Special TA Office Hours (April 5 th -7 th ) Jason Hildebrandt Jason Hildebrandt ïµ Monday 1:00-2:00 ïµ Wednesday 1:00-2:00 Laszlo Sarkany Laszlo Sarkany

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  • Special TA Office Hours (April 5th-7th)Jason HildebrandtMonday 1:00-2:00Wednesday 1:00-2:00Laszlo SarkanyMonday 10:00-12:00Monday 1:00-3:00Nadir BudhwaniTBAEsmorie MillerTuesday 11:00-12:00Wednesday 11:00-12:00Matt ORourkeTuesday 10:00-11:00Tuesday 1:00-2:00Korhan YazganMonday 1:00-2:00Wednesday 1:00-2:00Nikki PetruniakTuesday, 10:00-11:00Tuesday 1:00-2:00Herb ShieldsTuesday 1:00-3:00Wednesday 1:00-3:00

  • Electoral Systems (Contd)Ensuring Representation, Ensuring StabilityMarch 30th, 2004

  • Alternative Systems: Proportional Representationrepresentation (# of seats) directly proportional to share of popular vote received (# of votes)

  • Hypothetical Results Under Different Electoral Systems - 2000 Election

  • Hypothetical Results Under Different Electoral Systems - 2000 Election

  • Hypothetical Results Under Different Electoral Systems - 2000 Election

  • Electoral Systems & DemocracySMPS exaggerates political dominance of largest group of voters to emphasize leadership, stability and accountabilitydo all models of democracy value bold leadership equally??creates false majority ruleconcern with rights of minorities?concern with representation?proportional representationmore competition and choice better representation of various interestsmore effective and meaningful political participation higher level of consensus required for government to act

  • Political PartiesInterest AggregationInterest RepresentationMarch 30th, 2004

  • Political Parties vs. Interest Groupsinterest groups strive to influence political outcomespolitical parties strive to become the governing partyboth represent political interestspolitical parties also aggregate interestsin doing so, political parties act to filter interests

  • Type of Political Partiesbasis of organizationelectoral-professional parties vs. mass partiesbasis of electoral competitionpragmatic parties (brokerage parties)ideological-programmatic parties interest partieshttp://www.guinnessvote.ca/register.html

  • Ideological/Programmatic Partiesorganized around social cleavagesclassreligionethnicityregiontraditional conceptions of ideologyleft vs. right

  • The Ideological SpectrumThe Left -- SocialistThe Right -- Conservativegovernment regulation of the economypolicies to help disadvantaged groupspolicies to redistribute incomegreater reliance on the marketfewer government regulationsno special treatment for special interest groupslower taxesMore GovtLess Govt

  • General Trends -- Political Partiesthe rise of pragmatismincreasingly parties try to compete for the middle grounddifferences between parties fading

  • The Ideological Spectrum The Rise of PragmatismThe Left -- SocialistThe Right -- ConservativeTony Blair (Britain) New LabourBill Clinton (US) New DemocratsGeorge W. Bush (US) Compassionate Conservatism

  • General Trends -- Political Partiessingle member plurality systems encourage pragmatic parties; PR promotes ideological/interest partiesthe rise of pragmatismparties increasingly competing to occupy the centre of the political spectrumreasons?success of pragmatic parties has been self-reinforcingthe fall of communismaffluence of western industrialized societies

  • Political Parties & Democracymass parties vs. electoral-professional partiesmass parties encourage greater participation in politics by the publicmajoritarian democratselectoral-professional partiesparties perform minimalist function of structuring electionselite democrats

  • Political Parties & Democracyideological/interest parties vs. pragmatic partiesideological/interest partiesgives clear electoral choiceshelp make elections meaningfulencourages greater mass participationmajoritarian democratspragmatic partiesdepend on party elites (to broker deals among various interests)electionsdifferences between parties are limitedelectoral choice is really about best management teamelite democrats

  • Political Parties & Democracyliberal democratscrucial point is that individuals remain free to form political parties (and contest elections) free from state interference

  • Interest GroupsInterest Representation

  • Interest Groupsorganizations whose members act together to influence govt policy on specific issues, without contesting elections (different from parties!)how do they influence -- lobbyingplay an important role in representing citizen demands to govt

  • Determinants of Interest Group Influence:size (membership) and cohesioninformation, expertiseleadership, level of organizationfinancial resourceshigh-status (celebrity) membershipvalues, goals, tactics, issue -- compatible with broader public opinion?ability to sway public opinion

  • Determinants of Influence -- Institutionalizationinstitutionalization -- degree to which a group has become an acknowledged actor in/part of the political processlevels of institutionalizationinstitutional/associational/anomicdanger for group -- co-optationto become institutionalized, interest groups must adopt norms and behaviours inside the broader governing consensusmust be more concerned with preserving priveleged position in the long-term than winning on certain issuesdanger for government capturegovernment relies on group to the point that it loses it ability to act autonomously in that issue area

  • What Interest Groups Do -- Lobbyingtacticsquiet consultationslobbying elected officialslobbying bureaucratic officialsmobilizing public opinionmedia campaignspublic demonstrationsthe paradox of interest group influencethe most powerful interest groups are often the most quiet!

  • Interest Groups and Democracymajoritarian democratic critique of interest group pluralisminterest group politics is grossly unevenwell-financed, privileged interests hold the advantagethe paradox of interest group influencethe strongest interest groups (e.g. economic interests) do not have to lobby in order to have influenceinterest group influence displaces the influence of the general publicspecial interest groups

  • Interest Groups and Democracyelite democracyinterest group competition and lobbying (even if grossly uneven) is fine so long as...political elites retain the power to make overall decisions in the general welfarethe summation of all interest group demands does not equal the general welfare

  • Interest Groups and Democracyliberal democracypluralismas long as individuals are free to form interest groups, interest group competition represents interests in societygroups do not have to be equal; groups have to have equal opportunity to compete