SPM Chemistry

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  • 7/30/2019 SPM Chemistry


    SPM Chemistry Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds

    1. Organic compounds carbon containing compounds with covalent bonds.2. Inorganic compounds non-living things and usually do not contain carbon but few

    carbon containing inorganic compounds such as CO2, CaCO3 and KCN.

    3. Hydrocarbons organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atom only.4. Non-hydrocarbons organic compounds that contain other elements (oxygen, nitrogen,

    iodine, phosphorus)

    5. Saturated hydrocarbons only single bonded (Carbon-Carbon) hydrocarbons.6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons at least one double / triple bonded (Carbon-Carbon)


    7. Complete combustion organic compounds burn completely which form CO2 and H2O.Example: C2H5OH (l) + O2 (g) > 2CO2 (g) + 3H2O (l)

    8. Incomplete combustion organic compounds burn with limited supply of O2 whichform C (soot), CO, CO2 and H2O.

    Homologous Series

    Homologous series organic compounds with similar formulae and properties. It have

    thephysical properties that change gradually as the number of carbon atoms in a molecule




    General Formula Functional group

    Alkane CnH2n+2 n = 1, 2, 3, Carbon-carbon single bond

    - C C -

    Alkene CnH2n n = 2, 3, 4, Carbon-carbon double bond

    - C = C -

    Alkynes CnHn n = 2, 3, 4, Carbon-carbon triple bond- C = C -

    Arenes CnH2n-6 n = 6, 7, 8, - C = C -

    delocalised / free to move

    around the ring

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    Alcohol CnH2n+1OH n = 1, 2, 3, Hydroxyl group

    - OH



    CnH2n+1COOH n = 0, 1, 2 Carboxyl group

    - COOH

    Esters CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 n = 0, 1, 2,

    m = 1, 2, 3,

    Carboxylate group

    - COO -

    Sources ofHydrocarbon:

    1. Coal from the lush vegetation that grew in warm shallow coastal swamps or dead

    plantsslowly become rock. Mainly contains of hydrocarbon and some sulphur and nitrogen. It is

    used to produce: fertiliser, nylon, explosives and plastics.

    2. Natural gas from plants and animals and trapped between the layers of impervious

    rocks (on top of petroleum). Mainly contains of methane gas and other gas such

    as propane andbutane. It is used for: cooking, vehicle and generate electrical power.

    3. Petroleum from plants and animals and trapped between the layers of impervious rocks.

    It is a complex mixture of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons and sulphurcompound. These

    compounds can be separated by using fractional distillation.

    < 35C petroleum gas 35C 75C Petrol (gasoline) 75C 170C Naphtha 170C 230C Kerosene 230C 250C Diesel 250C 300C Lubricating oil 300C 350C Fuel oil > 350C Bitumen

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    A)IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) is used to

    nameorganic compound.

    Organic compound is divided into three portions which is Prefix + Root + Suffix.


    Prefix name of the branch or side chain.General formula: CnH2n+1 Where n = 1, 2, 3, (n = number of carbon)

    Formula Branch or name of group

    CH3 - methyl

    C2H5 - ethyl

    C3H7 - propyl

    C4H9 - butyl

    C5H11 - pentyl

    2. Alkyl group signifies that it is not part of the main chain.3. Two or more types of branches are present, name them in alphabetical order.

    umber of side chain Prefix

    2 Di-

    3 Tri-

    4 Tetra-

    5 Penta-

    6 Hexa-

    4. More than one side chains are present, prefixes are used.

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    5. Root the parent hydrocarbon (denotes the longest carbon chain).umber of carbon atoms Root name

    1 meth-

    2 eth-

    3 prop-

    4 but-

    5 pent-

    6 hex-

    7 hept-

    8 oct-

    9 nan-

    10 dec-

    The longest continuous (straight chain) carbon chain is selected. Identify the number of carbon.

    6. Suffix functional group.Homologous series Functional group Suffix

    Alkane - C C - -ane

    Alkene - C = C - -ene

    Alcohol OH -ol

    Carboxylic acid COOH -oic

    Ester COO -oate

    7. Example: 4-methylhept-2-ene.8. Prefix + Root + Suffix

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    B) Family ofHydrocarbon Alkane

    1. General formula: CnH2n+2

    Where n = 1, 2, 3, (n = number of carbon)

    2. Each carbon atom in alkanes is bonded to four other atoms by single covalent bonds.Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon.

    ame of alkane Molecular formula of alkane

    Methane CH4

    Ethane C2H6

    Propane C3H8

    Butane C4H10

    Pentane C5H12

    Hexane C6H14

    Heptane C7H16

    Octane C8H18

    onane C9H20

    Decane C10H22

    Molecular formula is a chemical formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each type of


    present in a molecule of the compound.

    Example: molecular formula of butane is C4H24+2 = C4H10

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    ame Condensed structural formula of alkane

    Methane CH4

    Ethane CH3CH3

    Propane CH3CH2CH3

    Butane CH3CH2CH2CH3

    Pentane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

    Hexane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

    Heptane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

    Octane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

    onane CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3


    Structural formula is a chemical formula that shows the atoms of elements are

    bonded(arrangement of atoms) together in a molecule by what types of bond.

    3. Physical properties of alkanes

    ame Molecularformula RMM Density(g



    Physical state at


    Methane CH4 16 - Gas

    Ethane C2H6 30 - Gas

    Propane C3H8 44 - Gas

    Butane C4H10 58 - Gas

    Pentane C5H12 72 0.63 Liquid

    Hexane C6H14 86 0.66 Liquid

    Heptane C7H16 100 0.68 Liquid

    Octane C8H18 114 0.70 Liquid

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    onane C9H20 128 0.72 Liquid

    Decane C10H22 142 0.73 Liquid

    Alkanes with more than 17 carbon atoms are solid.

    Solubility in water all members in alkanes are insoluble in water but soluble in manyorganic solvent (benzene and ether).

    Density of alkane the density of water is higher than density of alkane.When going down the series, relative molecular mass of alkanes is higher due to

    the higher force of attraction between molecules and alkane molecules are packed

    closer together.

    Electrical conductivity all members in alkanes do not conduct electricity.Alkanes are covalent compounds and do not contain freely moving ions.

    Boiling and melting points all alkanes in general have low boiling points and meltingpoints.

    Alkanes are held together by weak intermolecular forces.

    4. Chemical properties of alkanes

    Reactivity of alkanesAlkanes are less reactive (saturated hydrocarbon).

    Alkanes have strong carbon-carbon (C C) bonds and carbon-hydrogen (C H) bonds.

    All are single bonds which require a lot of energy to break.

    Alkanes do not react with chemicals such as oxidizing agents, reducing agents, acids and


    Combustion of alkanesComplete combustion of hydrocarbons

    CxHy + (x + y/4) O2 > xCO2 + y/2 H2O

    CH4 + 2O2> CO2 + 2H2OIncomplete combustion

    occurs when insufficient supply of oxygen

    CH4 + O2> C + H2O

    2CH4 + 3O2> 2CO + 4H2O

    Substitution reaction of alkanes (Halogenation)Substitution reaction is one atom (or a group of atoms) in a molecule

    is replaced by another atom (or a group of atoms).

    Substitution reaction of alkanes take place in ultraviolet light.


    Alkanes react with bromine vapour (or chlorine) in the presence of UV light.

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    CH4 + Cl2 > HCl + CH3Cl (Chloromethane)

    CH3Cl + Cl2 > HCl + CH2Cl2 (Dichloromethane)

    CH2Cl2 + Cl2 > HCl + CHCl3 (Trichloromethane)

    CHCl3 + Cl2 > HCl + CCl4 (Tetrachloromethane)

    The rate of reaction between bromine and alkanes is slower than the rate of reaction

    between chlorine and alkanes.

    Family ofHydrocarbon Alkene

    1. General formula: CnH2n

    Where n = 2, 3, 4 (n = number of carbon)

    2. Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain one or more carbon-carbon (C = C)

    double bonds in molecules.

    3. The functional group in alkenes is carbon-carbon double (C = C) bond.

    ame of alkene Molecular formula of alkene

    Ethene C2H4

    Propene C3H6

    Butene C4H8

    Pentene C5H10

    Hexene C6H12

    Heptene C7H14

    Octene C8H16

    onene C9H18

    Decene C10H20

    Molecular formula is a chemical formula that shows the actual number of atoms ofeachtype of elements present in a molecule of the compound.

    Example: molecular formula of butene is C4H2x4 = C4H8

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    4. Physical properties of alkenes

    ame Molecularformula RMM Density(g



    Physical state at


    Ethene C2H4 28 0.0011 Gas

    Propene C3H6 42 0.0018 Gas

    Butene C4H8 56 0.0023 Gas

    Pentene C5H10 70 0.6430 Liquid

    Hexene C6H12 84 0.6750 Liquid

    Heptene C7H14 98 0.6980 Liquid

    Octene C8H16 112 0.7160 Liquid

    onene C9H18 126 0.7310 Liquid

    Decene C10H20 140 0.7430 Liquid

    Solubility in water all members in alkenes are insoluble in water but soluble in manyorganic solvent (benzene and ether).

    Density of alkene the density of water is higher than density of alkene.When going down the series, relative molecular mass of alkenes is higher due tothe higher force of attraction between molecules and alkene molecules are packed

    closer together.

    Electrical conductivity all members in alkenes do not conduct electricity.Alkenes are covalent compounds and do not contain freely moving ions.

    Boiling and melting points all alkenes in general have low boiling points and meltingpoints. Alkenes are held together by weak attractive forces between molecules

    (intermolecular forces) van der Waals force. When going down the series, more

    energy is required to overcome the attraction. Hence, the boiling and melting points


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    5. Chemical properties of alkenes

    Reactivity of alkenesAlkenes are more reactive (unsaturated hydrocarbon).

    Alkenes have carbon-carbon (C = C) double bonds which is more reactive than carbon-

    carbon (C-C) single bonds. All the reaction occur at the double bonds.

    Combustion of alkenesComplete combustion of hydrocarbons (alkenes)

    CxHy + (x + y/4) O2 > xCO2 + y/2 H2O

    C2H4 + 3O2> 2CO2 + 2H2O

    (Alkenes burn with sootier flames than alkanes. It is because the percentage of carbon in

    alkene molecules is higher than alkane molecules and alkenes burn plenty of oxygen to

    produce carbon dioxide and water)

    Incomplete combustion occurs when insufficient supply of oxygenC2H4 + O2> 2C + 2H2O

    C2H4 + 2O2> 2CO + 2H2O

    (The flame in the incomplete combustion of alkenes is more smoky than alkanes)

    Polymerisation reaction of alkenesPolymers are substances that many monomers are bonded together in a repeating


    Polymerisation is small alkene molecules (monomers) are joined together to form a long

    chain (polymer).

    nCH2 = CH2 > -(- CH2 CH2 -)-nethene (monomer)(unsaturated compound) > polyethene polymer (saturated compound)

    It must be carry out in high temperature and pressure.

    Addition of hydrogen (Hydrogenation)Addition reaction is atoms (or a group of atoms) are added to each carbon atom of a

    carbon-carbon multiple bond to a single bond.

    C2H4 + H2 > C2H6 (catalyst: nickel and condition: 200C)

    Example: margarine (produce from hydrogenation of vegetable oils).

    Addition of halogen (Halogenation)Halogenation is the addition of halogens to alkenes (no catalyst of ultraviolet light is


    Alkene + Halogen > Dihaloalkane

    C2H4 + Br2 > C2H4Br2

    In this reaction the brown colour of bromine decolourised (immediately) to produce

    acolourless organic liquid.

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    Bromination is also used to identify an unsaturated (presence of a carbon-carbon double

    bond) organic compound in a chemical test.

    Addition of hydrogen halidesHydrogen halides (HX) are hydrogen chlorine, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen iodide and

    etc. This reaction takes place rapidly in room temperature and without catalyst.CnH2n + HX> CnH2n+1X

    C2H4 + HBr > C2H5Br (Bromoethane)

    (There are two products for additional of hydrogen halide to propene. The products are 1-

    bromopropane and 2-bromopropane).

    Addition of water (Hydration)Alkenes do not react with water under ordinary condition. It can react with

    a mixture ofalkene and steam pass over a catalyst (Phosphoric acid, H3PO4). The product

    is an alcohol.

    CnH2n + H2O > CnH2n+1OHC2H4 + H2O > C2H5OH

    Additional of acidified potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4CnH2n + [O] + H2O > CnH2n(OH)2

    C2H4 + [O] + H2O > C2H5(OH)2

    The purple colour of KMnO4solution decolourised immediately to

    produce colourlessorganic liquid. Also used to identify the presence of a carbon-carbon

    double bond in a chemical test.

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    Comparing (Similarities and Differences) Properties ofAlkanes and Alkenes



    Alkanes Alkenes

    Physical state Physical state changesfrom gas to liquid when

    going down the series.

    Same with alkanes.



    Do not conduct electricity

    at any state.

    Same with alkanes.

    Boiling points

    and melting


    Low boiling points and

    melting points (number of

    carbon atoms per molecule


    Same with alkanes.

    Density Low densities (number of

    carbon atom per molecule


    Same with alkanes.

    Solubility in


    Insoluble in water (soluble

    in organic solvent)

    Same with alkanes.




    (Substitution reaction)


    (Addition reaction)

    Reactivity Unreactive Reactive

    Combustion Burn in air and produce

    yellow sooty flame.

    Burn in air and produce

    yellow and sootier flame

    compare to alkanes.

    Reaction with

    bromine solution

    o reaction. Decolourise brown

    bromine solution.

    Reaction withacidified




    o reaction. Decolourise purpleacidified potassium

    manganate(VII) solution.

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    2. Isomerism

    Isomerism phenomenon that two or more molecules are found to have the same molecular

    formula but different structural formulae.

    Isomerism in alkanes

    Molecular formula umber of isomers Structure name

    CH4 - (no isomer) Methane

    C2H6 - (no isomer) Ethane

    C3H8 - (no isomer) Propane

    C4H10 2 Butane2-


    C5H12 3 Pentane2-



    Isomerism in alkenes

    Molecular formula umber of isomers Structure name

    C2H4 - (no isomer) Ethene

    C3H6 - (no isomer) Propene

    C4H8 3 But-1-eneBut-2-ene2-


    C5H10 5 Pent-1-enePent-2-ene2-




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    Non-Hydrocarbon Alcohol

    1. General formula: CnH2n + 1OH

    Where n = 1, 2, 3 (n = number of carbon)2. Alcohols are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. 3. The

    functional group in alcohols is hydroxyl group, OH.

    ame of alcohol Molecular formula of


    Methanol CH3OH

    Ethanol C2H5OH

    Propanol / Propan-1-ol C3H7OH

    Butanol / Butan-1-ol C4H9OH

    Pentanol / Pentan-1-ol C5H11OH

    Hexanol / Hexan-1-ol C6H13OH

    Heptanol / Heptan-1-ol C7H15OH

    Octanol / Octan-1-ol C8H17OH

    onanol / Nonan-1-ol C9H19OH

    Decanol / Decan-1-ol C10H21OH

    4. Physical properties of alcohol

    ame Molecular



    point (C)


    point (C)

    Physical state at


    Methanol CH3OH -97 65 Liquid

    Ethanol C2H3OH -117 78 Liquid

    Propanol C3H5OH -127 97 Liquid

    Butanol C4H7OH -90 118 Liquid

    Pentanol C5H9OH -79 138 Liquid

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    Solubility in water all members in alcohol are very soluble in water (miscible withwater).

    Volatility all alcohols are highly volatile.

    Colour and Smell alcohols are colourless liquid and have sharp smell.

    Boiling and melting points all alcohols in general have low boiling points (78C).5. Chemical properties of alcohol

    Combustion of alcohol Complete combustion of alcohol. C2H5OH + 3O2 > 2CO2 +3H2O (Alcohol burns with clean blue flames. Alcohol burns plenty of oxygen to produce

    carbon dioxide and water. This reaction releases a lot of heat. Therefore, it is a clean

    fuel as it does not pollute the air.) Other example: 2C3H7OH + 9O2 > 6CO2 + 8H2O

    Oxidation of ethanol In the laboratory, two common oxidising agents are used for theoxidation of ethanol which are acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution (orange to

    green) and acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution (purple to colourless). C2H5OH

    + 2[O] > CH3COOH + H2O Ethanol oxidised to ethanoic acid (a member of the

    homologous series of carboxylic acids will be discussed in Part 6). Other example:

    C3H7OH + 2[O] > C2H5COOH + H2O

    Removal of water (Dehydration) Alcohol can change to alkene by removal of watermolecules (dehydration). It results in the formation of a C=C double bond. CnH2n+1OH >

    CnH2n + H2O C2H5OH > C2H4 + H2O Two methods are being used to carry out a

    dehydration in the laboratory. a) Ethanol vapour is passed over a heated catalyst such

    asaluminium oxide, unglazed porcelain chips, pumice stone or porous pot. b) Ethanol is

    heated under reflux at 180C with excess concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4. Other

    example: C3H7OH > C3H6 + H2O

    6. Uses ofAlcohol

    Alcohol as a solvent (cosmetics, toiletries, thinners, varnishes, perfumes). Alcohol as a fuel (fuel for racing car, clean fuel, alternative fuel). Alcohol as a source of chemicals (polymer, explosives, vinegar, fiber). Alcohol as a source of medical product (antiseptics for skin disinfection, rubbing alcohol).

    7. Misuse and Abuse

    Depressant drug Alcoholic drinks, Addictive drugs

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    Non-Hydrocarbon Carboxylic Acids

    1. General formula: CnH2n+1COOH

    Where n = 0, 1, 2, 3 (n = number of carbon)2. Carboxylic acids are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

    3. The functional group in alcohols is carboxyl group, COOH.

    ame of carboxylic


    Molecular formula of


    Methanoic acid(Formicacid)


    Ethanoic acid(Aceticacid)


    Propanoic acid C2H5COOH

    Butanoic acid C3H7COH

    4. Physical properties of carboxylic acid

    ame Molecularformula Boiling point


    Methanoicacid(Formic acid)

    HCOOH 101

    Ethanoicacid(Acetic acid)

    CH3COOH 118

    Propanoic acid C2H5COOH 141

    Butanoic acid C3H7COH 164

    Solubility in water generally in carboxylic acid (the less than four carbon atoms)arevery soluble in water and ionise partially to form weak .

    Density of carboxylic acid density of carboxylic acid increases due to the increases inthe number of carbon atoms in a molecule.

    Boiling points all carboxylic acid in general have relatively high boiling points than thecorresponding alkanes. This is due to the presence of carboxyl group in carboxylic acid.

    Smell carboxylic acid (< 10 carbon) are colourless and pungent smell. Carboxylic acid(>10 carbons) are wax-like solids.

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    5. Preparation of carboxylic acid

    Oxidation of an alcoholThe oxidation of ethanol is used to prepare ethanoic acid.C2H5OH + 2[O] > CH3COOH + H2O

    Carried out by refluxing* ethanol with an oxidising agent[acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution orange colour turns to green /

    acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution purple colour turns to colourless]* reflux = upright Liebig condense to prevent the loss of a volatile liquid by vaporisation.

    6. Chemical properties of carboxylic acid

    Acid propertiesEthanoic acid is a weak monoprotic acid that ionises partially in water (produce a lowconcentration of hydrogen ions).

    CH3COOH CH3COO- + H+

    Ethanoic acid turns moist blue litmus paper red.

    Reaction with metalsEthanoic acid reacts with reactive metals (copper and metals below it in the reactivity

    series cannot react with ethanoic acid).(K,Na, Mg,Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu, Hg, Au)

    2CH3COOH + Zn > Zn(CH3COO)2 + H2In this reaction, a colourless solution (zinc ethanoate) is formed.

    2CH3COOH + Mg > Mg(CH3COO)2 + H2In this reaction, a colourless solution (magnesium ethanoate) is formed.

    Reaction with basesacid neutralises alkalis (sodium hydroxide).

    CH3COOH + NaOH > CH3COONa + H2OIn this reaction, a salt (sodium ethanoate) and water are formed.

    Reaction with carbonatesEthanoic acid reacts with metal carbonates (calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate,

    zinc carbonate).2CH3COOH + CaCO3 > Ca(CH3COO)2 + CO2 + H2O

    In this reaction, a salt (calcium ethanoate), carbon dioxide and water are formed.

    Reaction with alcohols (Esterification)Ethanoic acid reacts with alcohol (ethanol, propanol, butanol)CH

    3CO-OH + H-OC


    9> CH



    9+ H

    2O (Concentrated H


    4is a catalyst)

    In this reaction, an ester (colourless sweet-smelling liquid) (butyl ethanoate)and water are formed.

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    7. Uses of Carboxylic Acid

    Carboxylic acid (methanoic acid and ethanoic acid) is used to coagulate latex. Vinegar (dilute 4% of ethanoic acid) is used as preservative and flavouring. Ethanoic acid is used to make polyvinvyl acetate which is used to make plastics andemulsion paints. Benzoic acid is used as food preservative. Butanoic acid is used to produce ester (artificial flavouring).

    Non-Hydrocarbon Esters

    1. General formula: CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1

    Where n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and m = 1, 2, 3 (n and m = number of carbon)

    RCOOR whereR andR represented the same or different alkyl groups.

    2. Esters are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

    3. The functional group in ester is carboxylate group, COO -.

    CnH2n+1COOH + CmH2m+1OH > CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 + H2O

    First part: taken from the alcohol (alkyl group) Second part: taken from the carboxylic acid (-oic to -oate)

    Name of ester Molecular formula of


    Prepared from

    Ethyl methanoate HCOOC2H5 Ethanol + Methanoic acid

    Methyl ethanoate CH3COOCH3 Methanol + Ethanoic acid

    Propyl ethanoate CH3COOC3H7 Propanol + Ethanoic acid

    Ethyl propanoate C2H5COOC2H5 Ethanol + Propanoic acid

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    4. Physical properties of ester

    Name Odour

    3-metylbutyl acetate Banana

    Ethyl butanoate Pineapple

    Octyl ethanoate Orange

    Isoamyl isovalerate Apple

    Simple esters are colourless liquid and are found in fruits and flowers. Esters have sweet pleasant smell. Esters are covalent compounds. Esters are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent. Esters are less dense than water. Esters are neutral and cannot conduct electricity. The higher and more complex esters have higher boiling points and less volatile.

    Natural sources:

    Vegetable oils (palm oil) and liquids esters can be found in plants derived from glycerol and fattyacids.

    Fats are solid esters (milk fat) derived from glycerol and fatty acids. Waxes (beewax) are solid ester derived from long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols.

    5. Uses ofEsters

    Preparation of cosmetics and perfumes (esters are volatile and have sweet smell). Synthetic esters used as food additives (artificial flavour). Natural esters serves as storage reserve of energy in living things. In plant, wax (esters) helps to prevent dehydration and attack of microorganisms. Esters used as solvents for glue and varnishes. Esters used to make plastics softer. Esters used to produce polyester (threads and synthetics fabrics) Esters used to produce soap and detergents.

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    Non-Hydrocarbon Fats

    1. Fatrs are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

    2. Fats (lipids / triglycerides) are belonging to the group in ester.

    3. Natural esters are formed from glycerol and fatty acids.

    Name of fat Molecular formula of ester Types of

    fatty acids

    Lauric acid* CH3(CH2)10COOH Saturated

    Palmitic acid* CH3(CH2)14COOH Saturated

    Stearic acid* CH3(CH2)16COOH Saturated

    Oleic oxide ** CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Unsaturated

    Linoleic acid*** CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Unsaturated




    * Saturated: C-C single bonds

    ** Unsaturated (monounsaturated): C=C double bonds

    *** Unsaturated (polyunsaturated): C=C double bonds

    4. Animal fats have higher percentage of saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids.

    5. Plant oils have higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids than saturated fatty acids.

    6. Physical properties of fats

    Saturated Unsaturated

    Types of fatty acids C-C single bonds C=C double bonds

    Bonding single double

    Melting point higher lower

    Sources animals plants

    Cholesterol high low

    State at room temperature solid liquid

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    Fats (animal) in general are solids at room temperature and acted as:

    thermal insulator protective cushion to protect the vital organ provide energy and stored in body carry Vitamin A, D, E, K (insoluble in water) Example: butter, fish oil (liquid in room temperature) Fats (plant) are called oils. Oils are liquids at room temperature. Example: olive oil, peanut oil, palm oil and bran oil

    7. Chemical properties of fats

    Unsaturated fats can be converted into saturated fats by hydrogenation (additional reaction) in200C and 4 atm in the presence of nickel catalyst.

    Example: production of margarine from sunflower oil of palm oil.8. Effect of fats

    Fatty food produce high energy but high consumption of fatty food will results:

    obesity raise the level of cholesterol deposition will cause block the flow of blood which lead to stroke and heart attack.

    9. Palm oil

    It is extracted from fresh oil palm fruits. Palm oil extracted from the pulp of the fruits.

    Steps in extraction of palm oil:

    1. sterilising (oil palm fruit)2. stripping3. digestion (crushing the husk and fruit and separate the oil by heating)4. squeezed out the oil5. extraction (separate the oil from water)6. purification the oil (palm oil is treated with phosphoric acid and then steam is passed through to

    separate the acid)

    7. vacuum

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    Palm kernel oil extracted from the kernel or seed.

    Steps in extraction of palm oil:

    1. sterilising (oil palm fruit)2. stripping3. crushing the husk and fruit4. extracting kernel oil5. purification (purify the oil from kernel)

    Goodness in palm oil:

    higher proportion of unsaturated fats. easy to digest and absorb. rich in vitamin A (carotenoid) rich in vitamin E (tocophenols and tocotrienols) resist oxidation in high temperature.


    1. Polymer many small units (monomers) joining together to formed large molecule.

    2. Polymer can be classified into two groups:

    synthetic polymers / man-made polymers (polythene; PVC polyvinyl chloride; artificial silk;and polypropene)

    natural polymers (natural rubber; starch; cellulose; and proteins)3. Natural polymer: Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) (starch, glycogen and cellulose)

    General formula: Cx(H2O)y with the ratio of H:O = 2:1 Carbohydrates have cyclic structure. Monomer: glucose (C6H12H6) Reaction to form polymer: condensation reaction (- H2O)

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    4. Natural polymer: Protein (polypeptide)

    Protein consists of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (some have sulphur, phosphorus andother elements)

    Monomer: amino acids Amino acids have two functional group which are carboxyl group (-COOH) and amino group(-


    Reaction to form polymer: condensation reaction (- H2O)5. Natural polymer:Natural rubber

    Extracted from the latex of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) which the tree originates from Brazil. A molecule of rubber contains 5000 isoprene units. Monomer: isoprene, C3H8 or 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene. Reaction to form polymer: additional polymerisation (one of the double bond in isoprene

    becomes single bond)

    6. Structure of rubber molecule

    Latex is colloid (35% rubber particles and 65% water). Rubber particle contains rubber molecules which are wrapped by a layer of negatively-charged

    protein membrane. Same charge of rubber molecules repels each other. This prevent rubber from


    7. Coagulation process of latex

    The process for the coagulation of latex is summarised as:

    1. Acid (H+) can neutralise the negatively-charged protein membrane. Example of acid: formic acid,methanoic acid, suphuric acid and hydrochloric acid.

    2. The rubber molecules will collide after the protein membrane is broken.3. Rubber molecules (polymers) are set free4. Rubber molecules combine with one another (coagulation).

    8. Natural coagulation process of latex

    For the natural coagulation of latex:

    1. Latex is exposed to air without adding acid (duration overnight).2. Coagulation process occurs in slower pace due to the bacteria (microorganism) action which

    produce acid)

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    9. Prevent coagulation process of latex

    The following are latex coagulation prevention method:

    1. Alkaline / Basic solution is added to the latex. Example: ammonia (NH3).2. Positively-charged hydrogen ion / H+produced by bacteria can be neutralised by negatively-

    charged hydroxide ion / OH- from ammonia solution.

    10. Properties of natural rubber

    elastic cannot withstand heat (become sticky and soft above 50C; decompose above 200C; hard

    and brittle cooled)

    easily oxidised (present of C=C) insoluble in water (due to the long hydrocarbon chains) soluble in organic solvent (propanone, benzene, petrol etc.)

    11. Vulcanisation of rubber

    Vulcanisation process of hardening rubber and increases rubber elasticity by heating it withsulphur or

    sulphur compounds.


    heating natural rubber with sulphur at 140C using zinc oxide as catalyst or dipping natural rubber in a solution of disulphur dichloride (S2Cl2) in methylbenzene.

    12. Properties of vulcanisation of rubber

    The sulphur atoms are added to double bonds in the natural rubber molecules to formdisulphidelinkages (-C-S-S-C-) / sulphur cross-links between the long polymer chains. Therefore,vulcanised rubber is more elastics and stronger.

    This increases the molecular size and the intermolecular forces of attraction between rubbermolecules. Therefore, vulcanised rubber is more resistant to heat (does not become soft and stickywhen hot).

    This also reduces the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in rubber molecules. Therefore,vulcanised rubber is more resistant to oxygen, ozone, sunlight and other chemicals.

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    13. Comparison between the properties of vulcanised rubber and unvulcanised rubber

    Properties Vulcanised rubber Unvulcanised rubber

    Double bonds Decreases (formation of sulphur


    More number of double


    Melting point High (presence of sulphur) Low

    Elasticity More elastic (sulphur cross-links prevents the polymer

    chain or rubber from slippingpast.

    Less elastics

    Strength andhardness

    Strong and hard (depends ondegree of vulcanisation)

    Weak and soft (polymer chainof rubber will break whenrubber is over stretched.

    Resistant to heat Resistant to heat Poor resistant to heat

    Oxidation Resistant to oxidation(reduction of number of double

    bonds per rubber molecule)

    Easily oxidised by oxygen,UV light (presence of manydouble bonds per rubber


    14. R& D of rubber

    RRIM Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia MRB Malaysian Rubber Board

    Rubber Technology Centre

    Various local higher institutions of learning