Spiral-End Beads in Western Asia

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<ul><li><p>Spiral-End Beads in Western AsiaAuthor(s): W. CulicanSource: Iraq, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Spring, 1964), pp. 36-43Published by: British Institute for the Study of IraqStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4199758 .Accessed: 12/06/2014 16:40</p><p>Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms &amp; Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p><p> .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.</p><p> .</p><p>British Institute for the Study of Iraq is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access toIraq.</p><p>http://www.jstor.org </p><p>This content downloaded from 62.122.72.154 on Thu, 12 Jun 2014 16:40:12 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=bisihttp://www.jstor.org/stable/4199758?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>36 </p><p>SPIRAL-END BEADS IN WESTERN ASIA </p><p>By w. CULICAN </p><p>FULL discussions have taken place in the pages of this journal of the distri- bution and chronological significance of gold and silver tubular beads with </p><p>spiral ends in W. Asia and Greece. They were fully treated by Professor M. Mallowan, who recorded finds from Tell Brak, Alaca Htuyuk, Troy Ilg, Veri in the Caucasus, the shaft graves at Mycenae and Mari on the Euphrates.' Spiral-end pendant ornaments from Hissar II and Ur III were connected by Mallowan with the style of these beads. </p><p>Mrs. Maxwell-Hyslop added the reference to the beads of this type in the Poliochni treasure of Lemnos with its well-established Troy llg connexions.2 The occurrence of a necklace of twenty beads in the Dorak treasure provides a further link between Alaca and Troy.3 Whilst admitting that beads of this type lasted over a long period, both authors agree that they made their first appearance in late third millennium contexts (2300-2000 B.C.), where they serve as a loose but valuable evidence of cultural contact in the latest phases of the Early Bronze Age,4 the Mycenae, Mari and Veri examples appearing to consti- tute a second group in the i6oo-0300 B.C. bracket. </p><p>More recently published references show that the occurrences of these beads are no longer divided into early and late groups, but are spread throughout the second millennium and into the first. There must now be added an ornament of late Early Helladic times consisting of two crossing spiral-end tubes5 with additional threading loops at the end of one tube. It is part of a treasure from Thyreatis, Peloponnese, dating about 2000 B.C. Higgins also has pointed out the existence of clay copies of these beads in Middle Minoan I contexts (2000-I700 B.C.) at Petsofa in Crete.8 Within the same range of date must be attributed the necklace of grave 20 at Assur7 which, on the evidence of a seal, is placed by the excavator between I90o-1500 B.C. (the Old Assyrian Period). This was a tomb rich in jewellery and contained unusual cylindrical stone beads capped with gold, and a number of trapezoidal head-bands, simple goid strips with beaten circlet decoration. A Luristan axe found in this grave is of a type attributed by Schaeffer to ' Luristan ancien' and attributable to the end of the Ur III period.8 It suggests perhaps that the deceased had some </p><p>1 Iraq IX 1947 Pt. 2, pp. 17I-6. 2 Iraq XXII I960, pp. I09-i I0. 3 I.L.N. 29 November 1959, p- 754. ' C. Schacflcr, Stratigraphie el chronologie comparee de </p><p>l'Asie occidentale, p. 93. 6 R. A. Higgins, Greek and Roman Jewellery, p. S I, </p><p>p1. 1. </p><p>8 Op. cit., p. 62. </p><p>7 H. Haller, Die Graber und Griifte von Assur, p. Io, pl. ioa. </p><p>8 C. Schacffer, op. cit. p. 485, fig. 263; R. Maxwell- Hyslop, Iraq XI (1949) type 17, where another axe of this type from Assur is recorded. </p><p>This content downloaded from 62.122.72.154 on Thu, 12 Jun 2014 16:40:12 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>37 W. CULICAN </p><p>contact with the Zagros. No precise date within these limits is given to Tomb 20; it can perhaps be argued on the parallels for its fluted-head pins and the axehead as well as a bronze patera9 that a date nearer to the upper limit than to the lower is indicated. The use of spiral-end tubular beads in Meso- potamia is also attested not only by their occurrence in a Middle-Assyrian grave at Marin but also by a single bead in an undated grave at Babylon.1" </p><p>To a date between I200-11 00 B.C. must be attributed the westernmost occur- rence of these beads in tomb AIO at Lakkithra in Cephallenia.12 Four beads from the burial of a young woman consist of double spirals of gold wire soldered to the sides of thin gold tubes. Thus, though the effect is very similar to that of W. Asiatic and Mycenaean double-spiral-end beads, they are constructed slightly differently. With them were found long biconical beads built up of coiled gold wire.13 Although jewels of Mycenaean III type are present in these tombs, including gold melon-shaped fluted beads, the reel-shaped and short biconical beads of gold are foreign to Mycenaean tradition, as is the curious sheet-gold ornament from burial Az14 consisting of a quartered circle topped by two curling feathers. The Anatolian appearance of this ornament ought perhaps to be dismissed in view of the artistic originality of the Cephallenia Mycenaeans.15 Higgins gives a reference to unpublished spiral-end beads from a Mycenaean tholos tomb at Englianos (Pylos).16 </p><p>The other noteworthy occurrences are late in the second millennium or in the early first. Six beads of this type from the excavation of Dr. Negahban at Marlik Tepe in Gilan are shown strung on a necklace of gold spherical and ribbed melon-shaped beads and a pendant of gold stylized pomegranates, all typical of Marlik Tepe jewellery.'7 A necklace18 has biconical stone beads with terminal gold caps, similar to other Marlik Tepe beads.19 </p><p>The cultural affinities of the Marlik Tepe finds, like those from Amlash and Daylaman, are two-fold; firstly to the Talish-Lenkoran cultures of the eastern Caucasus and secondly to the eighth-seventh century metalwork of Luristan20 </p><p>9 H. Haller, op. cit., p. IO, pl. iob. </p><p>10 A. Parrot, Syria XVIII (1937), pp. 8if, pl. XV. </p><p>11 0. Reuther, Die Innenstadt von Babylon, p. I9, fig. 14a; p. 8I, fig. I6. </p><p>i Epbemeri~ Arkbeologik6 I932, p. 23. </p><p>iS Ibid., ikon 3o as found and pinax i8 as recon- structed. Coiled wire beads are common in the late Bronze Age Caucasian graves, e.g. Schaeffer op. cit. fig. 217, and are found amongst the Ur jewellery, Maxwell-Hyslop, loc cit. pl. XI, 4. They appear to be unknown in the Acgean but are found in Bronze Age Sicily. </p><p>14 Ephemeris Arkeologiki 1932, p. 41, pinax i8. </p><p>15 A.J.A. 1937, p. 484; Arkh. Deltion 1917, p. Z22; I919, pp. 82-94, I14. </p><p>la Op. cit., p. 8i. </p><p>' I.L.N., 28 April I962, p. 664, fig. 9. </p><p>18Ibid., fig. 7. </p><p>9 Ibid., p. ii, fig. F. </p><p>20 Insufficient details of the Marlik Tcpe tomb- groups are available to enable a precise dating. A general date of 'early part of the first millennium B.C.' iS all that has yet been given. On analogies with Luristan styles, the date of the gold and electrum vessels from Marlik is nearer to the eighth than the tenth century. Finds of metal vessels and beads from kindred cultural contexts of Amlash and Daylaman appear to be somewhat earlier than those of Marlik Tepe and are probably fully tenth century B.C., but spiral-cnd beads have not been recorded from these sites. </p><p>This content downloaded from 62.122.72.154 on Thu, 12 Jun 2014 16:40:12 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>SPIRAL-END BEADS IN WESTERN ASIA 3 8 </p><p>in the southern Zagros and to that of the Mannai in the northern Zagros. An occurrence of a spiral-end bead at Veri in the Caucasus has been noted; not far distant is the considerable number of gold spiral-end beads from the Kurgan waggon burials excavated on the shores of Lake Sevan at Lschasen in Russian Armenia. Six are published by Mnatsakanian in Excavations of Tmuli on the Shore of Lake Sevan in 195 6.21 They were found with gold winged beads of a ttype found at Tepe Hissar and Mohenjodaro at an earlier period and a gold pendant reminiscent of earlier Hissar types (fig. IG). </p><p>The Sevan Tombs are not sufficiently well published to allow an independent opinion of date. The excavators propose a date in the fifteenth-thirteenth centuries B.c. and this date is followed by Dr. H. Kantor.22 The Kurgans </p><p>of Sevan were elaborate cart and waggon burials of Trialeti type and therefore this date seems generally acceptable. Schaeffer has used a comparison between certain beads at Trialeti and Mycenaean beads at Prosymna and Kephalari to date the Trialeti kurgans.23 These beads consist of two hollow hemispheres of gold soldered together and decorated with lines of granules round the circum- ference and small circlets of granules at regular intervals on the gold backing. There are a number of such beads from one of the Lschasen Kurgans24 (fig. IC, D), even more elaborate than those from Trialeti. The art of granulation appears to have been locally practised at Trialeti and local jewellers were in all probability copying a few Mycenaean imports. The presence of granules </p><p>I </p><p>A c -D </p><p>cl 0 0 1 I., 1. . , I , I -L . i I </p><p>E J </p><p>FIG. I. Gold beads from Kurgan I, Lschasen. </p><p>21 Sovjetskaia Arkheologia 2 (I957), p. I52, fig. II. 22 The Nelson Gallery at Atkins Museum Bulletin, </p><p>IV 2 (I962), p. 4. 230p. cit., p. 5 I4. 24 Sovjetskaia Arkh. 2 (I957), fig. 4. For Trialeti </p><p>and Mycenaean examples cf. Schaeffer op. cit. p. 5I5. </p><p>Other occurrences of these beads in Mycenaean con- texts are: P. Amandry, Collection Helne Stathatou p. 28; P. Stais, Collection myeenienne p. 89; Ephemenis Arkheo- logiki (I 889) p. I 5 I, pl. VII.7. The type is also known in Cyprus, L. Cesnola Collection, Photographic Album photo 3, bottom row. </p><p>This content downloaded from 62.122.72.154 on Thu, 12 Jun 2014 16:40:12 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>39 W. CULICAN </p><p>on some of the Lschasen spiral-end beads (fig. iE) may thus go some way to indicate local manufacture. They were found together with a number of beads in the form of short tubes built up entirely of gold granules soldered together (fig. iA, B). Granule-tube beads, with or without a gold foil backing, hitherto appear to be exclusively Mycenaean, except for a few Carthaginian examples of much later date.25 This further link with the beads of the Mycenaean area not only confirms the general date of the Lschasen burials but fits in with the discovery in Caucasian graves at Nosiri (W. Georgia) and Chuburiskhinji, of faience beads en forme de rouielle ajouree26 discussed by Schaeffer and called by J. B. Wace at Mycenae 'lantern beads'. </p><p>Culturally linked with the Marlik Tepe beads are three excellent spiral-end beads, one large and two smaller, acquired by the Cincinnati Art Mluseum.27 They are part of a necklace at present consisting of stone and gold beads and are said by a reputable dealer to come from Ziwiyeh (Plate Vllla). They were acquired along with other objects from the Ziwiyeh treasure. The dating of this treasure is indeed problematical but whilst certain Ziwiyeh objects (not necessarily from the original hoard) appear to enter the sixth century, the upper limit of the Assyrian ivories from the treasure is the reign of Tiglathpileser, whose palace reliefs introduce vigorous chariot scenes.28 The burial in the late seventh century proposed by some scholars does not preclude an eighth century date of manufacture for certain pieces. Refinement of the arguments on Ziwiyeh dating are here unnecessary: it is sufficient to suggest that on present evidence an overlap between Marlik and Ziwiyeh is possible in the eighth century and that it is to this century that the Cincinnati necklace should be assigned, especially as the other beads on it include long bluish stone cylinders with golden caps exactly of Marlik type and small gold globular fluted ' nasturtium seed' beads of Late Assyrian and Babylonian type.29 </p><p>The question now arises: are these new occurrences evidence of a continued post-third millennium diffusion from the Iran-Caucasus region or Assyrian exports? Assyrian contact with Ziwiyeh is beyond doubt, and Assyrian jewellery, small gold Maltese crosses and diamonds with double-spirals on the corners, is represented there30 (fig. z). An Assyrian pearl with a cuneifornm inscription of Adadnirari I (I304-1267) from Chodsali, shows Assyrian trade </p><p>25Sovjetskaia Arkh. 2 ('957), p. 148, fig. 4 for Lschasen examples. For Mycenaear' examples G. Karo ' Schatz von Tiryns', Ath. Mitteilungen tV (1930), pl. IV; A. Persson, Royal Tombs at Dendra, pl. XXVII. </p><p>26op. cit., P. 514. 27 Accession No. 1953.66, The Cincinnati Art </p><p>Museum Bulletin V 2 (I957), p. 14, fig. 4. 28 See now R. D. Barnett and M. Falkner, The </p><p>Sculptures of Tiglathbpileser III, British Museum, I962. 2D E.g. H. Bossert, Geschichte des Kunstgewerbes III, </p><p>p. 356, 'Goldshmuck aus Dilbat, Sammlung Frau Dr. Hahn, Berlin'. </p><p>30 Not only are Assyrian ivories and gold plaques found in the treasure, but also the jewellery group listed in Kunstschadte aus Iran (Ausstellungskatalog, Zurich x96I), 248. The granulated roundels are com- parable to late Assyrian jewellery, Haller op. cit. p. 28. Dress plaques of diamond shape with double-spirals on the corners are especially interesting for their links with the spiral-ended crosses on the Ephesus Jewel- lery, Hogarth, Ephesus pl. IX, 33-47; pl. X, 33. An Assyrian ' Maltese cross' is worn by the relief figure of Shamsi-Adad V, J. B. Pritchard, A.N.E.P., p. 442. </p><p>This content downloaded from 62.122.72.154 on Thu, 12 Jun 2014 16:40:12 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>SPIRAL-END BEADS IN WESTERN ASIA 40 </p><p>in the Caucasus.31 Also the Amlash jewellery contains local copies of Babylonian 'Ishtar' pendants small discs of gold with star designs stamped upon them (Plates VIJIb, IX). These seem to have been popular in the Caucasus and crude imitations were found at the beginning of the Iron Age at Redkin Lager near Lake Sevan and earlier at Agha Evlar.32 At Amlash these pendants appear to be made by local jewellers; their centres are set with coloured stones and surrounded by bands of typically Iranian guilloche.33 This is especially noticeable in the pendant acquired by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, as part of a group from Daylaman, which contains a gold headband similar to those in Assur grave zo.34 Whilst these instances provide abundant evidence of no...</p></li></ul>