folds ~ 2 grams combined!! Lips ~ 25-50 grams each Tongue ~ 150 grams
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science7 What are typical distances moved by speech structures?
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science8 What is the typical duration of speech events?
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science9 Scalar vs. Vector quantities Scalar quantities Has only a magnitude Vector quantities Includes more than one piece of information i.e. Magnitude AND direction
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science10 Area and Volume Area 2-dimensional distance 2 Volume 3-dimensional distance 3 l l l l l
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  • 11 Displacement Displacement is a change in position Is a vector quantity Has a magnitude (basic quantity of length) Has a direction Jaw vertical position Time
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science12 Velocity (v) Rate at which a quantity changes its value v = x/t where v = velocity x = distance t = time May be expressed as average velocity instantaneous velocity Velocity units m/sec (SI) cm/sec miles/hour Velocity vs. speed Volume velocity or flow
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science13 Velocity (v)
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science14 Acceleration (a) Rate of change in velocity speeding up or positive acceleration slowing down or negative acceleration a = v/t where a = acceleration v = velocity t = time May be expressed as average acceleration instantaneous acceleration Acceleration units m/sec 2 (SI)
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science15
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science16 Force (F) Is a push or a pull on an object F = M*a where F = force M = mass a = acceleration Force (or ) (or ) mass (or ) acceleration Force units Newton (SI) dyne
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science17 Pressure (E or P) Force distributed over an area E = F/A where E = pressure F = force A = area (x 2 ) Pressure units Pascal (SI) dyne/cm 2
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  • 18 = area = force Ways to increase Pressure
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science19 Work (W) Force applied over a given distance W = F*x where W = work F = force x = distance Work (or ) (or ) force (or ) distance Work units Joule (SI) Erg Footpound
  • Slide 20
  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science20 Power (P) Power = rate at which work is done Power (P) P = W/t where P = Power W = work t = time Power units Watt (SI) horsepower
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  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science21 Area over which power is focused Intensity is to power what pressure is to force I = P/A where I = Intensity P = Power A = area Intensity (I) Intensity units watt/cm 2
  • Slide 22
  • SPPA 4030 Speech Science22 Resistance acoustic or aerodynamic resistance = pressure/flow In electrical world Ohms Law R=E/I where R= resistance E=voltage I=electric current Note: voltage is an electric analog to pressure