Sport and the anti- doping debate. Doping and deviance Common sense and alternative understandings: testing the arguments Anti-doping policy and disciplinary

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Sport and the anti-doping debate

Sport and the anti-doping debate1Doping and deviance

Common sense and alternative understandings: testing the argumentsAnti-doping policy and disciplinary society and doping in the sport media A short history of football1



4Aims of today

2Doping and DevianceSociology connects criminal activity to the social environment RulesNormsCodes

ViolationWhat are the

?Sociology sees that what is deviant or criminal is closely associated to the social environment. Acts of deviance are violations of rules, norms, codes of conduct or accepted behaviour in society. This leads us to question what are societys rules, norms and codes? Understanding what we see as deviant can help us understand what is normal.3Approaches to DevianceThe Chicago Schoolsocial disorganizationlack of moral codes created by sudden social change Merton (1957) anomie lack of opportunitiesdeviants are victims

The Chicago School of Sociology social disorganization, which it was defined as lack of moral codes created by sudden social change Merton (1957) anomie normlessness which refers to a situation in which there is an apparent lack of fit between the culture's norms about what constitutes success in life (goals) and the culture's norms about the appropriate ways to achieve those goals (means).

Success goals (often defined primarily in monetary terms) are emphasized for everyone in the culture, and people are criticized as being quitters if they scale back their goals. On the other hand, the culture is at best ambivalent in its norms about the apporpriate means of being sucessful.

This links deviant behaviour with lack of opportunities and so deviants are seen as victims

4Approaches to DevianceFoucault (1977)deviant behaviour defines the norm

Young, (1977), Cohen, (1979)deviant to whom? , deviant from what?

Doping as deviance: is there a problem?An estimated 42,000 steroid users in the UK44% of professional North American baseball playersOngoing Tour de France doping scandals

Youd have to be an imbecile or a hypocrite to imagine that a professional cyclist who rides 235 days a year can hold himself together without stimulants. Barnes, J. (2000)

The World Anti-Doping Agency reported that more than 100 potential Olympians were stopped from competing at the Games because of doping, and the International Olympic Committee announced a number of positive tests during the course of the Games. This is good news for clean athletes around the world

Case study: What is our common sense understanding of doping?Steroids would have made a gold taste bittersweet - Chambers

The GuardianMonday, October 13 2008

Dwain Chambers missed out on the Beijing Olympics after his lifetime ban was upheld by the BOA in August.

What are the beliefs about doping that underlie these statements from the newspapers about doping?8Athlete vs. Institution

10Doping as unhealthy

Doping as cheating

Doping as rare

Doping as simple11Is there an alternative reading?Doping as part of elite sporting culture?

Competitive athletes perceptions:

It is a common secret. I suppose the majority use. Their performances show that. (Interview No.4)

Of course [my coach knows Im using]. Who do you think is doing the injections? (Interview No.14)

12Coach involvementOf course, we are working together. We are both trying to use them properly in order to achieve the best results and avoid health side effects. I would never use something without his guidance. (Interview No.1)

Doping as a normalised practiceThey (doping tests) are for lying to the people. We are not the real cheaters. Almost everybody is using at a higher level. But trying to present a false image to the society is cheating. (Interview No.3)

Drugs and the culture of sportSport cannot be separated from society

Coach-athlete relationship

Pressures to succeed

The Networked AthleteSport cannot be separated from society(Houlihan, 1999, Waddington, 2000, Fahey, 1986, Newsholme et al., 1992)Outside sport, drugs offer solutions to many aspects of contemporary society and have become widely acceptedVoy (1991) medicalisation of performanceRelationship between athlete and training teamAthletes and coaches under enormous pressures to succeed (Newsholme et al., 1992; Miah, 2004)

15The paradox of dopingCitius, Altius, Fortius

Sporting institution wants records but bans means to get themAnti-doping policy => punishment of the (athlete) offenderResponsibilities of the institution obscured

Sporting institution asks for records and performance enhancement => Citius, Altius, FortiusHowever, the same sporting institution has banned certain substances and techniques that enhance performanceConstruction of deviance =>Obscures the responsibilities of the institution Anti-doping policy => punishment of the (athlete) offender

16Testing the argumentsDoping is not fairIs sport fair?Doping is unnaturalAre sporting bodies natural bodies?Anti-Doping PolicyIn what way does anti-doping policy illustrate Foucaults ideas about disciplinary society?

SurveillanceSmall, regular punishmentsInternalising the gazeDocile bodies

WADA Anti-Doping CodeAnti-Doping rulesProhibited listTestingHearingAppeal World Anti-Doping Agency

WADA- ADAMSADAMS videoAnti-Doping Administration & Management System is a web-based database management systemAthlete has a personalised online profile of responsibility

Monitoring the athlete

Disciplining the athlete

Contradictions of anti-doping policyTwo apparent themes:moral argumentprotection of athletes health Safest substance vs most difficult to detectHigh risks from legitimate substances and techniquesIgnores most at risk groups such as bodybuilders

Doping and the mediaWhat role does the media play in the doping debate?

Agenda buildingLang and Lang (1983) described agenda building as a collective process in which media, government and the citizenry reciprocally influence one another in at least some respects (p58). Zucker (1978) explained that, the more the public relies on media for information about an issue, the more the public agenda will be consistent with the press agenda.

24Doping is complex butDoping policy ignores this complexityand has gained global acceptance as the only realityWhy do we accept this simplistic message?

Athens 2004

Black shadow over the celebration: Night of mystery with Kenderis and Thanou - and doping in the background26ThebeThe triumph took away the sadness: Unrepeatable ceremony Tributes from the international mass media

Cartoon: Thebes and Athena mascots of the gamesThey have disappearedThey want to chase them for an anti-doping test27Doping in the sport media IndividualisationSpectacularisationConfusion/suspicionDramatisationLack of evidence/explanationLack of clarity gaps in knowledgeSilences alternative perspectives

Doping Policy and the MediaAnti-Doping policy frames a complex phenomenon as simple

Punishment oriented

Justifies excessive surveillance and control of athletesharsh career-ending penaltiesComplexities and contradictions are obscured by repeated simplistic media message

Is it time for doping to be permitted in sport?A short history of football1



4Understood sociological approaches to doping and devianceExplored and tested the arguments surrounding doping in sport

Considered WADA and anti-doping policy in the light of Foucaults concepts of discipline and surveillance

Reflected on the medias role in shaping the policy agenda for dopingYou have learnt