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Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

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Page 1: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum
Page 2: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

a

Page 3: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

HA|.OAHIJ MY3EJ NOX.\PEB4q

,{parara Cracrh - Byprh

BNMI4HAUWYMznssHu zpsg pu,,uc$e

upoeuHuuJelopne Mesuje

Page 4: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

HAPoAHrrMv3Errox^ptrn^un0xrpcBtrtr Bojc nuntu rr)

$iii: mrcjpo@pi,.rn

Rerpr'I||0'rrn

@'adrr4rr

oom-roxrmorq|jr N|rIj'

Rokq Bbirmunjy . ' orka '

Page 5: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

n PLlfo rJo P

3HacajHa u noqrxsauHnt tbuio o tByseaHo uoaogy.Ha. upno ce o|o 120 ne.ia 09 fagncy, MtLtajio Baa-upaRutL a nouok uMuroie Bacuti ca auHxeataH.Ko!pal GHo aouhy u t ptg uuul o Misanownu ucnPMuBahe u oqudjHueatbe BuuHauubha. oga3eaiu cr cet$rct eekoBd, 3ou0u I uaMHo tgy6a|o jdzpo aprconorute 36L4'e,ocituBuqruu ieHepourt4to qu ceiaia$o apu6ntMaeajy ouu.Kr zPaqo.xpy Re rB ujc tc ur t p., c uPa Hc uaqo.O6yxeofreH je nuaeHujyi: as p.tbabaKo6He rciwcKe qenfujcke naxJqe

FOREWORD

h h importaft and enterpr^i g book dbout an etuaonlinannotiw. 120 years hw ldssed sin.eMihajlo Yahrctitt and then MilojeIlasit stafte.r researching and solringthe secrct )rith Winkelmanlt cutiasittand etudition. They rcspon.le.t to anappealron centuries, vetu nno ada* dnd dept core afarchealogicalrcdlity, having left to generctions toapprodLh slavu kt the ma* of theto)rn, to the cnv,n of Moesiak eatent.A niUenniun was ihcluded: si ce thebirth oJ evil Celtic lustlion the hegin-ning aJ the 7tr tentury A.D.

Uninaciun gaw nluchspLendour of the sun akll the noon bulthe secrct ke?t groving up to the border to thich it ma), be rcached at thistevel of resurch and much morc thotthis: she intlicdted the spleulour ofda*ened horizons as '|eI as thoseopened ones far recognized anticipa-tions offuturc resedrch .y/otks. Eachchapter is a powerful ifte/;ttahle sutlyafw ous sesnents of rininaciun'sstory The lrook is inten.le.l and vel

ioaeutKoh I 6eKt t1.H-e., 9adpaqu\eRc xo, HaRo t ocButu a

Ao\euroh Yll aem H.e.

,nopoBaa je Beuu Hdaujr.rHoio cyH\aHot u re.eqeqai clota,u k u utdid pac.n eo:]ac:]oa u

ultuHc|!\ npucu.,4plauHd Cn,nuh -

ypuh je y o6.,j 6pe"\eHuwoj upuhetuhat K$uru uoiznd Zputtuue

otolw ce Ho aRon cuteueHytupafteuocnu.\tolrc gohu; u 6utuetuo,a: Haio3ectuund je cjaj

oaota'e4u\ ornoHotud u u4tt,Aooper at t :)a, pera+atue Haci yue

Page 6: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

qyqthrrit Byasatba. ha|o noinnatueje cfraae&, Hettope\uer c.irqujap a3t u\ui4w.ezte Haaa Buu Htat tjy c$e npuqe. Khu.a je 4a eheHa, u

9o6posou,14. ceua: o9 snquwjHozsHaiau:\rctuHu Kd qo KyndKn nliaqc.tt'cKtE 6u6tuo rue Ko, Hrfu eht Lrcfr euuutu n lytaHuctu ur4u r 3t ta ha.

IpazaHa Cnocuh - Trputt jeBM|Htuujti, Kotn uin jr cPaY,fio Hy q uaa 6 t xo.j,t at LruHo auj I KoilHMepHuky u noxogtuK!. Kbuzr

,, RI1MUHAU .lvM - l,'�IABHUfPAN PIIMCKE N POBAHUIlJEfOPItE MEsIl.IE , npaou 'e!ez,up eno Pyly jtiil cou c dxJ ma\t engeroaa gBHoz c6eu::in oHula.rd$afie MM uuwP aj ek apxco,lo w(ot

Lane to ererybodf: Jion the curioushoneland people to the coners o/'acaleni. Iibraries. the greatest nleet-tug ?ldces of hunanistic hlo\rledse.D lsana Spati' Djutit ha\ o.fferednnina.iunl, which she has in herhettfi, to ewry mexpected guert oJYimindLiun and t,isitor too. I rcIn-nend the baok ,,lt inaciun - theCd?ital of Ronan Ptuvin.e UpperMoesia', a rcdl mark, to all .olledarsofthe pdts oJ the dnrient rotkl atve as to all thase take b tlle llickeraj arc heo lasic a I nlvi ns.

Kouop 21. u 2042.

IIpaQ. qp AnekcaHqap.Io6atnouh

Kota. Jlue 21st, 2002

Pral: dr Atek'and.ttJownori6

F!T,

Page 7: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Ybg

Introdrction

Page 8: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum
Page 9: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

a2L.rlutu/H Hn Ytuht tu neit t nr L

aop! L3tcb! Itc axd u 3ona7o, Croepo uJya.t, RuiaHaaujfs 6au. trr3o. 3a H.6o aEorooe, a.Bajale n qa6ponatepHe nlannne,iu.uard?. u a1t1taB4.. Be3 art,,tPa Hattuior. I hou4a., cot a4u c, , ! aeotuui,Ha adtu a64tuta, nPeao3H|qtbu t.roBe ..azat.utatKa L utPdlat6a brtutauutvleoua uacr.do eetuKu uPteatoutr usnloa u

nyaanrcue XIX utKo u 3a Ha., opkarore\ \t n.fn ^.ualtru u rutornthr uo qta. rrqclajeau4 ).!he, loxlu R\.!o aa4ltrui norc aqroaopc aau. to Hac i lu - t iu

CB. iao opcte, Burudaujr! ia.uo.toHo -uptje )- npocuapt r BPetuHJ, olJoteettrht |tut.Ptruu L i:LbackabL\a, aokosltlhuqa He na.u-afu Huutu-! utu-a roNc 6uttu,aNu.Ao. Xtac oii.ka, 6236poi kcpdaur ktrQpazi(atu-d u ltuoqu lepiepHtq .-r!6o6d,@k?j, Ln AoM tPdt4bc t ntdnv)uu\tauqahc 6r!&a&jyr.tuz PtEonrco. v6tul\tu Kacntaaao ! Lcfrpeiicqu!cu-uutKu! nobtuu, cKpueen. q auj|! Hera,autn cnqartncntu, 3mwitr 30 Pduct6.eyatux ntaaht B o4arrtu noiuerrF(,ernHattk. n ktaint?ke uiaa?uje ctitdj. u

Caccna .n \uuntuuc qa ucu-qd-xuut4,( 4ute Hr Hu lubi tuPa4r. ath t.lnoaltni io.aa iq. c. cpch! qod .Bcka !qd.bc-M roAoPajt aPet{H., u cB. tit4 (aquPrHtlutu1uH. o Geutf t wie{r. npclt HaM jc

-Z4rda d o unlttuiLe. n,untted in thtspace b.tueen Lasl Mtl tv.s1, Notlh and Sauth,hninatim tn! u LhnUslge b Huren untlGods ta conqutors and vtll-neaniia trcr.lle6,b hilsionari?: an.l netthai^ Regntles! .Itheir reaers and naliws, al afthe,t rc.oanisedthe L.nlitn^ .J th.ir r!,iwl oa.l endurunce inthis stun.| ih thescbakks. vihntu.htnhds be.nnn.l i a gut otrhoe.l.Eiel Lhallolg( nnd prc2L asnu.h la th. /ir! hhbnata and trur.ltrit-a6 4 nrc t91h .enhh- d\ to $, 2ttt .en1ut!djrhdealati$. Wh ilst nd"t dn.nsfi.t hdf hdr.ehxl&l ^ a: r. .lLg nnd teotrhd throtgh tltitklntdr afcahh w har. .one ta kel vhte the

]ll tltis rhil. l,n'tihd.hn hds ldsl.tlnl\aru irglf tt rla.p aDd ttne rcsistiry derasldlion.ntl l.oting ptnriig thnt tlp'p is n.thitlgthk:h on hc d6rnred. Heaps ol bn.k. nunb.tlels tetrhtic.l)nErnehts d,.l pdts .l hldtblecolunrE ovtit a ner buildins an.l delicotc reodinE oJ the vinhtaLi""t ttdhretipL Ih th. ri.lhnroJ Karola., u"da the rv\t lietdt .l Stia hid.tenli. th! s..tr^.fd lantur rcalitt rruridl lor s.lr-,tg !,re ks i^ilr?t o! nte p.litiai erononi on.l.rlt,ttl h^to\^ Dl .k6liLdl S.rbtu drl th.

trc u! arat.ltu ln! ttul 'Yymh tuldm tides. h ,one&ejes\, re*nblc\ a bn.lseth.l? ht u tuntl! s.paftnrd bt n1. | lx^h.l t hr.rted in .trter h .rute the t,atth dh.tt tlte \. dan.l hat tY. fu.. n.a,tpl.t b"t ct.ll.$lr .nia!-nhh xtsk pLrilr.ls dn.t ttnr$ins a 1nft dnd)?\xalr\ the ctarnrit! oJ h",tun prcs.r.e in lltis

Page 10: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

caoxeB, o"u 6ectPatBa ien 3aqntink:Apoeuwntue, nojaubehe uo, opetena aouKpfie oapatkoa blgcko. nPuc!.t .a Haogw apacaoPMa. cno3Hoa, a6r8 ao,.pdd4 snuau ur6pr.atut naitu.. o BnI: uCAIA, TAIA u TAMO, npa6tu.r Htclazaa@e u aM4 NuBctuu qaat Loi, au^tt Ld\L-jrrcro, noeeru, o6e3lrrueHa, keia,upu?ltueHut p.4r . ! Lt)rtt)uutu uauullPerwa Eoje .t 4@Ho rszoqopeHe, cnBkau-rpe4u XIIBOTA u oxa unto k.Bfle tuqtHotuitKro npo4aacu-, J urqpqw zinh.n"

aetudi4L| tee.Huqn d.Hocituruut ltorexa cehatra, apxnaeNulp!taltualqiet ..enia! oalk?ta1a rt9ooe,Epaeo6e, fitue... o6no6rut cnotua, o64oatEru LBrynipa B. ora uiaa kaitjl \Lubdqenpetheaa uiHetpeHur ur b"6a. kr hura3paH,a co'.k ' .tuq4pdaoq u e4.?a4j4h.npeKnqhoi upoiaiba; 3o!k 3naniapcroz4.xrhd nPu Ko.utrr, geqju caet ! rzpr,qpruaj ruPlPutkc PlNc, !39or lnotto,dojAutai neue I nPu.uqnuutur npu rctuoaPr ahEoPa, oqPd3 ! orie9an! no^aq4ePttbdake.. byscre ctt6uHe ciJqjHa utnotep4o au-lc+yu-e ! LcEtaPttu L iPa-ia3Ha.t u, 3a6.n*ea. t inunempf, .B.Net ra!a.p!, uiu .ata mootuucdk c.1onana | 6enea rputhdHuna Hoca.No i one4u. cBej.g ho.

BujaHo f zrrHt, lrqeno t re4ta!!,Pdata ! ciotaoo\u, kac.ana I ^.P!.P1,.tpeq Hata je iru jeena npult Kojt nuu HopBouiathc icprateRni.nt cauiam, mo geoHaLreZ qt,ot upreoioutKoZ pBroeapd tooB"1 uoi0otiarM anEtu\kM zPaqan.

te tory. h bnr,zhen.l that tine rrcans ta shetlthe Mtiahs oJ H[]u .n.l Notlt, THEN adTHERE, b paktute later aJter layr ol .dnhohd t/drkh.ss, to t ive.n.ient nninaLiunt nortrith h^ h.ut\ ro\! depnwd af a sarl, trrh hi!nutrle.l vords ..! Ia &r* pap! \i!h *.hts :paken bng ugo, b srarp the vods af LIFE anlrhot hninaciun\ past rc.Duh|s it1 el tlar,.!.n? u n4ui :zdalces. Ta Jiel .lxtont ntno-nes the ar.hncctut? ol th. innet \n d! Totnu-zr -.nxs, na|,, nree^. to reeare ah leorxid. 1a relaft ah the ihsi.le a which ts toldhr thd(anlt .1 .bjeds not haw Me,E d lirhthes.fel.ls Fntn these Dbieds.pp.o\ nan keLftdt.r and the erct* af endless d"robiltr: thesaund of I EoldsniLh\ hdnh( $hib lnrEks, theLtryhla oJ u thittt at plot, the .trid afa sw-s.an\ hut/ the sigh of awdry sDLlie];1he hus1le il1he port as a4phorce are b.,B unlaad.d,the hhfar ftlle.tkrt ofa binlr R.,td" vouar..]tunar destinics inprinte.l in hhtot! ohd tdhsiznc., bt chdh.e .r .n purp.se, upturtd in cla!,.r o vnrc beaker in wt nortar d n*.lf ds dla.|pfin .r u na* a ch^tinn lqJi .n a vt

S.tlptetl i .ldt Ldi k naat, ut nt t ry,ane.l in rurble, we lbce wt anath.r lart"ehi.h rclehbbs uibklhtgu !&rl ol tluthuent.as pan oJ o"r bry orchocalagi.dl disu"Be tuiththis nry!reriour clasricol .itr.

l0

Page 11: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Bu.nunauujy.n - -t nabnu q)ag prlncneiipobrut4uje Toptte Meuje

Viminaniurn - the co.Dita.l of the RonnnproDinee of VWer Moesia

Page 12: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

- / aJ rB . l c rp rL r . r ! H ' ! eFe J T , , fH , , j

M-!jn. BtrNrH,,ojrv. nacrxt. ra qccHor

o6 rn r Nh .Be . y n r t r rBH, ' l 6e i . r l r l ha y

AyH.F , Ro^ nanxu r l c . Koc ro rqn To teo6racr rnorLHe crnrux. txBnrlrc ca tacnoorebdnN np rpo rH0N,pnHnLuMr : , l l naDoNtra cerety t.KoM NhauoM n conorc(oN.pc

iov Hr rx,'r;1! n .rt)x3lll|Na ^oMorckrxn ian rna f l r xc ,oky " j r _ ,1 c ro ( ! (d l ) .

'lono.paQcKo reory.4rcxe r c rrrcnronra F.rra rar.l)r r

6nn ra pllHxx roHr. ycnotstrn' ct x.rrrn!crapnrc. reornrn jo

.auPeveiror noir nprBrrc^rn, Kliryprn rJ ! rouun np .J !c ro3r . c lBnpnts i , , ) ( .n 6N!netsrtj_nr. 0l).n.rrBra.c ocrout prrBol. yncropnicKoN ner,(llr. Krnx oRa onrrcr 6ruaycy ! . ra I ro (oBe ar r re r lL ,s fn inqdF.utri hc 6110 on rmcKm.xflm ilfr.ir rr

llonplltc Bflux rurty\rr F {ornrojeuHy xoot) r.ucr.rt rrcrnr! nr xorc cy cc

oacuarn nyrcDrjrxurM oiirxcrnMr IlrpcrBr.IJr luhl \lrrBcy IlyHrR !(p!Mnc ct cc rtr saxnc (o\rynnnlui. rnrDHx nyr je nono;l korncjc. npc(o Crpnriyrir. Ctrts,nrr!HINI. Nlrt.!\. no BnMnnxqrrtyva. ocaMe ceoaBajfu' nlr (r jy,] rlo H, ca. (X Hanca ccrFnao npcMrTpxKnir r xr.no Hr Eo.4Df,a j yxHr F n tcko N l r (cuorn tc Bor ro Krl p!(oj. [py.r DnxHr roNrHr{r,'ojr ]c. xvx,1j_Laua, noucruara npoe,Hrrriy nrHots Bjy crUnHn\ NofcM. ll)chr ntr tc npcf,o ,.r./?/.(PaMa). no,errBro BnNrHrrnjvn.a Jlao oL!n rparcnrBaHcMri pyrHnr0^,r

3axR,-atyhn nruaHpenHUri xoNyHn( r , r ' , jnMn. o re .uc .a l l ynaBy r rLeMy

.-/h. hf!.{ rit! ol uppcr Nl.csir,Vimin.cru'n. M5lo.neJ.o thd righlbrnk ol thcrn'cr NlLa!.. closc b ns conflucnce with nrcDrnrbe. nBxr rhc F.scn( dxj'ldri ofKonoLm lrk lhc me{ ofnrc fenilepl!rns ofStig. rvilh clen.ly ctrl datrml boundafics: rhc Danrbc to nrcnoidr. llre rilcr Mlrvx rnJ thc Long did Mii.rSopol hill ro rhe Nesr, ud r brrnch of thcfl.nroLlc mounrains to lhe ca$ nrd sollh msi

Fr!ounble btograthic n.d {nteg,! ondnions. fc|til. !cr vxllcls !nd the pfoxnnnl ofo'c .ch rren\ lll .ontibrrcd 10 rhc licl (har rhf.!ion h.s beer coniiNouly i'rhlbile 5inre rheLrl. N.olnhic p.riod unril dic trcscnr d.y lhceconoolic. clllu l lnd \t;nul ,sscc !nr.ddurnig thc 6Lr,0rillennnnn BC rrled asr ba$! fo.dcv.Lopdrnt ni thc hntorieL pcfiod. rh.D lhisrcgr)n qrs ]rJi .l rl'. clasicrl cn'ilizr(iod.$hich sas of tuF.e!chr.g sig.rlicrnce lnr i15{,hs.qrcnt nc!cLorDrcnr.

The ftr ol Vi ,nxrnLm $ fn\rd xwcll-i'rlcsmrcd $holc nom rher. rc.ds sFead irrrll dhdn\, l.$afd drc \!c$crn. cascrn aDdsoulhe.r prnJ ol tlk Frntne Thrc. rnoodrnr.onMunic.rions intcEccted rt ihe conruen.e ofrhe Mlalr dnd dr. D.nrbc lhc mair ro.d lcdfron ihe |cn. liod AquilrL{ throtreh Smrun.singidununr. lVlreum. hll v,minxcnL.r. $hcrc lr. lcrdnre sonrh. to Naisrs, shned it sph nrxrobranchc\alterNdis{s odc bmn.h l.adrng rofhracc aDd cDdiirg on nre shore ofd,e Bosphon^.$hilc rhc sor rcm braDch Lcd lo Cfcccc throushNirced.nir Th. s.c.id ignili.art communi.alioD conrected rbe pro!ince ofPrnnonr! LUth theBLack Sca alone thc Danube. The thnd tual connccled V,hinicnm willl Dacia and lhc mnrcs ofliansl,hanir. trs\ing ihruLgh a./z, rtl (Rxn)l

t l

Page 13: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

',:k

.Yi]

'i

! ,{, B (Ktuti. noxtpsat l, r^lepl I jt) &xi

ycMepeHu roKoBlira MopaBe. MnlBe unem, B,M,naq,jyM je dMao npDocrenc'ycrParelr(y !.xHocr ra pnMc(y ',IMflepxjyj

ra Hace6d I yrBPlteBay3 onoo H nlruo,rHo. lnn I 3

3anebe, nprMapHxcrpareu(o eKoHoircn !nrepec uapcrBa.Cro.a je rpanBa nyrcua )ro6pcrrruBcno rpacxparnx.ntrHxv qr.HtrqaMa \ndreio, h"tu1b, ttatia,

O*hg ro excellert connunications,especlllly rhe Dannbc. as well as ns tributarics,rhe Morala. rhe Mlava and the Pck. vninaciun*as ol primary $ratcgic innonance for theRonan Empirc, otiering impor.ant support to sc!tlencnls and fonificalions up and down theDanube, but aho for tbc or.jicb rgions ofHonolje lnd zvizd, $hich wee of pimaryslntesic .onccm ro lhe Enpne. Thh h why lheconsltudnrn of well-routed good qmlity rolds,

Page 14: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

d

Page 15: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Ld( Lu t,! uth!@kqn tt tuk^ t.!.!'

lour yBe( le HeaoBoBHo ncrop4c{n n apxeo-xouo ocDcrreH. floarq, aHrrqxnx nncaqa

cPeabeM It4aBy. tsenoBo6nr cy 3a peraBa6c ooxeHor lpooneMa

{ yllpbaDaBe npaucnPopole non{MaKnxj e(osoNc{rx n {ttrypHr{ rpn,rKaj xojc cy rpsrxoauiekoHarHoj Dolno-noi'rxc(oj cra6u,rcaq{jnPlMlaoa. Be.rr dHrxlox nr.aqa. .lycrrHa-ArcHeja r Crpa6oHa o ocnnBaBy 'ue eHcrc3ajenHrue c(oplx.Raj x.jy ocroBncreo.PaocKc penepe y3 Ha.oucuraje oerlrq(oj rrlpor!(ocr. rc ralelnnrle. (otyocrM Kenra. crnc rpac(a q nnlpcKa nrevc-Ha. np€Ma Crpa6oHoBo\r !38errraty,BrvrqlqujyM ce nara3no t oau.qr! MairxcKopnrcxa 'fojrTpalanrMa. nroneM€j HaDou! Ea ce BsNrnauulvM Ha,a3{ o3Mct! nreMeHi Tp!xoBaHa {oj{ npc!.raBftajr reo c(opalcKa xnrKeH3a (oj! x{Be H. aalauBcN ne(y.Heuro nrnre noaaraKa y roM cMrcrynpyxxia cy 3aurnrHa apxeonouM

lnsufiici€nl liEhl nas been cast on the pRomsn period and cthnic conposnion of Iindise.ous population in the tcriroryvimnacium both liom hhrorical and aEhaeol(ic,l aspects. The d.ra ciasslcal aurhoB suptabout thc tnbes in lhe iniddle pan ofde florvthc Danube is nrsufficicnr foi solvinsrhe intricrprublenr of ethnic nixing rnd for establishiNhat thc ttue nalure of political. ccononic acultunl c;cunrstlnces prior lo dellnirive milit.and political stabilization.l rhe Romans was. Tnews that classical aurh06 .lu$inian, rhenleand srabo supply about thc csrablhhing ofa tral communilr ofthc scordiscs ofer sonc b3:Aeogmphical nilesrones along rvith hinrs abrcthnic diveniir b thc connuniry. rvhich apfrom Celts. was con isedofThmciana.dlllyt.bes. ccordi.g to Strabo s accouVimlna.iunr was situarcd in rhe britory of rLilrle ScordGcs. who lived nixed rith rhncia'Ptolenacus slales rhlt Mminaciun h sirualbcNccn rhe lernorr ofthc tribc orTncomialvho belons to the Scordhcs md Picensi. w

Page 16: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

rEEi;k

xc lp lx rs rs r . loKov Kot rx re o r (pnucraraporcrrck r.K|onora ..n.hrH.' (r. rrojentrsrrri rr.Kprfix xr nrreHcxo. n nosHonrleHcKof repnoja Crrpo(crrcKa nc(ponora . nacrara t D fcNc n t )Dor . t )o ;Loprl4cr.rHtra Ken ! Hr 6rnKaH. txuie x. ce yBx\rHauriyir! Hrra3no ca6npn! io.op rcnr

jc r3Dr rc i , noxon r rl.1lr(! n llci4re. 279 ' ', H e.r Erojtsn nireH

lr\cd xkrig \rhxt is t\lryknor$ rs ihe rn.r Pck.Niore iirfo.n.rion ir thh rcstccr wxs ohui'i.ddurnrg rc0,.rcct\oxrchrdolqicrl \orksdurirArvh i .h rn nnr ic f r Ce l t i c DccropoLh ca l l cd''lccine \tas dhcoicrcd..s wcll as ccfuin lidd\dalirg li.'n th. La T6.e rnd I rte I a Taoe pcriods Th! rnciem Celtlc necnpoLis. built duinglhe fiist penclmrion of Ilic raslcrn c.l{s iflo th.llxlkans. $ragcss rhar Vlminritrnr *rs the l,)c!lio. .l dd r\:ernbly crrnp of the Celtlc lroopslionr rrhere nre miliraD, canipaign.exiNl (ir..c.and Dclthl in rh. ycr 179 BC Nnt launched.l

Page 17: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

cxn nokarrrrcr!,r neP{oA. nocre 279 ' tr H

(y!rtpe, uo(!3yjy cHaxH! xorucHrlaullv

C{opArc(!. nieMcHc(e 3rjelHn'(e (ola Je

BtM{HarujYM cc Hanarn Y cBlv P!r'cnr' {apr.Na, r3u rrnHeP.p{Na v ftb'li

Pet inzet iana (Eacr^iaj o(o 340 r' Ha

*r*v c*P,i* lNrePlpa !3 lu Bcxa)

(cru<a ,l) uaeoAn ce (ao Yinnlatu' Yhitleruritn thlonhli R^a vintrd'|o i

Ernina.io. a y hinetutiunt BftrliEalenQ K'o

cirin^ vinihd(io Bt3aHr{jcK! nncqx 'a

noM,sy{ao PI!,YdnoY.

a , " .*,i"(-, .'".it l,ti+ -,I"q' I li.i:lli'

lll, f,il.ilf::! ,'il,;i i^',!it'$'1,:1i ;li::i,.ll ;ir\r irYl:iriii.iirliri

The numemus La T6ne silcs from the pcriod alter

2?9 Rc, disllaying clemenls of Lhc Llallstatl a''1

Daco-Gerian culturcs, are lmofol a stong con

cenLmlio. of rhe Scordiscs, an clhnicallv hetcrc

vininlc m can be lound on all Roma'

naps. tbe socalled itineraries On ft"la P?!-

,sdl,a,, (dstine aonnd th€ t€ar 340 bas€d on

oider nine6ri* fron thc 3i co.turv). (fielrc 4) it

aDDeas undcr the name of t uihati',in ltin'ta'

;;n Adonini n ar)pca$ ̂s knin"ia tnd Ewli

M.ia ^d \n h ercrirn Butdiaolense as Cirib\

lrntd.!,. Byzandne anthoN mention 1t as

i,: i$,1:ll-il,i ff I,l; *;r:,1iil"ii l ilur.jl',i rr i,', n.'- l.''*'t[:ii':+ili :it+ I'ru'i;i,i',ii:*,ii

13

Page 18: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

e.a

Page 19: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Therc aF nun.ious inlerl)rclalions oflheorigi. oflhe ciiy s nane. Allhoush nonc olthescan bc poperly lcrined, rhet cl€dly ieflccl drecomplex etnnic snudon during thc poto hntoncexhtence olthis coDmdnil' Oneofthc inlerlt-rario.s islhat lhc.ame n ccllic in ongi., duelothe rypical suffix a.t,n, vhilc lhe rcot of the.ane is found in the inlenrory ol placc names 'n

teftitorics inhlbitcd by Cehs. Another r.rcqiEla

O nopeMy xMeHa .PaAa nocrolep.lxcnrc nHrepnPeraqrje, (oje jor vBe(Elq noFArso ao(yMeHroBane, art JacHooapaxasajy croxeHy erHdq(y curva'lnlv. vnPoroncroPljc(oM uepnouy oBe rcPnroP'le[pDa ryMaqe6a NarPaj] na j

nopema, 360. kPa(rePncr!d.rrrj ao( ce omoBa rMeHa Haia3u y ronosoNafln{u o!!xreP'roPnja rcjc cy 6xne oace

6eBc KenrtMa. Ap!.o Nnu6eBc cMa4a Aaje pe{ rarnscm. a y Ber .a v,ne,-BP6a (oja

jc ynorpc66aBaHa y PaHoj apxlrexrlp! (ao

nrcreP. norDPbeso cuaxHo nplcyoto (crF

c(or creMesra n (oHtBHynrer tlrcqcK€ (!r_

rypeo! lv D. r. H. c. - l B. H c qrHe uepoBar

HrjoM MoryiEocr mcroiea rcrr(d

\\Bpberla a iatnt a, \\Je )e xMc kcHuenpnna.oteEo rarmcKoM HaraBy

HacaHa( BtMrHaqniYMa Yoenxo leHarcH uy.{x paroBai {olt cy iBobesr Q 3arc{eHuM aot'oPo)rHrM qra

soDHud'rBoM, r ynopro Hacroja6e P'NBaHa

na ce ylBp.E y otoM, crPareBKo laxEoM

tion implies a Latin ongin ofthe word. connected10 !inc. (s willoiv). d willoN wls nscd fortnatching in ea y arcbitecture. Tbe co.fimcdsubstantisl pres€.ce of th€ ccltic elmcnt 5nd aconlinuity ofRone culture iion 4n cemury BCro l\t cenlDrt AD should seem 10 sugse the exh-Lencc of an original Cellic fofiess on appidun.the nane ofwhich was hter modined inlo a Lalin

Vnimcium was founded lollowine longwan assin$ rhe indisenous population Nhich the

2lJ

Page 20: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

neny nol}HaBrhr. Jou 3r BpcMe Aurycrr6rna F lcnocraBrcna oojnx xonrf.nxrpanure Ha aytr,8r. rrfl[xiL.M NxrLr\ dopr{4{kunjl'M,, rocrrDrb.i6c\r pftisilnr.(oja cy rria,. rrqr ( rx xonrp.rn0,Jlo(pcre [I,ir,. Da r.uoi 06rrr. K.rN,(locBala$c Mcrtc rautn'.ro j. trrk{'H Ttrncpr jeBn l i ' r kD. r , \p r , ! t s r (o (o l s . n I . I .(ana je ocBoieflx r rc ff Cr(.trr.xr nferlalraBc Mcrc v nl)oorr0trt\ ,)arrHo ccaary jey l j r B .e o | , r ru . ocrop0 i r BrMnnxrrrlyMa ! Herocpereiro c 8crr.n D.lI. o'u,,

cujN romhjrsra t &r.drl )re Hoi i rllBrn.q ! j ' r . Hdr . o 'xxdLr , ' rNeHr . r rcB. o i i r i .lyHrBr. rx'\loAbpaMOeHof cxcru\r n.rnr.r6.! ro',)pn.HajnN Tvaann\. r rrann kxreHor.

ll.nrt(^, ier trie ttt ctontnt ni, l\xMauq. .6Lr rox r i r l l l r r \ f . llr.PjniLr rrnxikl i,, otr y Br rnrur \\r-!an I j s .L r i r ( i ! ro rop , - rpxr r . ( r r r .n r i r r{avera 0pclxonrro nfnuNNr,(, !rBpburcc i 3 . \ rx r r \ r j . r , , ' n r . t r r ! xcx ! rMr nn fD. t r!n ,Pr l tc3r ' t sxNn. roNr r r l c n \ r \b r rck inaBiFn? l t j t rnn ,c rLr no .n0r r r \ x ! { rnx x r c ..rairr ro..f rc.rlc /r'lrrl,iA o n i . x r ! M . r t ! ! \ o l 5 . . n . c . . i r r r r r ( , !B(NxHru i0 rMy. in car r jd r r - , rk rn r tc rFrco .

l ' J l t c ts t rH.N i^ r p r !oDn\ . r ' ! t rn f r IrL t r ru roF l . oc rM n f rnxr l r t rks re f0 i . r : / /allrrr. \r.clrourj xt. ', ic.riir 1r'r'ldrd 0nr

\err c|xrt aqnrlt LL(; llll F F r. I j. I o t u (.trociy rnr ct Kro.t,(,Br ,r rBpl)ciL. n. crc . .6 . rc f0 j r . I rdn o j t o ! 1U90. . r ro . ruu !cb ! s r r r r r . r . i r rndr r . I B t rNt r ts r '0qrM! .

3..trrrJrlriH,. BrjHe dtrlalrn . 3rllyir.r\ r rnr- oi roqoDxrr I u 0 oo1t).nr rrBe6oN oqnr ( . . i rour rrPxfl rqc. nosorr ra nrr.Nr jl,iN'n0f rrn. s4....ao nor.nc V.n,jr tsr rlpiL! (Srtr.fr,.) I\or,\j tt,tlrrit,.l rr.BHr .pa! l otr6. Nlortrierof,rLtc BxyxrrurirMre f lJ i . , / / c l rud ix .3 .noKpr i l r i r r rkc . l la . in

Rooufr \us.d durltr.! dr. I ronrrry Llc. \hllc|krsirrcnrly xr.irfri'rg '. Sxln I nrt\iglioki irltIir nrxtgrrxllr im|roninr pxrl ol rlrr ]lnyflrh.Dutrb. \lllirrn roDtol .L tlr. landci \rN.{rbla r .d xs ca i l t rs 1 l r . . . igo o fArL !uers . b t rn . r *oa brlldii-! r!rll lo,rilirrloDr or b! \cdroS rp/d.,!,1n,.. \'hich hrd rh. tisk (t ronioL n! rh.molenr.Drr ol lb. Dxr,,'s .n rhc l.ti b k Th..oDqtr.n ol \1ii.sir \r5 comDLd.d nlr.Tibd.ius'fxdroor r f l v r rs (o .und l5 B( ) \hdn lhc land. lrh. Scoriir.s ris nLbjtrsx'c,1. Th. pronr{xr.r'\'locsx iito x ]rrt,rnrc ( rnrxlly bcLr.\cJ kr hr!crxLtd flxre i'r l5 AD. s1tr.. rlrrn. Llr. hinol! olvimlDiciLm \r$ tr, i'nnre(l,1tc connc.rn,n rvrhnrL l i r . l ymJtohr icx l e re s i i r rhcr . r l \ c .cdcdpro\n,.c r\n rLrnrDt strcn!th.Dirig ollhe irb.s onrhe lelibrDk otlh. Ddubr iltrringihc li..fttryAD crus.d r nr..StlrenrDg ofth. dclirl:lnenlhy buLldng cdnps. wirh cinh h!itdirr!s xr tiislllc. ro bc f.pl.c.d bt (.oe oncs.

\\ilh thc x.r1rL oi lcgi.r /7 arrr'lrrl'.dr DrL'nrf) drrin! r 6l\ :Lod Llr. 70:. llicc .nnrucrLon o fx sodr c rnn rn ! i rn inxr iun ormcnc.d. \\rh.rl'cr .r n.r th s p.rrixocnr crmprdr nonr xr.hrk.t0r! \xs p'-.dcd hl r remDo-.r.t lonrfi.rtion \irb .rnh rrrnDrls. prliqrdc\rnd \ood.r btrrldiru\ i\ \cl to b. rlrtr\n byln t t r r o \ . rv r l ioDs lhc o t i r foor o l cc r r i i t rr0rhos thd vni,ucnL) \rs homc to lir. |rnnrn .n l .xdrp o l rg i ,n 7J \ i f / i . ! rnon r rs r rn r lni Nnr\ir rround li llc hdr nrr rs v.r bccrrr. l.olo!L.xlLr" tu0limrrd

]\|[d riom \ndrers olicgion 17 a 1drl.tr.l cgxnr / t 'F r rk . o f son ic o l i c dn i i .n r . i l so!r,k prt rD rhc conslrtr.r o N(trks dnrin! brlldo! nr...nt. fhc ln \ ol lerd pip.s b. irig llrcN.rtrnJn\ ..ltc /// /. 1' xnd .-tt E (; t.tJ a.lrrvc sc'1ed ,r x b.sn ln clxims rh.r borh 1bc\clc !Lors ro . , r Vrn in r ! iLD ln r l r . p r r iL \ lb.Nc.r rl,. ycrA 70 nid r0,.dd b.$roo Sa rnd

lhc ! !g r ! . r tu

o l th . n r i i l i r y . i ' .u . rnanccs aLon! thc Drntrtrc dnrin-! th. s.drd hrlfo l l l i c l i c .o r r_ r rnd rhc N r . l s ru r re re i i c icD-c) 11 fdc.t'r! rlrc Dinrbc horJe. lcd to rhc di!i

] L

Page 21: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

rnNx\ r_ ryrbcnrrcKi^r FroBnvreBr n kcrenr ra flP Lcrrr c(rN !R.PoBr,ia. xao r noo.t rc Ne'Ljdn\ k'i,ja nx

aenlpn (t l I Ctarlilt l lltntl( llll)*r!trl'.vd,.r,trni). nc. je nronPc\r ir Prr 'r

lFrrnrNj v no!.rxy Tpi'i,n.oc Bnrrl. (ef

117 ) . .p r l t .n ie D! r o r Brnrnaur j t ! ,npc!n rr./crrli iPaM!). k.n xoic ie 'Lrufu.!or ' t c6rur ra lLc r r ln r I J l r (n iy v r f .Mc

Tpr tano0r \ n r !Kx \ FroBr l ! ( l l l 06 . ' )IrrNIsul'j!\ j. .i.DH! 613r rx x.nqeraraqriJ_ roNcki,\ solunx cHrrr rrPcNr tr.Knu

x!aopn\r. IniMrHr,(IrjtM ce dxnrri '1.11-! lDets .N lPr j r ro t . \ c1r_ . !

xo j r r i l c rp l je ,L . .abr je , ' r Aa lk rn FroB.Iir(.r rofi.nono!ts r Prrsr. n +oPMrpdLeN nfoBrr,0,lc !h(0j. .prHdn l. rr

rryxc Dpen. no\er.rn cr nt.rr. 06r!t,lInaDx

u!6o(o s r c .Bep l l rc r r l c i cnr c r . inMNrI)|I ncpxon. (o.r h. o6cnexnrn nPoqc.ypa.ts'r.qrre n tro\rfl oi!ulc

Crrnro nDr.lcrBo BlisnKr r"// alrlr/irr

r oncBcM r r ry r ! ,xno i i r . ror3 c6r { ncnoBr unPc iBr

sior ol Moesild(. Lpper iUo.si. (l/ J,?.f|./)xDd lorv.r voesir (t1 ,tiro). nr 86 (luringdrc

.ci!tr ofDodrilian vhnraciLm bocMrc rhe trtitrl .f Upper N{oc$x. \rrlr x pcn.rn.rt g.rr$n

.onrpris.d oi metrb.r !l l.gion l'l/ a ldrtll,r.nxinirg rlrqc unrl rlrc cnd ol fic Clxssic,lperrcd Thc vdd.r rcrer\. trr llic s!ot. orcon!tucllon $orks r( burldlng tulnnl.!ic tunr(ioDs. rs N.L1 as rhr funiDg ol iho

nomb.' of N oc\irtr lcgt'$ u lirt ll:ll (l rlior ' ) l k iu , l ' l l t ) tg r t t nnd f \hL ! I la r ra ) * t tc

nd't of ih. prcpxrxrnins for ! \'rf nrr thcDn!Lmi lhc n),d ilD vnriilrcnN b lrLrnrd

iltrml \t.s buiL( dtr'in! the miti.l lerA of rhcrcl-!D oITr:ri.n (ye!A 93-lll) rod 1.,/.rdk ud:

rhe pLrcc $her. Romrn hots qere ltjticd overirxo Dr!Lr vininrcitrm lvrs tlc.italioo ol Ronrin to.ps (furid-i lrqrn\Dxc id r $o5 ( ) .x rs l0 l 106) . , \ . con l 'n . ! rosomerurho^. ViNirtcnd is le|it(cd on llrd lxnrNlmlu s ( ! lmn. | l i i ch i l lA t r r l . s ihe e ! ! i (Lion rhe Dnrlan $rr\ Alt.r r dorv m rre!!lvrrs ard uDon th. lornu(nn, of thc nr^ nrcc ofDxnr. rh. bodcr rrs mov.J ln.. longe.l.nod.

22

Page 22: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Hapoc{ro.3anariLijr I rproBaua. Bnlaorr Uij yMipro r r ra . , { r ' r 'a ! uro jnPofnaueber MyunlnnnlyNx ron rarpu janoM l17 r . l l a ra lnnc t rNrMyNIClPlllt )L t:v l1|uti,latfv.BrMuHr(rlrM trorrtlc cyqcNn r xlNoHrcrpa.rrBno arroHoriaH. a qco x,...,itr\ nepc.prur{crarrounrm j. trfrvn. pr!cxo .Ixbrrc(onpato. rtjlyjd |one.6erx urf! nrHtrqnnarHa reprrupxtr Kota cc m rxn|! npocrn|xrrno Map.v a. ra xcrokr |o nnn(vn,. r.r ieseroDy j l x r l r rp .H! r .xc oJpc ln rn .E(oHoNcxr rlrBoj ro,inj. HoBr rxir\o6crexcH rrrcnrruhllr,cN nponlKrllje Behnooojchrx I ocirtrBr,,eM Ho0lx PIrrLorr$x

3r Dpcvc NIa t ( r A lpcr r j , (L6L180...). ruraRc(, pnrolqr c rrtoxeflr flacnpa6eN rneNeHr c r I l c rokx c rpMrra . . l . r i ' n! PoK.ona j ra . lo ( .n ' r .pcsrx J ra l . r r HrJ ] ] 'HaBv. I r r \ t r , ' r , ( , , j !N jc 0oH' ) tu rNmo3Hr1ljtrr crprluu(a nan y BxurlurJj!Nrraaa xrpr (lrx R.t! te Bojcxx n.r'err cxracroxa. liro je rcmpldnr lokrr np\..!on ik r { ,Lc n r {0Dr rL ! t rx r ' ' \ i r cKponor ilaiotrr Hr l,l.roR 0 :Jx,'rlr (paj.n JI ' y IDc(l rrcJ nrtrcr no r-rlrrarn Ir trqopn IBtr!ntsrqriyNr. rnn cv .! ' ocpc;jjr. ontxnr'rra BeroB par.j i e(FoM.(r nf..ren'rrerII3vicras nonl)xnt 0r pac(t br UnpcrBasal|)xrbr r BrNnrarujlNv Nno.. rlxJrrtscrte!flo.r mjcxdr kir r\jc nl[ll Lx TnrcF npn .nra.k! ! Ptrrj. 196. r . Ccnrr\r cCcD. f n .c . , , ,o BrMnnaru j r r

ry npof r , . r r jrn 'Ler lPn cuo. .a ! t r te ' c rux 6x . I j r I r .38aror KaFX.rr npr n.u|ar(r ( Ilcron.21)2 | ,nnerc)icrr jc rtrn urp.ua no.ear.Krlr cy Bcpouariro 1).roBs.uc knr6e,orieIII Clt tu. Hr cBotnM nFnrrotsrsrNa \Br \ t r r rxun j ry r c r cc . RJr rhc nr ! ! \ x .Itrfxrnr n l(rpakxrr. Anexc.rsaf ( etscF.

llllr,r,'r ! uprBroM c r1!.I llnlrrH,urr x Hrdr.ic .on roprujrHoM lrl. Rrrrxro.,'tr HntDclit ntrs!ner riy

-cndr (,rI ie

ro thc.ighr brnl ol rbo Dlfub. and lrr h rtr.rodh. Thir $rs kr brng rbout rtr trdeny pea..-lirl pcriod $hich \as Io b. r'rrkcd b! a pro...\ol lrbrDi/nrior xDd Rornrni/rrioD.

A consl.r pr.senr. ol nrc soidirrs off//aldrrn xDd.l divi5ions ol.rhcr lelrofs c.rs.J{D dlLr olcrrrlians ilo

xll n:'ns ofthc.nrttre..s t .c , r l l i o l . . r l l snen aDd m! r rh rDrVrmiiraciutrr quickly gEw irtro r crry, Nhich \!r\m.dc.llic,rl by dcdarlng rr n nruDicipirn dunngrh . .e ig . o f l ladr idn . in the ycar l t7 J l i snrcn-hon.d o !r.rus irsciptioDs :t\ tttt: ltlCIPl|nl)ELl rM L./tllN)Clrirt vrmiira.iLn becrne.ud ic i r l v .Dd.ddr in i (n i l ve l l aNodoox ius . .Ddrnnf t o lnscokJn i { popuLar ionur \ r ( ln rn tcd i f ioRomaD cil,/enship Tlr cilv ras allo.alcd l$ide nunicipal lcril!,t-u. nrcrchnig h NlxruunD ihc \ycn and Pnicum ni rhe c6r. rhiic nssofth.m blund.q i d.rc d]ficrlrro d.ronnrne.Thrccooomi. dcv.lotnrenr cnrcrcd x ncN pefiodol rp ec, nixrked by int.trsiliel Drodrcrlor inth . . r i { i f ! xDd th . l i r rnd in ! o fnc$ . tu l i s ren

DLrdg rho krgr of\4r'!us \trr! iLr (!.0r\L6 l -180) .1ho l ) r bc bo .dcr rv rs th r .x r . r .dby It.ortrr.ln ol kib.\ lioDr lh. rx{. rhcSxnnxtixns. rl,o Ixligs xDd lb. Ro\ohns D iig i . coDcror s wxrs .o r t rc fJ rnubc v i r r in rc i iLmhxtl ofcc xlxil br..me x k.! !ilr.gic hr\c Ihisrrs r Dcri.'J rlfl)grc iD vldrinrciLnr. lvhic| hrdli.cd hniulhr b! rirc hoD lloin r[..rd \hichrn\ confimcd dtr.in! the.f.IacoLogicrLc\i] FlroDs ofllr iiullre.r nc.nrp.lises $' s iI rhc.asxdd in rhe \ rca . r .und l l re end o l rh .2 , nn i ln the:ld ccntrLr) did o01(lnedll atlcd ths hinory of \mhrcnm. but $cir cnid\ rndimLyf.U..r.J on ,ls dc\clLrpdrrnr rnd .cononic ttustc,,t.v ls .xccnt.nnl lociiion .r rn irnDoiranr.undroD \!i1btr, thc Irnpir. .rmeJ Vlnrin.cirrrhc .\l.ndo(l \rsits ol DDnl !f emDcro' rlirg\rtrh then lcconip.nting ioops li.i .\xorp e.SofriFlus S(ctuA vrsned vnni,uciln o0 hisnay t. R.D. lfd thG n q[cro he dc.larcn [r\.ld.r nJo Br$irn (htrown bt thc nirtdxrnc ofCiDcnlh).mpdor ln 201. on his rr) lirnr rtrc

ti

Page 23: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

lcnau npoBrH l'ri.(r .Pn!noc*nj. KoroHrrr r !Lcr.ut cr.tsoB'tr!r,, c!nocr.,r nlnonprBHtr lnnc(n ryrbrtrn.no.rcxrqe ots.f Jo.abrtr c! u0r!ccrPyKe.

rc(oN. a.(o n !ypSaHrcarc(ov cMncr! no JoarlnH,! craarca (oroHrje. rcM-aruHr noccxt Bxrirdn\nt\Na \ager: 1t.r1t.n Ln ). Bepotrarro cy cenpourprnn m lco c rr n llrHKlN ti lyntsnx.v. tlajBehr ntnD,nei,ljr (ononnrc 6uoje nFBo KoBa'La cBo' Ho8ua.

Y lll Rcxy. KaJr y r.nov UrpcrB! (Yr

LmnPa Be! txa (p r3 . . Bnrn f l ru r j !M

noxrBraBa cBo j Ha jo .h r ron ' iF rKr Ie(os.Mco ycnoH. orr'!Icnro sr cy 'r(orroc'r! ur.3BrHe ncropnJcKnn !ofrn,lrva.lprr Hrcyxo6! I oBrs.6racrnNa, niyrd LHa Baxlrocl

oi$ t[c second !i

bY thc einDe{1. rvhi.h h DroLrlbly \rh.n thc brrnck\ Gz,d?,rc) o| l.gion r7l Cld!/, $crc rcDered. Onthcir ta!els.lhe lolloNirg peoDle trid nioncrorkms.r visits lo vnniDrciunr Caracrlla.Alexa.der Scvcrus. Go irn lll clc

A chr.gc of the lcgrl slalus olv in i rac iunr tn , I l r l xcc dur i r rg r l ,e . .Lgn o fCodirn lll. $hcn il \v!s d$ardcd tlre grerrcn

Fnilcge and tlt highcsl nnk t' Pn^nrral cilrcould halc bccn awrrtlcd: it bc.ame a coll)n! xddils iIhrbihnG bccarne full RomaD .itizens. Theconscrtueoce\ 01 is cvent are nrdrcrors .DdLrcr.cqtraLll'm to be leh d llic Lc!eLofPlilts andecononlics and of city tlnnnnrg. After becominrl icolooy. lhc Lid hoLdinls 01 V,'n$a.Nr probrbly cxpandcd i) in.Ludc the trh.lB ol Slie and

)]

Page 24: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t

[ ] r r 3 c r ! r l ) x 3 , ' 1 . j r ! . r ! t ) L h r . x ! r t r L ri , i . r U , i r p c x . r t i L r r ! 3 r t r 0 . . r 0 . x A ' r 3 .

\ ftrrf0rNr !r flcrr\\nprc \ . rn ' ro I o l r i r r . r ' \ i . r t r r i \13r r f l r , t r I v r ) . i r j r r !n r n f L t j ^u j0 r r (q \v

q f i , r f 3 .0 r t r0n ' ' I r (0 \l i u t r r , i l l r l , .mx l r ! . . \ . . s rNr r . .u l , , , ! t r . 0 0 | r r f ' r . I r c ( ! a | l ) t u r rrp . r r , . t r n .n t ) ' ' r r ! . ! r 7 r r r r l l n r . rD l r ! ! , ! r L r rn r r . l l ] ( r q r r r r . l f r r r ! r, l t u i j , T f . . , no r . i r r I I r . L l r ! . t r i r ' I If i r t r t r r . r . . t . \ ! . . , , r . 0 t rL r , ! i t , r! i r r r r0 1L I i ' L r l ) i r I r i j r kx t r r r l n r. r f r . f r r r L r r f , , ' r . l r r . , 1 r f r r ) . . r r , L r r .r , ' r h r , r r r r r t r0 r ! rL LL | r r ) i 0 . r . | r r r I

) D r t rdL \ r r h .n i lD . Th r n r r i ! i i l i . f r r t r niL rg r . l i . ! l d i ! \ r , i , n , I i r so ro ro i r r ,

\'rDri,rrnnr \xr r|. rr.rfd o s Lxr.!r!| ! l r [ r L ] r l . ( .Donn r r l r i r r r r . I . u r t r . ! .\ r i r f r r . ! r . d . r ! \ nx i c t r i r l r d t r ! r t r r r : u r lr , r Fn r f i r . l { \ r f | f .

r i d \ rnnn r .un \ r \r . { d .d r i l r . . . n r r . r l n l i r ! RL t ) r l r h t r lirfforn!5 !r 1li. Frnfr . !Lr. 1r !i,1rDi nr.rn .09n rb .u l h

no r l . . \ d t r i : r \ r ' ! i r l r . \ r| i r ! l l r r J \ r , i i d i r r r i l n i i . r f r . r l r i rLL trh. nr(1. l Lhr ,lrirl ot rh. t. n... lnldnm! i1 o 1 l j . I L I ! j . n r0 r i n t . \ Lh . r i ! , r ! . nn r! r r r . \ l t i . r r : ! . r ! r l l i c t r r r \ i f r l r . t xn . r ! rl , r r l r Lc r f l L . r r r N l . r f i I t t ! . n . r iv i , r r t r r . r t r n r , \ i L r r l L r hn r b 0 r o Lhn d ' . r .

Page 25: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

eKa no(a3yjy aa F ynpaBo BnMnHaIujyM.ko cs*$ ! da6maH uemap na lysaDcKoMnnecy,6nrHo yrtqao sa Hacrynajyhx ncPn'or 6d@sc(n qapeta rcjx 6e peooPrdlcarnnonnrnc@ r alaoBHo ocra6leBo qapcrBo.

JeAsa os nocneAErx 6oraxa B neproAa uojHeaqapxrje, aofolnna cc rca B{Mnda'lrjyMa(civihs nni"acio, ubi Diartet us occi./itcaltdl, M4ra nolcAuE !3BoPx no Mccrocy(o6a Easoae MaPrYM. TY ce 284. r.

fuoMdlnjaH .yKo6ro a KarnsoM n Ha(oHro6ele o6e36elno .c6t npecro. 3HacajaEapxeororo !ok3 m ror nepnoaa nPencraB$a MoHyMcrrarHa MepMepHa .raBalateHa y fu6pauuqn (oja, cyrehn uo npcA-craDaN'a Ha HoBqyj npeacraBBa KaPnHoBo.oqa,(ouk 8) Map(a Aypenxja Kapa (282283. r.).r ocuM apxcoiorox Haia3aj 3HaeatBnMrsaqrjyMa Kp.jeM III n y lv Be(rnorBpbyjy lede qaP.(e no@re:293 v 294. f.y rLeMy je 6opaEno anoneq'jaE, KoHoaH

H BornKn 334.KoHq.H{xje 338 n 358. r., Jynrjau 359.r., a

HarcE peop.rHBalrtje UapdBa {P.

leM ul u nocerxoM Iv, BeM RrvtHaltjtNnmmF MdHr rpla nPoBnEulje M,csEePrin,e, v BcNy ce Han.J{jenHo oa enHcKon

Hajcrapqr oolartt oxpruhaocrDy sa6enexeHx {oA XnjePoKrecanoMn6y aa lc cnrcKon B v*ujc{o. maBHo.rpaua Bri'nHarrrj!Ma. -.{,drnn6, yleouoMo3a ca6opy y Cepunu! 143. r. Aptr! ennc(on(ojn ce troMGc 356. r. jc Crl,r.,s .

Henocpe,rHe AoKa* o 3Ha{4Y (oJn

BrMrraunjyM r a y Iv Bcry npyxa NorirdDienitatud Kaja penpaayKyje BolHo sa6e Ha

arBaBc(oj .PaHuqn npc 3t6 .. oa y(ynHnx.opFoMe3ljcKnx cHafa, cRofo rPel,lHa ceEaia3nna y BnMnnaqojyMy. IZato cy y roMtrcp'ouy, nerrje ca oKo 1000 BojHrRa, caMo

rdek PcNnHncrreH4xja HemEadBnx (oje c!

tion w6 made by $c strusslc for the throne, in*hich lcgion r/1 C/ddA bok part, durins thereigns ol Philip l. Pacali!n, Tnjan De.ius.Trcbonian Gallus, valerian and Callienus. whicholien took a dnnatic couse. Although Ronanhhtonography for tbis period is rather scarce, thcelents in lhe middle and lat€ 3d century sho*that ir w.s Viminaciun, as x stro.g oM stablecentre on the Da.ube lines lhlt had 3 crucialinflnence on rhe onset of tnc period of BalkdneFneio^. who sere to refom a politically andspintually {eahencd Empirc. One of the last bat-ncs in the period ol military anarchy took placenear Mminaciun lciritas vininu.io, ubiDia.lctionus o(i.lit Cann"n), although cedainsonrces nention Ma€um as lh€ place oflhe con

icl. This G where Diocletian clash€d NnhCannus and. following a victory. secued hinsclfr lhmnc. An impondnl anhacological p.oof ftomthat pedod is the monumental marble head lbundin Dubmvica, which, judging by depictions oncoins, rcpres€nts Cannut fsltcr (fi8ure 8).Mdus Auelius Carus (year 282 283)r. Apanfrom archaeological unds, lhe imponance ofvininaciun around the e.d of tnc rd and in the4r cenlury is contmed by ftequent impcdal vh-ns: Diocleia. slaycd in it nr 291 lnd 294,Constanrinc rhe CEat i. 314. Co.stanlius. hishen in 318 a.d358, Julian in 359 and Gdtian in332.

Afi* tic rcorglnizalion of lhc EDpirearoundlhe md oftnc ld and dre beginn,ng of$e4 cc.tury. Viminlciun becamc thc capitalcity of$e pmvincc of ,t/ocs;ac P/r',,e. it was also thecentre of a dioccsc. Tbe earliest tcords ofctrislianiq in Hi€roclcs $arc rhat lzarrir!.r,bnhop of lhc Moesian capnal ol viminaciun,rook pan in lhd council of Cedica in 341.Anolhcr bishop. mentioned in ihc ycar of356 is

rvotTr D;g,r?rrrr, a document accountngthc mihary cncum$ances slong lhe Danube boF

, j r c D ! ! d i ^ q c n l J r u s r r ( \ a r { , i . I . r ! d i { i 1 U ! p ^ J i u s h / \ r i r o + P s { { ) , L1 p , r i r i j , 6 o T r o l r r { 1 r i | r :

26

Page 26: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

l trd,tu\, tin,tu(!j,,. trrtt

6pojane 5000 6l)l)0 r!)rr. cuHd qa jc sa jcBrMnHauujyn y lv Bcxy rHrojaK 'rtkr3oH HnpeuoaB"aao uaxno ynop,ure Ha slHaBcKojrpanrqri. npeN! no)rrq tla (olc lorocnnprc(, BlvnHauljyN je, HenocpeaHo npexync(e Hrlerlc, 6no Daxar rproualxn uc!-tap. O rpocrrepBrery Jp!,rr k 6oDroj nl.

ayx'rrln rLc.oDnx paquoHrrra ! roN nePnony-cBenore r iio.ar. KorcKrrnjc .tc6pno.nocti)a. HaiaxeHe ts! lePrr.lxt" .ldllj noJlparrqlrrv orcnHodnia.i

Bcrr(r ynanr lora r xpt.nx Bap'saPcKux DneveHr ca ceBeFrcroka ! lv Re(y.aonpxnocc onurol Hecr.yPHocrr y oBo\raeny nor(yHllqa. NlebyrnM, rc( h. x$c0Hareru ,1,11. .. ocraBxm i co6oN ryc,.r'

dcf bclorc thc ycarofrT6. ollcrs dncctcvidcrcco l rho i 'np .drnce. lv im l .dc lum h the 46 .enrury. Ahnosl a nriid oflolal Upper Moesi.n forceswcrc sationcd h viminacnm. All[oueh $.legions of the pcnod, nunrbcnns around 1000pcoplc. wcrc only a fabl rcminhccDcc of{hxrRona. lcgtuns hrd used ro bc (5000 6000 toople), il slill remanrs a frcr lha! vinnraciunr posscsscd a $ronggarLkon h thc.1'h ccnlxry and wxsm inpodanr sto.ghold on (he Drnube b.nle.Accodins to dara offered b,v Priscus.Vnninacnrm *as a sisnincant tradins ccntcinnedialcl! bcforc thc Hun i'rvasion Aronsother thinss, the rich colleclions of silveBarelntrnd on thc rcritor) oflhc city undcr vario$crcunAldnce\j rvilne\s b rho ci(! \ nfusncnly

^ r l i r r . f L ' r , r l

t l

Page 27: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Kro I cBr xp ! .n . | ranor r t r ' ( , rp .HxcHrtrupbcrla t (rfitrjr. Br nflaqnjyN .Jrr n)tets. r cr.HoDxxur0. n.roM 0oti1l heiro.

x lHc(c !pxaD. .Br ! r r l r l ' i j vN te IUro y . inacr r . r r r r lnpxux ferrln. llcpnon nttBc( r j . n . r ron . i i r r r rx t r ,x , pn,.\y Hrt,L.tsri6e rep\arc(r\ nr.ncHr(osrpo tur r 0 f . . ! ra ) . ( f r j r r v , , r . , ,e r (oMvl B.Kr rua!'iro j. ' ''ouHo r(rnNrt! ,.urNrrn lL,tJ_\cMr plJxorrLra. K.j..R.t! rpor r (ur j r nf r rxrobrrr j r

y(ycl n n.rP6rN, rl.rerLeHo. cr!noBrrurB!.

.nd kr drr {'birnllaL pFdrdidr rl itr criUs

Thc n,x\si!e inv{rioni .l 1lr. (nnh\ ridr(h.r brrbrric 1rib.s Ji.ri rIc rrrrh cN durid]ltlrd ;1 j ccDlury .odt,b eJ i) Ccn.r.l iN..trrilyxloDe ris nxn ol rlre D{orbc SrllL il Mr oDlyxlirr the xdrcks ol 11[ lltros rlul rhosc pan\Nould bc lcli rx\ag.d L,[e rl oihcr ciri.s ]ndlrodcr lLr.ric,fon\ rn Nh.i n dor Serbia.Vninrcnnr rrs d.ilroycd rid rrs nopuL.riod\rs Drirlr, cndr\cd xdd nrill, drspla.cd

li.r the brerkdown ol rlic Hun st.rc,Virni'rur0in b.cxmc l]xd .l drc tcrritorl d,n.! lcd by l]lc (l.pids The s.coDd hxlf.l rlre 5 ,ccntuy r* n lrcrio{loarcconstrr.rnrr.l rhc.ltyrdd hJc i r l i l . lhc .a i ! .1 . l Gmnrn ic t r ibeslonrogotu rtrd (;clrids) nfuun{l the cnd ol Jie 5'hrnd nrc bcgiiningoltlre 6 i ccntrLq .xnrreidi-\x(nJn oJ Vimrnrcirm cmlis sl$ps. Ihrch adjun.d rhen pDdrclloD tJ rhe oc\! ccoromic

t3

Page 28: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Ao o6Ho8e rmpldla nonai, v BfcNc

I'c Hnjara (527 565 r.). (qr j. rdeD',ycnoc f rB t r , ) t r f . r r r r lL ' rcKe ' r rH( , le no jc ; j xrx apxeoiou0 irnx.rr Hrpolnro cpcifir.rocytc ca rrPasrrnM xpnulianc(r\i .ii.rcrjria.y(aryjv na rnacxl Br\oum,rj!u ' r- \rBeKy. Mla id oH,or0R, s ' ' (o [ , j r . :

CpenlHoM vl Dek.prunux ll,Nafut.noHor. yrntMara(yrprrytr nov)nr n A pn Hr nauonc(\'tsm4y ranornr6eEM(atr.(oM n.ryocrfnr 16.i,,ehc,rl(ricrrHr BtrvrHr ulIN ,iN.l ,.. rr0 cu Aorpr uch.tyxc ranpxrr

! s.\ry. icp cc D.b 6ill) 'florrc Krc uliun,icM ml,,x .rlx v pr1!npo ds ^Dtla ^irJJrKr lrnrnpr6r norr-

(p.ie\ vl B.Ka. orD.rJtrbenyr .lo8.rcKoj !!4nJrrrrrrijtr Hn ceD.pHoN

Btr r in (q0 iyN. D.Ko0 i r . vn . t t r r , r t , , r. laHunUlpcrua .n f . . r r r . iL r o ro t r lo (ovV l l re {x i ro l ! ,L r f , , ! r CxoB.nr l I r \oDo

n.3y { } i r tPr ' )rmoprtcK! +rt y pxrsojr osc o.nncr,

(lno.cnc(. ' xcdn,e Kocrunru xobrr.lc Hai ni r! ni^I.(oN

!Rurnnrnccs and t. rlrc nncs:'nil ncc{ls ofr[.nc\!ll sdrlcd p.ttrhrn)n'

T l j c lon . .ss \ rs f . coDnnLcr . t l rh r r rgJu{ifirn r E gr (516 r6j) xod rhc fro\lD.c \rturci'rstrtcd iD ns l.in.r bort]er\. SoDrc chr.oLosi.xl litrds. priiculrrly sil|ctr\rr. \iLhrix.k.d y (-liriiirn rrrirs. poifl {.1lrc rnrponorc.of Viminrcnm i'r rli. 6d crntrrr. \hcn ir h,don.. ilrtr, horornc llre.cn.c ofr Jiu!.\s _

Arornd rhc niddlc ol rhr 6 !.DtrN rhcboidcN ol rlrc.mti.. trrrc vdt xg.iir disrurbcd blrlr. niusn)n\ rl lhc SLds rnd KtrtrrguA Thci fcu , !oN o l lhc , \ .F i [ . th r Prnnon] in r i x i Inr{fh.d a rcs, r.noJ rl i'r!rsiois in t[. Bxlltup.ntrruL Viminncrtrm rorid nor b. abl. b resint in 53.1, bur.oD rhc oircr hmd thr,\\16 \ouldfor ixy th.r. lni loog. r\ il is mcntion.d as lBlzritoo mrlil!,_r b.rc iD t[c urr xg]ir\r rlrcArars as s.on.s 600. Thc ̂ rrr (levrn ionofl1l.Danrlic liin.s a(tr'od rhe dnd of thc 6 , ..ntr'r)\!rs k) px\o the \!rv fof Slx\ir inliltrrron in

virDi'rx.LU,. rh. renru'ies oLd n'.ighoklon dr. brrdor ol rhe l:nrpif...c.s.d b c\in (lurrog rh r 7 , cc f lu l . undcr th . a r rck \ . l rhc S nsTh.ir scnl.ni.n( nx.kcd x nrN cuhumi rtrd h(rori.xl ph,sr in llre dcv.lopnicDt ofrlri\ r.nrrory.

Thc Slxvic s.rl.dtnr .l KolloLic lot nstr.nc rionr rl,. Lntif l! s1d/rt,to\tr:ttllu .

Page 29: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t) Irtut Bbnqtnili i. M{v(ti Dtetbn^ lt. tdL 5lit xrt

nDho.huDQ Mt5telDa"bi6n hh ttu \1tt

lfernurpqytr nolr(e rojc HaM

aoHoce nyron{flr! t uPli.t ry6nre6t crapn_Ha, o6oraheHe pcryrrarnMa apxeotoe(nxocKooaBaEa {JDpnretnx o! crpatre MBdrpoBnha llt82. ..,s M. Bactha 1902 rgm.., n JL. 3oroDu6 ! B. Kosnuha 19t2l97sr.,trr !o6!jaMo Hen'ro tacHnlt dtry xyn

rypHor pa3Elrxa yxe DuMxDaqnjyMc{e rcPu-rp{jc Gnu(a 12.13 u u).

Pasx ie.rjc{n ioroP, (acrPYM. no

nnruyr je Ha Eecnoj o6arn MnaBe, na

r:: r xxvl. i.r, ! Kod,!. rr /doi.$m o{ $tr (^utr

YJr summrnp up,trta round rn *orts oftravel writcs and olhcr admire$ ol anhquity,cniched witn the rcsulls ofarchaeological cxca_vatio.s conductcd by M. vaxrolii in 1882,r Mvasic i. 1902 1903,! and Lj. zotovic and VKondia liom 1972 to 1975. "rvwhat clearer picture of the cultunl delelopn€.iof $c nmediale e.vnons of vinidacium (fis

The elny nilnary canp, thc castruh, wasbuilton thc rishl blnk oflhe MlBv!, on thc site of

r : : i r x x v i . L l v K ! n d i ! . I I b b u l v i n n ! ! N r c 4 M r

Page 30: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

\i\i

noKarrelJ_ ..rrrrt Hr o.I.ry {.tr4 f!pdt'4c rcpd,r ircno ce p.rrn,riy Boiln,lK0nofop tr ir...i,. c. r,c.oRc rrnanr. crfxr..oDr.anr oqlrpn\aeHrN 6e[eNrNn n PoBornMa. Ayr.fr xa y trsrnlrrc qrNcnirtc Kacrpvrr r dr..G.. no !0nn raN c.. x. cv \.tcdlro{b. Brdn

Hrirr,,r,rc o|FbeHe trpeNlMf;1! 0 ;rc(yNa|I)_ Brrocc .1i1:.10 x ils.t,ll M.aoK a t r r t r t raarx r . J l r ! . r r r . r . fo f .K . fRaccftr orroctrnc 851) \ 6(ll) nr

jlo.op e ro;ix.rlr no yodolrtcHoMoueN! fl)in3i. B.nn(nx rcfr c(0\ rofol)4.Hr y oDn\x ry K l ie . r rH ! rF .un ,ocr ie Ic t rpeccqntr, (oNlo,nu,laMa (olc cc ..Kr .ornPatsx ! ! ,n1 \ , / l k Lnr r t r ! v i t rq . . , i , r , f t trd (ojx cc rprxur r np.Bqt C J. r 1,,, p/rn i-//rh xojr c. ntlxara t ntaRuy 11 3. cnajarc

rmBre ^.nxje c! tr.rHr. /,!r7i r,trrrd, rr.t nt\a\oa. r.)Ll J(ut"t,r. Ea( c! cc ocrarc

r.tLt rti'iutr\ rrrht nrccr.. ptnr riitipnli\ Lrv,' y cpe!IU1!ro,ot)x.. nrlrn. (oNanrir rurx6 t,?.r,lr , t . no( te i r lH t r ne l ) . k ' ! l L , i x rs r K lu r r ..ryxro i cNcurq 0oNohiorr teItrH rn !,rrto6r,cirKn. I ucrrpr ro.oPr cc nrl3nron cBcr onr , !1 . (v ! . /1 , ,1 " lo .opnc ! rnar rn6oiHnuy {u/.rr&rri,,r. rllloHio(e (/ar, r1 ' . J . x i fn ruv ( ,n ,?d l . Kro r u r l rc r .$,drraj K.iLa. io.orFa+cKa ncrpaxn0arL.

,.C!; Ju(lging by ihe r.nlistrrrrn)n ol rliogiound. r milikry cdrp .nd . sclilcDrcnr on itsl.n.m sid. r. cl.d) disd.iiriblc Th.\. i.cs,nounde{l by rrmpirts.Dd dilchcs. Atrlhorsonif varyii! dnncnslois ofthc canrun rDd lli.\.tL.dcdr. bul il rnt.xa thd thc .rrns nLtnhc(l Lr] Proles{tr \hic rre 1llrxscd on lhc nn'x$trcs .1 tIc cxrda aDd th.dclrourtr\ {h.f trruLd hr\c htco .112 ?0 XlS5 60 D. NhiLc the knrN.y oJ rh. .rt sedldmcnr lvould hrlc bccn appnxinxtcll'� 850m x

Thc crmp Nrs connn'clod iir rccorirnc.{id l1l. unrxl sJ{.n ol briLdi'rg lx'e. l.sioncrnps nrlr* \rru strLrred 11 thr rorlrh rndlhc lnrerior nas crisscr!srcd by conr.uricrronstrn.sc.1nrg.l righl dgL.s. Th. rll, A?cr,r. Lrid,. thc d,..clnin N S rnd fi,1)'rrill?d,lald iir the direcllo'r F \\l lirke(l lhc

Thc irin grl.s lc{ rhc .nrdcc, P.,tri/)?./r,r. rnd rhe e\i. P.r1d D..r,rrxl. Ihrlethc 'cnra i ' r i ' r -q r !oe . t .ssc l rs i ru tcd to lhc lc t i -P.hu Pirt\,1ltr .9,'Jrr? anJ !, th. nghlP.)rl Ptrtipnl;' Dcrh In ihc id,lle of thcc.jnp l.y nrc comD.nd hc.dqumtcrs llldrdi!,t. *hLl. llrc b0ck N[. Nnr rhc .xtr earc,serve,l lnr lccornrnolirhng !u,lirry troots rndpfisoDcrs lh. shrirrc (rd..l/r,r) Nas snurled l.nrc ccntu ol lhc cxmp Apxn liom lhcsc, crmps

Page 31: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

!a cpe|nHnccBePHof6cscLla 1980 r' or(pnn!cy ocralxe yna3le (ltsJe \P.'Id ltata,lutleo rnnqe 0id rrdrr,rrd) n BosoBo|Hol

H. ocnoBy Prco.noxnBrxro;raraM rrEtbcno je !a ,.rop re nPfna)rajelnoj eno$. Beh le upcMeHoN )roxoBsaB.oopenFBk€ u ve6.o cBoj lTrer'

Tepxtupnj{ roropd nplnaquo jc !Bojlrro H.eDe lunubd. ksion^) rcte .enara,!,o ca ranarHe opane. oopMrpaHo je

on uojHrlKBt noponrqr, {Harnt'i.- rr.oRaqa,a rHcnrPrcrHoje Roj,IoM rpr^xnBora oj! jc nonlrebc! BorHr! rnrcpecria. llr.rex Ha.crape(oHmpyucnr Ha ocHoBy ypiianlcrrrKxr

ryauoBe I JlocauauBrr nafq{anHBt n.rpa_xuRdLa. IlBe fnadrc ynxile cy cc ceue noa

lft . hosriral (rrl.r/drtari,,t, workshots (/i,br.z!). a gD.dy (1,,"d), rs Ncll as st.bles lbrhorse! ToposFph,c rcscarch nelr thc middle oflhc northem ranpaft in 1930 uncoreEd tmnantsofthe entrance gare (PdI7d t/acn rd). a pan olrhe slreet (rr, P/?.rort,) and a part ol rh. aquc_drctbenelth il.L Based on disposable dalJn $asascenai.cd lhat the.amp d nor bclongto I sn

ele ep.ch, b thar il urdcNent nrodiicationsovcrlime a.d that itchanged 1n appearuncc

The ml|nrry scttlcmenr tz,,r,. /.ao,6),s i rua iedro thewer l ,a lsobc longe ibrhcrc r rL lo ryofl[e carnt x was inhlbitd by sokliers lbmrlies. cransmen. ner.haDls nd rvas n[pired bymilita, r- .onslnrtion and bt a w.l' ofhlc whrch\ras in accorda.cc wirh nrililary irxeresls' Thclm.xrance of the scttleorcnr can pan lly herecon$r0ctcd based.n urbanislic elencnts com

r r q u P n l i d r i . n i a , i r i ! i r r I o

i2

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Page 33: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

nPaBnNy. iov . ! l ' l cHr l t.c rararo nPaBoyfrodxrpr ca lpaLlo no cBebeHn! u.p.{.\i (trry nnpxaBHoM naHreots!. rdBHc .pabcBnHe ,r oilrBrErH,e ynfaunnx. saKoHolaBHo clxcKtrx I rf.osaq(n nocroDr. npo+. Enclh le .rKroo jcx n.oI n r q e ! , n t , i k e j N t x ( .

lor3qofi rn0 roplr(oN.lAtrc . rouxrM rcr taxuBrbx\ r l rT l , re f rmPoBar i. 6crev rrrddnor nac.ra (otcJc ra(or.ou,i yrpbcHo ,'1e. 01KPnBcro. ccDcPflor 6edeNr t)iboH.r ojl ntrre.xHo.

toN. J .6 rnrc 2 . (10 N,Noxc re oopcxenf lx y Iuc(. oBo nacc.ac ic trnu-rcl. ! ooxat)j" r rrk.Hts"Renr r r je rePeHr y l lBexy. qouro jc qo nonlra-,La ro.o a.ci,a oloxnay |06. CeBep.). ] xole ce

inon torlL l{onmnrowns atrdon p.maL r.s.a..h .ondrd(ed until thc presenr dry The

11 r nghr xnglc rnd in thcceorr therc {o.d a s'ture*ith s lemple consecmrcd rothc lnf.naL .rh and lo rh.staie Plnrheon ana publrcbuiLdnrgs for condrctnr8g.!cmndnl. lcgislxtve rludicirl ! trade acrilitles.ft ofcsor Vasia dhcovcrcd aprd .1 , !r.r1. j mete\N e. Niih r cololnade or !Dortico I lhe mmpad ofrhcc iv i l i rn sc l l l cDc , *h1 .hNrs rl$ lodrlied. rN discov.fcd in thc ar.hacologic r l c \c l l r l i ons in 1973. Ap.rt ofth. discov.rcd nonh-.n ran ' tad . Dad. . l .u rnone. fi\ed Lvith nrod!r.2.00 m tlrck.caD bcdarcd tothe l. ccnttry TbN s.dltineot lvrs deslroyel irr r fire.atrd. aicr a lcvclLnie of Ihclenin in rho 2i cenrury. n

xroor 6c3 rpc(rna oxultao ! y BpcNcnxrdnrDsLLa. i ll!c.n. lc nllaio .Bojt( .Hrnr r r r roHy | t s ' r1 ' tn ixHy I

uraro JoaPe \rrxteH.Keycn.R.. v n|rnofro!. nx. o or(frlrc asrrxrepNr k r lc c l a " re n lkc ! i , ' ) . ' l rMn, .B . . ,ocrnKrrrM 3nJoBrM! x MeP\epHoM oni.rrr6Icnx.: fxro rrrFaljcnn Bouoror r ro j c B ' {y c r (nor rx r kq . .y c .

n lr.orcrolno o! B!rnHnrlojyN". y.enrM. KrdatJc Vrlnr.uau rCxp.KoDo I llosotrp{tspe,rHr nNn*r ft/rd

nclr scttlcmcnl was crcctcd (possibly duringSc\'.rus- rcigD), h $hich lilc cofiinrcd trintcrruplBdly o\en ir rb. ti,.cs.loldcr By/rnrnLm ilhe selllenrent hd ils own se{ernge rnd ratcr$rpply sysrcms, so rhafihc hr'dsicnic coidni.nsrn , id { rvh lch rc l lo tuLx l i . i . l \ : i , ! r i xcLunrh \cdlvere srf\lacb.). The disco!ery of ! hL\rrloNpublic badr. rnh D.intcd w.lLs.nd r ma$l..coa!cd sri'n 0g Nol should xlso i.. 1o ip.!k infxvour of such a conclusioo. r The early builtwal.r $rpplt systcm brorght \!.tcr nt. rhc .r!liom rhe collecrn,n irnks l(uted k, thc ex{ rndsouth ean ofVimirracnm. in dre nresenr da) \ll

Page 34: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t t. P t.r, x ! krq rhnut. iua M \atr]'\ lutuetP Hrtnr tKvia4

i\rik \.4n /t'ne 4

er.4), c! ce HaraTn,uaH rpalck.fjetrDrj trco63!poM Ha BentrKe troleHurj e y obpas!'u noBturnaNa. .B5xarc.t nl)c)r.rrnGrnr$aEo npon3BoaBo oolrp]'lle H rrBoP xpaHe.

Epojxr apxeonouK! Haiasn parnncnrol&laKepa (o.raqu a!\lrckryfe. enrfpaqc

ao,roHoMrcrxlKa .patja.0608r), iKarjj). qd ie Upa rcpfr.fi,rJ

dnaqnjyNa 6xra .y.r. HaceBex! h ni ceEa8 rPanc{e lepmopHje- Mopr PlcyHaru cahN 6pojeM pypanHnx HaceDa. ar! r ry({4{x pernacnqnja. Hace$e je. npevN

+. B{nh!. ,\Br, 'nu u{! 72 reKrapa trano jc y najBcha nacc"aa Ha roH,eMaBy 36, , f n r r r re nn . f t rn rur le punc .

Dd rpaa i ( . r r , , " r . , ) . 1 nupeq rna0H, (

o6pahajrrqa, 6!no ct roqnpan! ucrnu

Y n ! u f ( k ' s ' H 1 ! e b t ( J ^ r L B C n c

ojmwc noponlue. BerepaHr. sanarrrlc !roEacrx .rot cnJa lc npr al)Ha ncrarHo.r

lases of Kufiacc, Majilo!,c and Snakolo.Li griculfural Fotenie! (,i//d fusrr.r) wcrc localed oulside rhe ciry corc and, bcaring in nnnd rhelargc sunbces ol arable land, cer1!illlr constjtutedi nivorallEa ofproduction andasor.eol food.Nunreous archacoloei.al li.ds, varyins iir charactcrj (xichnec{uril remnlntsj epiamphic monutoenrs, lopononrastrc ieaturcs. gravct sugseslthFtlhe widcrlcnnory of vinin,ciunr rvls dense-lt Fopulaled a.d thar rhe exisrence ofa numbcrofturil$ettlemeris aswellas luxufy dwcllines is 1(,be reckoDed wilh. Accordine b Pdl vasii. thesculcmcm slerched acDss 72 hectarcs .nd wasone ol the larsesr scttlc,rcnc on rhe lorerDanrbc To cnsurc ensier shinment of Aoods,largc workshot compoundsrere situarcd oulside$e uny * alls (,rr? D,,,r), a.d clos. {o lhe main

a cHaoaeBnBe Bolcke ! iorlPy.

l5

Page 35: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

ts.naettata n,erh! Urk4t , t)lratua ahhe shc putuatliq ke brghus aI n nr edw\

ocnM Bojsne(or Face6a, xoje je nc-Huje npcpacro y rpaac{o, nocroFno je xq'Dnnlo Hlcece (oMc jc 11?.ryc NyH,urnnjyMa. noqerkoM III De{aBolsrsxo Hace6e ca BoJHoM ynp,Bot! nMyHUlunntyM ca rPaqcKlM ypeDebeM. r.laierHo noqoje.3a caaajcjou yBeK HePeueHnpo6rev .se ce Haiduo rlHorlHocHo,n,,nrpirri A.lithl rt ll Be(alolroBop !! ro nrra,Lc Noxua iex! m nsojo6dn MraBe. Ha AoirrHlxrHov nraroy. racaMo ns)laHxt r-onorc(e .Peqe. yxuNronoHnMoM 'Manr { Berrn l'Pan (ro-(dnrcr.Jounla qp$a ). Ha BeMy ce r aaHac Harare o.raqr KPyxHe Kyie o! KdHeN! rleo JacBeleHor xoasrm oa orcjn ce ca nnaroa orrrur! ! nfaBq! AyraDa.KyrrypHacuoqrroja HaoBoM,oQirleaylenMana se'lro apy.dqnj! roK He.o Ha secHoj

Soldie6 fanili€s. vctcnns, cratisncnand ncr.hanls. whose pnmary activny was clteFine lo the needs olthc lroops all livcd in lhc canp

Aparl fbn rhe mililary seitlement, qhichImer grerv into a city, thcrc Nas ako a civilianone. vhich rvls !*arded the $ar!s ofa munici-paliq in the year I17. At the besinnins ofthe:ld.e.rury, thc nilnary scttlcmcnr wilh a mililaryadnrinislraton .nd the nlnlcipiun. wnh toNnorga.ization exhted alongside elch other Theproblen of lhe locarion ol the civilian scltlcncnt,i.e lhe,,x,.rydl r of,]cltm frcn the 2i century $ill rcmains unsolved the solution io drenroblen nay lie on lhc lclt 6ank ofrhc Mlala. onthe donrinlnt plareau ar rhe very end of rhc longnaros hill ofsopo( wnh the loponyd of MaliCrad and vcliki Crad (lhc site of "Todica

Crku ). This n where even today thc rcmnanls

Page 36: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

dx Mnale. l'I3nan atroxronof Hace.Ba t3

ardopnjc(of (eHeortrcKo.. BaruHcxor.

lRKrur ) nn6a, Han ' rc ce . ! rJq I p r {c re'rexr]?e. lJHa,r (oJc Je noqtrftylo yr

tee m JycruHrjiHoBor BpcMsra. Hrja'| uuj F cPe!$uBehlFHn qir{ctrtrrie

pbeaa cd ] JnHrN K) raMr t r rH lce 170 \

16 M, a jyxno ce Hud'i saccrc HenPaBnnHeodoBe.o{nrrcano ct Hacerbe u }TupDcILe HaneDoj n necHoj o6arn MraBe,leaHo xsuecHolPeMe naparenHo 0ooojar{. c rb{ uro e

qH i reB . jo6an t r H r . aPu . n . i r 0a Kaqaje r?aA Ha ld t rpy n ro t ran \ r reH i i I ud r \FeK

eaoBoDH. roPaAeHtr f rNcKs apxeonouKr6aqn yk3yly caMo Ha leaH! ol Mo.ynnxndarrrja MyH!\rnamo. HaceEa.

BxMmarrlttM le lvao cBory Qnory urfa{r!rrc (d/,t- xoreje !varo sHacarHy

of a ciEulf sonc lowcr and a pan of a covcftd*alkway in brick and stonc, dcsccndin8 fron lheplareau doNn to the D.nube can sl1ll bc lbund.Thc cultural erolulion on thh sile look F somewhat ditlcrcnl cou6e dran on rhe righr bankofthcM llvd Abovc thc autoc hthonou s 5e trlenent lronthc pre-historic (Aeneolitnic. Valin, La Tane)

Friod. arc found the rehna.ls ofRoman aEhi-tecrur, arop which a fonificltion iion Jusli.i-an s period \ras erectcd. Thc mo$ recent layer isMcdiac!al. The fon,ficarion, includins rhe comerb*e4. occupics an area of2l0 n X 216 m, andro the soulh olil lies a scttlcmenl with !n itusular basc.lt h obvious rhrl rhc sctllcmcnl and loFlificllion o. lhc lcft and right bank ol lhc Mlavacx hle d llong sido cach odrcr for a pertud. but tharliti condrued on the leliba.kcvcn wlrenihecityon caif had been rband.ned.ri Thc $ill not

r MoiD!' int BFrd(!$ix. \ nuPri,it Bsue$i\!,,

l7

Page 37: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t , , t , t t t \ l i t r r t , .

Page 38: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

rcry y o6$6ebnBa6y rprHrrre, rpaHctroPryda6a€Ba'Ly Bojcxe ! craHoBnnurBa. c

ftrpoM Ha crplreuky r )1rcrpu6y(xoHvory B{MrHaut r j jNr j , " u / rp ' j iHUBt r \qMx PoroB., oHo ce voxe npernoniBnrrrjeM I Bexa. a(o He o palrtc. ll3uopHnnaqr rcln ce oltso.e Ha .rohxllol n prc

re cy ocuaHf. Hrrnfc trr I Bera raeHrk t nn !3Lhc |o { M f r f

n . l r r ' . l ec tns , \ j . t o \n rk ,16 , t r , c ̂ ! j c e o id r

Mopc(oM rp.oBuHoM. Ipy.u Harnnc (ol! jcdaB"o C. ,'dlsrn,s l'ihit]lu:, tlwtqrnnl

oll.sun nauartn Lkuu rf u UnHUB emyxouor xPana r nocraBsa6y crartcjrc 6o.o0a, ko n nocrotarLy yufyxcH,aopaqa (.olles,!n n2d4&,r. i r Ha I rprcyr r

r rqa t r3 noMUPcre cn !^ce . c Ino ur3 r r rcsoFe n..rc^tro vKarvi! | nnFrrH,, rr\e

oBB nPea erh. Kao uro je r opoHraHaa(/d,u)yo6r!(y 6poua (cirm le). I

Ioa,lanrHiN atxeoronr Kx M Hcar,.xrMua nPrcraHrure H4e Pe.ncrpoBaHo,r oapebu,e ronorPa+c(o-aPxcorou(c

je y(arylt Ha roxarnere ,.CBearBy', , fdn je . O re re ! r< r 'LUN r / / l J /U(nr '

i ' )nor8ph l j r aaF He(a oqopo j t r f \ dhr lj yMcrn \ r ln rnJ f . r r \ t l r lnnHh\1 ! rcur lo rpabrBaia onerc 3a norpe6c Br\trr

Xa! ' r BH{ In ' ' ] L f uP t rHu f le ,MMqrjyMJe 6no cennrre qapc(o. flaNcc-

,rj. ynpaunrm npoBonq{F rclrF rMaoro$y BU jHJ r l t r annHy UJL ' . r H r p ruL !

.rey My Je crajao nocra Pa3.PaHar adMlo-ar rsHn anrpar o 4 f l r l . r t rM

propcny cramined Ronan nrhreoks,cal remntmspo in i tobutoneof t l reposs ib le loca t ionsofthe nunicipal scttlcmc.r.

Vmina.iun had ns own fcet and pon(",tur), *hich played a sienificani pln in prc-lecrins lhe boder, lransporlalion and supplyinethe army aM lhe local liopulaLion. Considennstho slrategic and dhkibutile tuncrion Vimina-ciunr hsd had cvd sincc Tajan t Dacian waN, apon c.n bc cxpected ro have existed heE aroundthe end ol the In cetrtury. ifnot earlicr. Ori8inaldala resardnrs sailing and the torl is scarce. Aninscription lion Lhe 2d centurr on ! sacincialallr dedicared to MithEs was commhsioned byt nauclns, \.e. nari.tldtiu! - a nanl nad.t. t\second nscdptloni plmed by C /a/e/iri tl6!un^. qrnqinal Collegiun nar.drlr, Nitnessesr reconstruction of thcTcnplcolNentuneand$elaying ar a sLrLue o I the Molher of Cods, as * ellas the erisrence of a naval a$ocia,jon (.Dl.gi"nlouhn6).)1 Cen^n\ archacologi.al rrLelacts-$rh ns a b.ar shaped bon,e lamp (rr.c,rd).(llguft 19) I, indnectly point lo a presencc ofnaro lpenonne l .enhcrc iv iL ianor r i ln . ry .

So tar. ar.hacoloeical researh has noridemilied d Nn- bur cenain topogmphic andFEhaeolosical nidications point roward th. silesol svehld" and Grlije . The finds of bricksberrirg the slgn llP,l ,,/,'/ !nd..,r^) $rsscsllhst one oflhc nuncrous vimi.aciud bncrmrring worksh.psspeciahTed in producing brlcks forrhe needs of lhe Vnninacium riverbrnk.r',

As . provin.ial .apital, Vimina.iud wasrhc scal oflhe inperial depury, i e. rhe golemorol rhe povince, who held supreme mililary.ndcililian authority, |avirg a rath* cla6oralcadninistrLire rppaalus dr h\ disposai. A finan

qoBnMa oplry Je Bonxo ynpatshtr( (r,?.,'

4 Y BrNt r t rau f iN)

d l o $ r H o n r ! r r ' 0 ' - B ' N 4 j , L ̂ t r

I q , r u , o r i r n t !r w , u , t $ N , ,

chsij rarh Mtrla n! ar'!N I .oDro \rBrrr.sii rarh Mtrla n! ar,!N, .oprq \rB,r,. .L$6 l x ! ND$ { nN n' 'u! ' fo&oi trj!!i,r.

' a c o f c , , T f u i 3 ! u 1 r i \ r ,B h r ! , r j s , l M , q ; q ! $ i i o D u j . n d t r D r ! n .

Page 39: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

rcrnje tCt ttiu C. Hironca H. rep .ln.l6a3! xoja car(txn cnnir t.lnn(a Pe.plr)Brtsxx 169. a 01rlrrrcnnx 195 ' oornxr trrMje , ren jcx r xoMaHxrHr . l L ! ( th^ t l t t r rn^ , acnn.prdr.(n cnov4trqr no'uphljr x nrrrrnxc. DojH.f rr'.a (o.br'\i'f.. rrcrrBnn(c.DdH. rIn6lHe. k.!.trtKc r !p.1. Kro tr i.rn'$ i l t . t o6rc f ln \ * ) t r r r (a i B . leP. r r.DtnKunoxeptr rpxrBre r l)rrL.(c ynpaDe.x ' !0 cy rxKo l rc ,o rs f tc r r Hr Hr r rcnn tr rxx i , , . t c ro j rpn , r rkB x r r . ro (Parn je . l J rxrarnje r 'rtrv.o\.6n!crn cr'L.lyxcrr Belefrtsr kojlr cr !6Prr,' ' lr.Il.cpoNls r r ln . . f lPor lec foMxnnsrur le l c

.p . l l rHc(n t nprBr ' r_noc.rK!. cn!,i frro6l)ojlrori cioj! 1.mincrp 'L fNXfarn t . . cBe r r . 2 l : . . K .J ( l .(rprMnrH,{ cxn(roM. prNtk. rfxbanc(o t .3 . npou0pe lo r r r cuc c ro0 ' r ru rccrrH,BHokc nfournunjr. nrp,n.iro c! npo!cco\ PoNrH,,,,r,,jc r.tuo je r'foLr.. yl)iidlrur'oj. uro ie 0oru|.Rarn 6p,ie\ o i\Drr.by.tsxx rc(oBnfia rHr,lj c . KaKo Nnrep ' !a rnnr raxo I rdYoBrnrBcin(c JpyurBeHo e(oHoLlcrc. Kynl!Ps. no l " jd rHc npovcHe lc io tsdh. nnnaNn r r rpa3Boj BrriFtsr,p,lr'!a. (oln.ocrt!e rrajRchr !Hjj'D3Brlcnrin .pu y ropH,ot Mcrl!.

cirLso!emr (/,,a/ d/,4 \uin chr+. ol llDan-.irl atf.irs Thc roonmdd ll..gdr/l) o ltgmnl7l a /.nkln, s!s rL\r Rntntr.d $ Vminrcrum.|ronr.n,ns!ritrion on rhe nr{nnc br\. .!ilrtritrr-q r[c l]si oJ $ldi.6 rccrritcd iI 169 lnd d]chx.g.d in 195, rc leln, ol . lcgLon conDrndd(, ld.rlr ,l/trfnrrr. d e|rgrunhi. niotrumcnGf..od lhe n!mc\ ol l.Ncrrrnkel monbca ol'.ril,h.! tcsoDnel lollicra cdsi-!Ds. miliIary lri-bunes. Nrrehors. cLcrks eLc.l. !s r.lL N ot ala'-cc number ol rtgtrlar soldids rf{l !eie n\:Olliridh bclonling to \1r1. did cily xdnrnslm-lions, \!bose n r.s $crrlnrrec.rdod jn iNcrlp1ioDs. comllGd {l,o ci1} \ arisrocmc!. \\ir vei!Fros liom lrall and olher lJnlinc$ scnLed heit.which spccdcd rp th. proces\ iil Rorrnizxriatr.This proces5 hrgd hy iDitixlly reliricting thcrghl ol ritizcnship lo llre k).xl arFtocr"cl'�, sn0llin numbers, trnll rh. ycar of 2 L2 lvhcn Roftxnc i ! i lLa \ ! s tane{ lbe i lg rml l .d lo a lL f i c . i rn rab-i l rn ( .1 lb . p ror inces- thnrgh a t r .dLc l b !aamcaLh. Pdr,llcL to rhe pi(,cc\s ofRo.rnization \cni on t|tr t'occs of urbuiza-rioo. rh,.h '.n iI lavou, ol r mor. npid a.c.pr.nce of alL dxndr.ds of lhc Cl.srcrl cirihzltun.h.rh ir nr!lei[l rnJ \Pnn!.1dononnr lnJ culnrmL ch ses rl x $idc scope.iablcd Vmrnr.iunr l. dynamic.lly s(B in'odrd lrrg.st and nrosi tlelBlotcd lawn of Uppr

Page 40: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Ilpubpqu u exato.ncxu ycltobu

Ecorwmie cond.itions

Page 41: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

l f , . ' , " 'o"o".nu y.nou sn, ,rarinjF a nolerxoM II Dc(a, npeAcraBDapeltrraory Druc nprl)olHkx ! apyurDeorx+aRropa. on npecynHor 3Hacaja je 610 Ber.uEomparcr0 noioxaj n .coMoroo'ou(acrryawja mpc o(orrHe. IlpyDrBelo {baxrop{, Rao !Ir. cy pa3Boj y npcrxoAHoM,EaPocrro iartHcKorr, ncpnoatj uuraiHocrayrcnornx nony,laqnja, rqleHJ,rerpoMas-

07!,/he sudden ccononic grovtb of

Vnninacium at the bcginning of rhe 2d cenLury*!s dre rcsult of a nunber of natnral and socialfaclo6. lts stnlegic gosmpnic position and thceconorphologic $ructure ol lhe widcr snmundrngs rverc otcrucial imponancc. Socill [email protected] as developnent dui.e prior peiods, cspc-cial1, L! Tene, rhe viralit! ofthe autochrhonouspopulation, paircd wrlh inlensilc Ronanizalion,

lnHaMrqHa e(oHoMc{a KoMyE (aqnja. yJMa(cuMdrHy e{cnioaraqrjy nprpouHnxoomrcraBa. crBopnra je yoroyGycxuaBe oDe o6nacr! y me ro(oDemrKe rrrBurBaqrF r roBo$Ho yrurraia@ xyrryp!! ! lyxouHx xnBor BnMnHarrqyM

fiapdeneHo ca xoncons)rlunjopsMc{e BoiHe { nomrncR€ unlcM KpajeN rBexai n rnrcHrrsHrM HacesaBaBeM rproBaua, eHlrrxja ri apyrlx (o,on{cra rele rnpo{ec ycnocraB$a6a po6ou

oflhc Wcsl. Very dynamic eco.omic comnunica-tion,wnhamaxn nlcvclof erploirltionofnarural resourccs, cnabled this resiont acrive partic-rpatlon r all aspects of Classicrl civilization ondhad a faloumblc i.flue.ce on de cultunl andspiritual lifc of Vinin,cium t inhabitanrs

Parallel to the consolidalion of Ronannililary andpolilical authonty around the c.d ofLhe I century and to imensive seftlemcnt ofher-chans, craitsnen and otber colonn$, lasted drccslablshnent ofa systcm of slavery and ofncwproduction relationships. Agriculturc, crans,nd

Page 42: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

npor3DoJrnx onHr i . r . l l or,onpnBpe,lx. rararcrB') 0 pyarPclBo. (r.

ocHoDuc npnup.nn . aer r LH.c r r aoNoPoroxrB:hnB|j! ci"Iu

r r rc (e . r fyKr tp r r tse 0 foMcnc KrK ' i !racnny eKdu.arauxje 1n(, ,, .r.dnBaunje.thnRpcnflr N,ih r|ana cc ocn'

mi r r i r r ! ,be ing(b .bas i .ccoronr r rc r iv i l i . so l lherarirc poprhrn,n. uiJ.iw.nt cnroaL s{ruoturalchrDg. bolh ir rhe lvrl\ ol clploilalron and irollanizlrn)o Th. .i1}'P\ ccono.lic nrs.r .cliedon xg cuLtu.e. [rl. brccding. cran\. tudc ardkr .spor r lhe e \copr i .m l Locd ion o fVmrnr.iunr .l an imDonrnl jLtriclan in ll'c

nputsndny. cro rrFcr Bo,3ararcrBO. al)rcBnrt rcr06fahat. I,I3r're, xr noioxnj BrNnnaulrlMr Hx

tackpDhr ll,FrDa ! nyreBx. o rpoNrH I l .M. rntrHxxr. )rlxaunnx cnyx6cnrM. Lt, oRaIIa. 3rtsrfrta r Botc(e. Rnlncne.o ro8o-ano ce onprx33ao Hr r l 'Hard , rcKeroKoBe rtana r npxtspe;lra kpera l ( rc rN rp rHr f rd , rokanHn , r t )o r lBojsr tr .rarno nPrcr_cR. +rflaHs,tc(T (anrr!.

rn y Mny peroBH(t oojflnrtrr\ nfnxonn npencraBB.nr .! noxf.racxy

Lmpire. the ci.mous circuLair)n .l tavdlo6,{I. ollici.ls. meruhnin. cmtlsmen and roopshad nr!'e thin a posilile irntrct on rh. lnrncnl.nd ccono.ric chunNt.nccs rn llrc ory AClnlio (rxDsil. loc.l D()Jucriotr and aconnantpresence. l l i narc i .Lc .p i ra l . in thc tunn o fa s t rbhnicome tiorn rhc,.ililaryr acled i,s ! Jvnlnricblseof..onomic develornrcnr. Du. ro. l.ck of \uir-ren Rffc.s. rh. dcv.lonrne.l oL indLvrduaL c.onomicbrrnch.i h L ecl! docunlcnted bvni.h4

Thc lcdilc plaiDs ol Sfg nlknved allbrxnchcs ot !sriculrur. to thive. especiilly

Catlur.d tctrilory {a\ d,vd.d imo {itorned land (,€sr /r!?,hrlr). nrnaiely oMedlx.d (..i.'.r pru,/s) aid impcfial lxDd lhchrsc{ nion oflh. Lanl Nr\ rrvrrJcd ro peoPleliom lhll,. belh.y mcnibc6 oflrnd holdn8lris'

ih3y c(oro cKof Pr3Dota. Ycnnc.Hrr xruopa. p Boi irolelruux nPnBpe!!n\ .paHr r 6e!rx.l N.pn qoKlMeHrlJe alxc-

nnonra cruukn txBduua no.oloBnnrjc parBojr tBnx noronpntspe,rnnx .fan..Hrpo!nro kie$y xrm.

o.Bojcrn repH'!rnj! j. 6ma noie,ruanaupNrBH. (,9u, /xrlnl!). rrrD,rno (rr./

Pn,,rd) n urpcKo r*rrlure. H'i8ehn irc.xpx.Etsof r.Nrnurn cy rloiinjarn llrlrxur.6rno npcrcrrBts'nn al]lcro(p.1!k.L rcvro'rocensuc(o. cnol.. atrn. (oronu npHtrRoMmu,B.ax Kdou ia xnx sd l . fanr 3e \rnurc Koje te )r.n.BnBaHo Eerel)rnrva lcrtnnrs o reprroPtrtr ro.opr. I llnfo cmisr{(o Nrcn'urBo MHor.6porfl r rpxc.rou0 ocmqB nrrl)oM cruru y(rr!l! nx nocao l r rc |MBr d , rmjur .c -6 .Kr . r l , t c (a

I J

Page 43: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

nMaba ce Morl npernoc(Brrr Ha ocH.By rarnrca qrpc(o. npo(yP.ropr r lapcKnxarcneHraropa r r BnNnnd

Crr6nrra BotHorortrru{{a ofyrunj. } osoM n.rynoayHaBia y ncpro;r! oI IIlV BcKa. cBx{a(o t. loroaoBdi! paBojr cilr{ noBonprBPe|Hrr .palrx ulo r0rDptyll H.nxrn noronPrupe ld . f a ra l . ( l r .Hn(4 .MoruK.. rruoBa. Koc.. xpBlLeu4. (ao n nocD.rc a.PapHN 6oxaflcrB rr: Ucfcfn.Majux 3.vBu. nepceCnxr.Idncpy ! In6oto . O.a .

FRy x nmory x r r r x , . t s rxo6racrtr | PnM. 3a cacr oocrote cario fH]l0l.(run no-

naur . Ha nocro t r$e t r3a .arr{Are lh.,ra ptbtni.non.Bnror lll s.kx y(xr\jcHarrd. na nolrcHoN .atfr!nonr.HlL on crFuc lnprtsHr(r x!rHx(e. r ! ltcr n|o-racKa HMnctaroPr rnnn IBorJ_r r j rHx . 2 i l r . ' r jporu

Hai!1r (o.rp k, 3t)ty J_ nxcy 6nN.. naxrrc CororrKc.pc!c rpc|.1xnrxnc noronHo frc an ftrte,6r nnrouc

rocrr.l'm. coL0risis serlcd dlnnglaundnrg nrc colonr'\ of \ctcfus. The Inod grnrl.d ro r.rcf.iN N.s parl or c!,n| knr().'.

ic r w.s nnlLlary proped!.Nutr,.tuus .'.hacolo-eicxl fi ndslhFuAhour Stg p.i.l t) th..xistcD.c of proDcrty belongingro snrll lhmrcr\ Thd irllcrirLpropcnl xlso e\ir1ed cln hcs..n Imni l[c nNcriplions byrlre Jrnpcnxl Ptu.uraror aidlmpcri!L Dispens.ron.f v,nn

Tb. slatilc nlirarvaDd polilical srturh.n in (hN

I)nn ofth. uo$ ofrhc D{oubein thepern be t reenth .cndofth.2r io 4n ccnrury, cerlairrlyboosred th. d.lclapmcnr of.LlbraDches of rgriculrur. *h1chh .onfimcd by lhe nnds !r!gnculltrml rools (pLou!h-shares. hoc\. spxdcs s.trhcs,mllhloncsl. .s rcll 15 br, thddcJ ,cd ions to . - !ncuhumLd.ities: Ce.e\. Nl,{h.r Ernh,Pc.s.tIonc. Libcr and Liber..]lSo tur rliorc x.c odlj" rdtrccrlciimonies of Nhcrt grt*!ingrdd .rpon.rion ro ltome. Thee\r{enco .l r nublic 8mn.ry(r,/r"d l,,llrrl in thu.rid l1!

C1.!!tcruo tc raKol)e.,'Fe|.rr3n,arorp lnq !onn, r i r ! , ' r , t rBr )cnr ! .1 !n l . r rou npn6onoB n.ntncxy ;renrlHoc n.at.iic ra4ocapcKrr on.xrsonnvr cy 6ure rentrk..{axo ra ncxprH! Kijd. r ur$mHrtr

,0.rrrcKa ijasa

c.nrr'ry s docuncnrcd toueh .n irrscrrption ona honomrfcolomn erc.t.dby a gran.ryadnnnrvhntr oi nrc.ccNion oirlre ernten^ (irlliLr' xdd\bLus i .n 5prs \ ing thro ! .sh lhcarcd in lh . l c r ro l '25 l.r' NrnrcFus p'uning knift ln,Js.onlirrn rhatthe nnld sloFcs of Sopot hill \ere r lnvourxbloLo tion Jnr Uo. dowin!.

c n ! ! f \ i \ r L f L r q r r l

Page 44: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

3a oaPerele 3eaft (rcePmr Mw !re((nrm). oa (ocfl e BPatrBao rr3trpotr3Bora 3a cBaxonEeBrry ynorpeoy, uv t3a ralarby reeoro.r]y (rrT(ao, ren(oB!r q). IloBonpmpeAa n rpascnopl cy arpe(,mo 3aBtcttx oA oolaPoBa. TorcM apxeo-Iorrux loPaxDa6a x?rBerrx troBpunqajyed Eexponona pe.rcrloBa{e cy Bd{{e

Marepljana rcF yKa3yjy aa cy tsajEruemjem: rcreqe, KoB, cEtrBa, oBua ! xoa. anoMesr, a!@a e!6a r jseH. Iprrr(oMaatu noMeryE MBo]me cy xg.rcEase, a'a(oE o6eaa, aeo je saMeBxEas no(ojHF

Cattl€ breeding vs also a lradirionallmch oflhe €@nomy, wnib huting ed fishinsl@ side adivities. Cartle bEedins prcductrw in nigt deman4 prcviding food for the nil-itary a.d civjlius, dd acr€d as a some of awnaterial for certain crafts (raming! weaving, tex-tile making) A wi.te a@y ofproducls was m.d€Itun bone. both for daily usaee md for application in technology Golveih, glues elc.).Asrioltm ahd lranspon directly dependcd oncaltle breedins. Arcbaeological ermination ofsacnficial mas in the southn nampolhosyielded finds ol a large mourt of aninal honenaterial. which sussests rhat among fie most@nnonly br€d flimah were: cows, horses. piss.sh*p dd eoats, while tlE nost como.ly hut-cd wft wild boar ed d€er T[e above aninalsw@ saditced at tuneral feasls md a porlion ofB[!eIF6!fr.6{DrALq.5&

Page 45: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

lpaErrecc{r 3aM.x ranocer y I se{yBryaasoM nyreBa nroroPa, rHEHlBnPr ceca xaspljaooM (r17 138. r.), xssoonre' 'Mer(eHoM lMerHocrn. npocncprrer r yp6aHrcaqnja Ha r3.paErlnlaBHrr 3,ra6a, naiara.(ynarrra. xpaMoua. 3aH.rcrux xBaproua.BonoBoI! x cao6pabajllqa.c Hacranaajy n yBpeMe MapKa AyperHja. CenrrMrja ceBepa rra,ljeHa. frauHu rpal npoBadq{je fopBeMe3rje Hapolmo nolnxe ooj craHnapa 3aBpeMe lnHacrnje ceucpa (1e3 217. ..). xaaaAora3o nAo o6Houe tofopc(or Haera.r5

3a BpeMe fopunjana UI (23ir 244. ..),(aua nooatc Roio"j! ' jou lue ao6lja nar{a{ajy cBoloMrternocrasxr! HoD rpaunrerc& 3aMax Mnfp.lhn p-laeHqoja 3a 6pojHe BojH!!(errapeBe ApxnrcmoHcRq ooaqn !3opa!! y

the neat oftho sacnficed aninal was ofi.ied lothc dead atler the neal.:a

The upswing in buildins that had .on,mcnccd in Lhe lrLcentury sas intcnsified dunnglhe reign of Lladian (from the yedr ll7, to dreyear 138). a HcUcnophile and palr.on of thc arts.Prcspcrilr. urbanizalion and construcrion olpublic buildlnss, palaces. balns. temples, crafts quaFteN, aqueducis and roads wa continued undrMarcus Aurelius, Septnnius Scverus andGalli€nus. The provincial catital of MoesiaSupenor saw a paticularnsein sbndard oflivingduing the priod oflhe Sevcrus dynasry, (193217), when the camp scnlenentwls rebuill.,J

During tne reign orCordim lll (238-2441,wben Viminacinn becane a colony and nsinporlance was lddniomlly increased by the

Page 46: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum
Page 47: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

6rBa\ia cr!.a. flccyNb!B c! !oKrlnpaclrH,a BrMrnaqnlyva t rPasc0 uesrap

o6e!ex jk i ! MetM.prncry6ou! . pacKouHo ooprbeHH xrnr re iB .ocn,[i bo)ro3o]rrrx, (anarnraqqourx ! .Pe

lHrx cxcrev.. NenvelHe3rloDa n nonoBa. o!.jy cBy Benx!xsrr xpacxod, j luHr \ r nPnuarnnx 3qa6a.ooF\lrprfln croj rpricKe rlx.roklaa0je nxo,oHncra. rnjc cc olpekao cBorlx norPeon3a iyxcyr.\ r rtireoroxrkn o.ra$ txarjtyHa nocrot.6e r'rnrrr .i jalnlyMrNa.

dorrauaMa. crary.v. n noprnuxrr (a'. 2.1.

rp .beDFHcKr j len11H. . r . Do jnor .rlusnino. n caKP Hor x.pr(repr. x,trckrBan! Jc ucnn(c Korrcrnc ryrteBuHcKor

openinS ol rhe ninr. \vr cm supp.sc a ncw con-strlrction upswins at building re\idences Ior thcnr.rr.us milnar! cmpcror 'lhe archnecnmlre'nrins relerled b, tloughine nr thc ficlds ofSrig are a definitive prcof ol Viinim.,un sbcconnrg an ubaD ccntre rith lt.lic iransNlrrble .olunns. onalcly .mftcd capitah. thcFnnants ofwaler suPply. sewerage rnd hertingslncns. niarblc pook, waLl aDd iloor coatinsie!erl rhe grandeur and lLrury (n nubllc rnd pnlarc btrildin8s. I he ne\rl)-formed class of knvnarisroracy and colonish did not sive up rhendemn.d.l h'\ury ntul rrchacologicaLfirds ponrtb the exisiencc ol na!arer rviih rtriunN. lnrdrains. sanLcs atrd Dodi.ocs (fisures 24.15,2a).

con{ru.!.i ddiyny ol trrilitarr. cirilianud srcrrlcharacler denrnde! lrrge qubti{i.s ol

Page 48: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Marcpujana. o6uiaro je RopruheH rier!vepMep ! noproBaH rr MeunrepaHcrc. lcnaMane A3{jc n Cpeao3eM6a. CncqrjarHrM6poqonnv llapk/dtid nari:). oHje ! 6no(oBn-Mn nnu Kao noiv4a6pu(.rrpaHcnoprouaH roB{NnnaqrjyMa.:i y r3BoprmroN' Aeiy Mn.BeuaieHr cy 6enri . ripBcnn LietMep, .a6po ncepneHrrH, a y Pa t r KIeBt no(arukMeni rcrcHaq l,l3 orrx KaMlc pecHnM nyre aonpeMan !o urM(HaurjyM,

Pa3uoj aprhlexrype. nonyMcHranHeniacr{(e u ae(oparnDH€ yNernocrrjnplByxr ic y BuMJHarujyM uc(ycHe 3anarrnjc { yMerli{e E Benn{lx paanoHnq(4r leHrapa UapcrBa, npe cuera ca tlcro(a. r yBen"rct Ncpn yrrqarn Hr +opMlpa'Lc ! paanoM,ntx (aMeHop€3ac(o.cryinropc(ux

building fraterill. \!hitc marble_ rnrported iiomthe Medilenancan pan ofAsia Minor and liomthe Meditcm.can, r'.\ lbundantly used Ir wastansnoied ro Mninlcium bt sp4ill ships (,prddta "drB) cithcr in blocks or as scnili.,shedproducs.:.White and red marblc. gabro and scFpenrne *ere quamcd amund rhe sourle ol $eMlava, whercas a local stone, tquamcd in Rrn and Kudevo. Fmm rhese quoFncs, none lus lnnsponcd to vininacium *ork

Thc dcleloprent in architcclure. .ronu-ncnlal thslic art and dccomlileto Vinilaciun expenenced craftsnc. and anishtion the grlt cER cenrcs ofrhe Enplre, aboledl Fom lhe Ea$, and was largely to intucncerhefonmtion and functionins ofthe local {onecut-trna^culpling workshops Various non tools

1 M r d n B r i . n P q u ( o { o f ! ^ 4 i r

50

Page 49: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

p.n(.xnun. 11r!0Pu(10c 0o;rlr(r r) |xrl'Htr1xr K . !eHon( r , rNr n . no j . , rx im, .Prb .B 0

n!rrarj! JJr !ntrrif..Bpcre ,r.iIl.ror\ !rnrM kPa\!roBr. nxt!uir.ceKrhn. Ke!ePtr. nicrr...(rfc \orcrtnlc nrx.Cr r r rn tanrx 0H. rDyMenr r r ' , ' ' 1 . .1 ,uecr rp r . t l r vc fsnux . 6pon i r0 0 o roDHr8rcqr. rpqltrx,L"jt !r.ooronr. pc(u0rnr.u (or .Bar r \ reoncrnpr . .p \n ]e ( r I ck ln l

BcoNr r r !o . H l l (adr jc y lp t .o jnonoRnnn I Bctu.rorrrr JoocHxBr6r BotHnrqn.nnpcK 'r frnnornrG i.rr c l'll (l&tlit|.

oncKc cr xxo, oDe ne'i'jc Hxn,xc3. cr_ i,arepmrtoj0 !nraB. Nlernte r uxpc 'tr"1cseuoi n o rryr.rro 6o.aroi nPonr(ux 0rLcrn\prIooHo(r :lii.rcnojnxr.xnorouxr\

lpi!l.r{.\. IrMr..rs..dz.r. drscLs. a{.s. trNcls.. r . . r o l l ! . i r rh . rd i ' r lo ,n r f r f rb [ t t l , . qu ' .yt r rL r r . (n i1 r_ xDd rbou l d i i i r cnr rync :o l cons l rucf ! f \o rks s t { in l ,d { rn ! .d6 lLk . . . r in .s r .s-!.rL-!cs. brorz.rnd Lcxd n urnh nc\rr.r\rnrflo\rl u'ls n..d.d in thc \fork ofcdr.rlcl sLn.lors. rnhircc( xod \cuLptB rr

\ierl.dly on. du,ilg dlt :otond hxll olhr li .cdlur! ar thc larsr. milihrr bri.knrrkin!\rorkslons ol ldgnD l7 atu!/n wc'c lnurdc!.Bfichs bcoina the rnxrk rl this lc-qion hx\o br.nuD(r.rcl a.ros t[c tcrfirora of iVo.sir rndbcyond rtr ho,de.s. \'hich i: r lcnindy ol rh..\ccprionrlll ldlc Dro{luction of ils worksltDTho\o bricks ro.ri,trr.d to b. uscd ni connntrll.nunfl rhe loi crntrtry dtrr b th.ir r..lndo.lirxl

5 l

Page 50: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

$amrera ! nocrclanoc-rr oBe onerc cy (o

PrLheHe y .PateBrHaP

CamaBHn mn npareb{ Bnn DabeunHcke!€,arHoq! nPeaqaBBa-jy raHarn na o6paA! ApBer.. o bnxoBoj sacry-

aar(e nptxa apreo,o!(r Mfuprjai. oneiarHod{ oomPa. rc-capa n yc(o cndrujamroxaHrx raqarnuja ! yMer

cekrpai (paMnoBaj Ho

xeBa_ an€rr. cBPArai.rpy.aca. (ecepa n peqnx.Ilpm je nMaio unpoKynpuMeHy, He caMo y .pabcuxHapcrB!- Feh ! 3a{lpaay H,Meorrajaj yrx,urapHnx npelMera !apBeHnx (oBc€.a 3a caxPa6oBaBe. Haj6oruqoKa3 3a ro cy ocraqr apueHnx koBle.a y.po6ounMa! onnara t .po6HnM 6ylaprMa t)IpBeHnr Kollexaha ldtu, artuia), Kojt cycrlxnnr 3a cMcmaj roarerHo. npu6opa.

On @ecyrHor 3Hacaja 3a c(osoMcuycnoH BlMrHaqEyMa jc 6{ra 6rx3rHaP{na6cKo.{pcno.DrHcRe r qepecHncxo-6€raHrc(e verano.eHelc{e 3oHe ca 6o.arnNnexrrD Ma 3nnr., cPesPa, 6a(Pa. oroDa nrBoxta Tpan,qnonarro pasurjeH! Nelaitp.lja v noirH,Ma MiaBe I neKa. caIolac(oM rnM,aaHa no6lja HoB' raMax. cotulpoN Ha ro !a jc qrraBa eroHoMc(. cy6crpy{rypa vohHor UrpcrBa noclBara ynpa-Bo Ha e(cnroaraqrt! pyaa, pynsr(r yuorrnaNa onnx pe(a (uetata Pr'.a$i1). cy6nrt oAdpareu(o. iHalaja 3a spxaBHy 6ia-.!jur. oHo uroje A+p!k 3sroj€ M$oja 6!na r pyaapcrBo. roroM trpBenoroBrHc lI Be{a oB{ pyaHrqn cy BerrBar!Benrk, 6pot pasHrm ! cl}xocorm ra kojeje.3a BpeMexaaprjana, (.BaHa n.ce6Hx MoH

Wood $alis are !n integral paft of con-nrucrion rvo*s or then accomp.nying acrivilyThe basic data.bo rhcirpRsence is obrrlnablellmngh archaeological malerial. Finds of axcs.pickaxes- knives, chisels, drilh. adzcs, and ploneslesti& to a pre$nccofca$entrs, frasons, lnd ofhiehly specialized anish and cmftrnen. woodwls usedwidely: not onlt inbuilding, but also,ntumiturc-making and in lhe production of objectstbi &ily use and burial caskels. 'fbe bc$ cvide.ce ofthis aE $e remnants ofwoodcn collinsin srares, the coatnrs ofburial wells and$oodenchcsts (d,ta ,,--!/,) which served for stornre roi-

The prcximiry of tnc aieas or Ridanj-Krepoljin and Neresnicd Beljanica rnn richdeFsi\ ofsold, siher. coppcr.lcad and non oreplayed a cnrial role in vlhinlcium s economicrisc. wnh $e rdval ol the Romans. dr radildnally vell developed Pck and Mlava valleysmeiallurgy Eanrcd ncv monentun. As rhe entiFeconomic substruclure of the porvefirl LmpircMs b,sed exacdy on the expLoitation of ore, rhemines in drc said river valley\ (zcrdl/dPt,.?,si.) had a $r,legic nnponance for drc state

52

Page 51: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

rfll.l,\,l f/,\:L / \lrl] o

l J r r l r l ) .R . 4 . r r rN . rcse l , r i ! a l . j 0 r p l r l r j r ! r r ! , r ' x r r t i r i u l . r r i rHd ln

' l i r i ! ! i r r n i i r 1o . rn r . l . r r r t r r r

b r r i r 0 r f l r "

c r t t t u on t f i f r i r x f x r0o t L l i ^0 r t r r , r i r r rC r r i t r n n r D . t r , t r t r l ) j ' r t \ r 1 t ! 0 0 r . . . i r , .trnur- (fr, !r ! $.0.rlr0r irll

r L 0 c r r 0 , ) r , , ' L r r , ) ! r . 1 R r f n i L . q . i f r L

xo9Hr r l . x .D i r r l . l L . r ( ) r , , ! , r , , r 0 . r ! 40 t .

t raD t r , k . f n ! f l | r ( 1 r

P l r r | x ! ( o l l t U L r ! ! l J ( 0 | | j . 1 l � � � � � � � � � � �Ne r ) rnn t . t i h rn , r , k I N . ' r r \ f , ! k . t r : r i u lnuc B t r ! r sd r i i r u L l . n ! ( r (o r , ( r t r n r ' t r L t r

x i j r - t r ! r r x . r ron r I t r ! , r l r t r L \ ! 1 .a .n K . t r ' rK j r r . r i ! n ; , . , ! 1

re i ( \ j . s r ( i . ' r r . k l ) . , t r , r 0 r r l r . t xn r lr3pa,l! drt.lrrr. 0frr. n|)JI!r r: 1)l)lxir !Bo j , , c ! t r r , r r t . l t k l t r r i 0 ,0 , \ ' ] t t I r L { r r \

irx\tr] wL'rl ,\lii.. \rs ro \ r.d 9 o\ 9.\ l , ,N r r r ; t , r f o r rg D t r r i , L ! l l i . l l , nhxL r r i t t r 'I . . r u ! . rh . : . n i r r . \ r n t l . ! . d r l r ! r f t r n rb . .o l \ . , | t ' r r dd rL . r k r . l i r \Nn i r | . f i L .o f\ i s Nnr .d | . x r r , ! 1 l r . i , r . , L r l i . J l / t 1 \ l J/ ' / \ r l , \ ! / I ' n r .n \n : n i f i r r ! r rh \ r r r . \ r \ Ln r i r L ( l i . d rn r . , f r s i r N i n l i r r r i \ ( r i i i

! o r r l i r l i f r l l . r [ n ) l \ [ r rg r ] l t l r , . ! ) t r r1 l r .

Th t f , r \ L f ' L r . l L l r . Du i r ! / . t r . i . a . f. d L r r i r \ \ i r \ o r Lh r L l . r r l , , l l t r r , r . L\ f i , o [ ] ! n . l l r . . r i ! . f r . o r n . r n r i r r f L\ rnc o ln r . . ' s . rLoL . n rs l l l r L . r [ . . o r ( ]1lotr llr x L.!. \rxl. xnl ,tr. irlr,] .!rr{tlr hL . l L l l , . . a ! b rou !n rbn t r , L l r . r f r r i r r ! . l r , rI . r x l Nn r r ! L l r . r . r . l : l ( r l h . i o r r l r t . r ' is .p r r i r . i n nn ! (L i i h r rL r rn l L l r . , f t r rho ! r i \ r l , i L,r1r otro.Li Drrr.t rli ..ll\ irr lrL.f.rLl rr.n r . r rL f ! l i r r * i r ! r rd r f . r l l t r , ! L rx l \ . L lL l r )0 r f l\ lDn f . r . t r n h r h 3h r , , { nh r ln r i . L t \ t fuL t .LL . , rL i sn . i . sn . r . r . t x t l nn r I r r l S f l ( L

a . i l \ ! r r r , , + n . t r r 1 n

Page 52: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

nPesMera,opybn. Ha{xra. yrnrnrapnla u sp.Iloroxaj BhirH!unj!M! Hr [yHau!.

roronouaojc rpancnopry eraia r noiyqr.6prkraayxuoirH! Mrrnc I nc(a. Jclar acoLlcrara ie ocrajro ' noKniHtrN \dHl Nrt rpaaronrqava. a aPy.n je y snrunMr nonyfaMa. rtrH..o'rrouan t Pr . lPancnopr cconBrjao nyleBrni |!x otsrx peka no JlyH,Ba.D.1ov HijMc qo upno. MoPa ! cpelo3eMHrir

ry6flr.{ rpaHcuHHxjcKBr puHHKnjrara n cP.6pa ! lll BeKy. lou B{uc tesqrKao !r!rj 'netatta P.transia, \nta cccrcnnoaraunja r trpory(qHj. nHreHrrtsrprjyorDaFrLcM rosnx prrHrk v aPaNarn rHhrI Heu,lnHxv RtcNcunrla III 8cxa. xaqa ouajseo nrvecr oPtuHniqHoHo I eKoHo\c(i tn!alt,rr octBalLt Pdr R,,rrll. orBaPaILeKoBHrue HoBla y BxvIH.nfjlM!. "leJ(carB!,rnpnvapnr sPxaBnr lHrepec v ra(BoM{H. nonrBc(.M n coD ckoM (orrcKm!je cacBri no.urHa npemocrrBKa o xoc ojd6ycnaxno. roPetrcrc. rreHrPa 3a npourBoaE!ny(ctrHor ct€6pHor nocyba n apyrxx npca-

I Taj DPnMla heBrNonaqrjyr' 3aspxaruaHrx(e xcrpaxeHu Meraryp!3 lV Dek, Ha yuhy Eponrue y Ue(- KpaKyryJopaar (KyccBo), lectNBrBle aom3 dy.ee(cuoaraqrje 3rara. cpe6pa n nptrlx Ncra-

Apxeorod{e qo(are(ou!c(rM raHarrMa y Br rralrnjtNy npcn-craB-Bajy 6pojHe .nar(e: (oEa{rs lexxhn u

ku!(e, (ote cycntxune 3a yrnua'Lc rccoo. rcraia y o!.o-Bapajyh! xaitn (q.31). Hipornro '.lajtHnonara( t roM .Nnciy nPcucraBra 3raraPcK!Ha{oDab, clyralHo HateH Hr trpocrop}qnDoiHo. HaceDa Ha 'Be,uxoM !rnp] (cn.

rnifis. co ributed to dre sprcadine ofa nchvorkol sdull lnrndrics and snnhics. ca.b ol rvhichwas highl! sFcialiTed lirtnlucrog one t}?e olprodu.l: aans and wcapons. deconlilcand anistc pnduds. bok.ic$dld! obrccc lor cvcryday

Viminacium s posilion on the DanubeMslivolrdblc lnr l]lc tarsponxtior of D.uls a.dsemifinished producb rkng the uller,s of thcN{lava ard lrc Pck. A ponioD ol lhc trdrlrema,ned in rhe locrl ce.td\ r'id \xtrkshons rndnre ren w.s slripped to Roine in 'hc loim ofnrgos. sliipnicnt wns by ro.d aloD! thcsc rivc^rillfie Danuh rnd then by rhc Drnube unhllheLllack SeF. and rlrcugh the Me{llienrnern to

The nls.l Ttuis!L\xd,M gold aid silvermincs in rhc ln ccnnry .dded to nre imponanccol ,r.r/u Pntr?,ri,. shos. crolonlnr. md pro-dudion *ere lnlensified \'lrcn netr minesapcncd. li thc drarnatic atrd prccarious tincs oilhe 3i cenrury, r'hen rhis trn ol lhE lines {asstrensthered oreanizatlonally and econoiniQllyso as ro prcscmc thc Pdr lir&rI7. rhc opcning ol'the nrinr in Vininaciun urs oftrinarr imeFst torhe stote. The hypotlre\is abour the cxistenceofastmng.cntc tbr prodtrcine luxLrry si1vcfr arc andotherprccious rnetal noduclsrr intei( qurie log-ical in $rh a military. political and economiccontcxr vnninaciun would kccp this prihacydunng $e ldte Classicrl ten.d too Thc exam-ined neblluryical complex liom the 1,,century,at tlic co.nucDcc of t[c Brodica and thc Pek,K'iku lu Jord"n (Kucevo), is a delinne proofoflong exploitation of gold, siher atrd other mcrals

Nunrerous tooh: blacksnrilh s mallerslndtonss. chhch and mctal castins scoops. scninglbrpounng nollen nelal i.lo noulds lligut 3l),constituie archaeolosical e!ldence of lhc

i M rodo 'i PnrcKo oriaF{, n !ru}p, rj'

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Page 54: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

321.r Ha trPr.yoBo saHrrnrje- Mrjcropa rarcpaAy npelMera oA cpe6pa, yk3yjc narnr.Ha jerHoM cnoMeHnry 03 CvcrcFBa Ha (ovece noN{Bc Pc4'a'jc Eyrrx. /a,c/ ,,adrd,nr!r BrMrsaqrjyMa.a O ynorpe6! orotra 3at3pan, qpeqMela yrnrnraPnc. (yrrHe IqydepaPHe cBPxe n na nfnclcruo M.lcropaj/r,rDaltr-a, cBcAoce opojHr Hornqldaj n{oHa. (aitn 3a nrpalt onolHlxn{oHa, capKooa.a, (ao , aMopoHn xoMan'

nouorbHn nplpolnr r ^fyrurBeH!iba{roPo ycroBri{ cy pa3uoj , !py.!x 3asara

Oopara (ocr!. rcrcrura uxox€ arpe(lHa cy nocrcanqa FrurjeHo.crorapcrBa. Texrorou(r rocrynun npn-,!(oM obpaac rexcrona n (oxe ko n o3.re)loneuHux uPeuMera ! o6yhe. IeroMllHo eMofy pexoncrpyrcar{ Ha ocHoBt apxcorousx ocrara{a. y oroBdoM cap(ooafy, y(oMe le 6ua caxpa6cHa o^pao. xeHcmocooa. npoHateHr ct ocrarr{ xaBnnc .Isy6rcacrof 6poKara npor(aHor 3narHny

xouyBq lapana nnereHlxon 6e,o. na4 rHo. (oHqa n o6tic o! Mp{exoxc .a toHoDnMa on oa.aFe nnyre, oaxojqx cy Heru 6rm tqaueBHrM rnooBnMa,r. Ir3BaHpenar r Bpro peaa(nprMepak 3naroM !3BcrcHe r(a{xHe ca rpe!,oaDoM Blxropnje. u3 uo6a Ce'r'NrjaceBepa, mtcHIe rpajeM npou,o. Bc(a yFnHoM capRoor.y y B'Mlsaq{jyMy. a caua ceqyBa y MrbapcKoir HapoAHoM MlJejy.tOcrM

sneheas fJde and snirhy in vimlnacnm. soldrnnht anvil, a random discovery from rhearra ot thc clv,lian settlemcnt in Velrkr Cait.(ligure 32)rr h an cspccially inrportant piccc olevnience in lhis rcspccl. The pEsence of a manercmnsnan vho produced siher objccls $ docu-mcnled by an insciprion in a snedeEvo moDunrent mentionine Rctidius Euiichrs, fdlt.r uryq1d,irr ofvininaciuD.ra lhc nsc ol lead in thctroducrion ofobjcch foi daily, cult and tuncnryuse and rhc prcscnce of! nrastet phnhdfis 1sconnmed by the nunercus finds ollead nrinoE,icon\- a nrould for pmdrcing lead icons, a saFcophaAus and ofanorphous lumps of l.ad in lhe

Favourable .alural and social factosboosted rhc dclclotnenl of othcr $aft andoctilnies roo. The cnning of bone. lextile andleaiher arr al1 dtect consequences of dcvelopedcaltlc-brceding. Based on archac.logicll finds.lcch.olosical prosedurcs in rextile and lcathercraftils, as wcll as the ippeBrancc olclolhes andshocs, can be pdnially recon$ructed. ReDnantsof a dress nade of puryle brocade intcnvolenwnh sold thrcads. , linen shin. so.ks kni(edtron whne coton tlnead and shocs oJ bro*n ski.srlh soles of laycrcd cork- sone ofxhi.h weredecoratcd wilh fiin gold sieetsr6vcre tbund in alead sarcophasus in which a grown up fcmalewas buned. Around lhe end oflhe la$ ccntury !nexccption.l and very raE spccimcn of ! gold-cmbmidered fabnc bearing thc nohfofVictoia,lion the lge ofScptinils Severus, was dhcovercd nr a vioinrcium sarcophagus a.d is norv

ri/l l anrcri. Ps,!K! uruu! r! ihr.r|q !s!a \n u l - r r r r | \ r N A t r \ , j 1 ! r P H N n i + n s i ' r r .

F r noro$ul. yrllrN^.i!\r fu.3hiM. rtu^loilJuq d , ! \ . r L t , , , . ! p n M ! r i ' h r ! i . ( N r :

,rc roq60 . d.!h,l

r I . , nn r r r !I M \ r I P H M n . i r ! ( j

( ' i l f h 1 ' r ; n d i

, . n ! i 4 o ( , ' h r ! \ c r N ' r r H v I r r a i {

! r L 3 0 0 . P x o $ r n i d l s o i - B ' N n ' r r i $ r q u

Page 55: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Yrfri? l( !-:

Page 56: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

j r f u r r r r . r . | r I j rn l r l , ' r t , \ . ' r , , n n , 1 3 B , ! , , , r q r i r u , l , r a r. r0 i l f ch r t oa0 rn lnn ' i i , , J , ! , ' iKL , t , r L ( r r . I \ r r f l i t r k i . ! n r i ( r0 r tu0d f , , 1 r l a lno0 r r ( r . r J . l 5 l n , , r l , i , t r r ,i r Nn r rL r x .3 r .a l q .0 i v t r \ J ( r ' . 01 . i l r t n . r rH t i r l \ i n , , , i . , t b r r r L \ i r ! r f i ! L r ! r r

l rFx0 r .n ! N IF \ ! r ^ , r X in , , r r l . r l , r ! r r t t r ,l c r r vKpnx i .n r . r ru r . . 0 |0 r | t r NHr i | r r

N

I l l ' n ( r ! ! , 6 rn ( r r f r 0 f r i k r r r r r r r i ., ) n t reo I a .n ! r lH r r ! r ' , , t r r r , I ' ' , 1 ,1 i t r ,( o r 0Mr .a r0K k . r ! t i t i . r D \ i t r r . r , , r ! )u r j r r r t r r r . , ! r r r rd ' r ! I lN rn f r l f i , r i t

N l r ! f . q ! I r l r . N I L o r i L l t l r r . t r r r . l l D r - l i \ i

,\]a'L lnD llrt\t l iddi i,dt)rfud1ln, rli, trL Llrr

. l n h f : l i l L h . n f r r r l l L . f L r i h r L 1 r ! ! f r '\ d r lm . l t r n ' s f b l x l r . J n gh nn ' L .h i . . r l nr r ! nh r . r Lh . l l ' t r r t o l r ( i t . ( \ . d n , f f : ! r r r lf . r r . n r i r i r | r g r i r onD. . ru | \ i I r n i r .

l , L r r . l l i ! u , . \ 11 . l 5 i l h . l . t . r s . r l r r ! f u r !ro r ! ro rLd i , , r n *n r t r \ n t Loo ! h , i . i r r L , . rrn . r , , \ ! n \ r r l r { oL l l Lh ro l i x f i l d r ( r I . L l \ r h

Page 57: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

n1)c6aleH ,rnrjy! nc(r spcn rnarrrll..O6ru 'o i c x rp .b t rBrH on Br re Hr , ( , rNrNa x.xry o6!h!. rarnr norysrlDoPeHrMqrnend,r (,rc - R.r)jrjcnnnv tunuc! (r,,. .L r ) , ! I r ' , , ,p " rvc k ) iu r ,n , r j . xo , , r r t r

byje oxcbt tKaryic dureHrx nr Cle|cre .!a KoNe.c noNrrL . P , l f l /n , t ln / r ,n , ra . , . r/tda^ o3 BoritHruirj!Mn.i'

HoM nl]oirBolnn oxrocn n lBobcrlcHo0rx rextr"ro'|1J! l.R.nc r1o at,r.qr.tllxudje nocroteh0\ueHtr!. (.tn ratcxro ca rosoqropMnprrr .nocrajy Horr,!0' c,hxtr.r .Ro,k\,.Kor of .ro l roJa . rc cn \o ! (BrHI r r t r r rB tsoN. tscb ' r YKBair0r0suoMcMucry Ap\.ororKnvarcpn jar l . l l Bcu bk I t i . ; r . . t o foMc i r . 6x r .no{.ncrc. q! 60 roler(o| lll Bcxn nPrBpcJ.B!N!Hr(trtrrx JtoxrR.r, cno I (IrMnnar[ v.r Ky ! r tP j l r i rHrerpnq4r axn ,Fr tcxcr r(p . j y ( \ ! r r . r r l ro r ro r rx . r rx rcxrx .McxfttxHcKn 0 NrmirF r\ cnrmmrrra jc cncqtrdn,lHa ooenc^jr B'!trHr'rjiM*,,j Mlrprjdnoj n qlroBnoj xyrDpn.IcroDpcNetso q3r1r 1t).oDntr!Bern(or rPole tr Pont. Rlicke 0IIHIK Lnpxat i r r r c rnosrn(n .o;rpaxaBrio Hr d,trH.Hc,'jckr noir fl[n,Bol(ehf vro.t v rp.oBrrr. y norer(y c!.DepornrH. rNarn lla.r0rln.I Inor n ( np'lqn.na 6! ce (rrH'ie !kr6utrno r orp.&ndo,lrCpe)rnrov v Bcxr ! BrNrHluxjtN! ie K6eoIpK K. in lc rouao par rp .oory rp.jHo tsrrf.tsr'ir Hn ' rctr . Kttjn JI IroccrKoM l l l Dexr norBp l t l j y nprc rc loo6ora1r\ rFbrra (ojn cB. rv cP.rcrBrNay{ccrBijr ! {brHrHcrplts,y jrrHrx p,'Iit,r.o6jekam r cr!xor. lll jcqnoj cr.,rr 13(o-onr r r ( , i , . . ( rn ! 6a i , ( , fd ) .yFn,c4r rje npnxar rHo 0rHt r rpc(o6orarn P Nr.fl0s celr r. cloroN 0 6pojr

clx!i I h. shotrldcr Dxf olrhc dFs is dcc0ml.d\ t rh o l l iDo id l nd squ r . . . \ . 1 \ T l [ \ cn rn t i idrc$.d in i hcnucd s c.vcl.ss \hrc rrnicr iI( hc shxp . o l x s l cc \ cLcs sh i i . - ! dhc rcd \nh xb.l1 r1 rlrc rri\1 ,\ nrllLu,d x tidd o1 .1.J.. usirLlr n dc !f rool. lrn b. recn corc,ilg lhcshouldcrs. lhc looh!.ar ir lcxthcr and rc nbl.s\ . nn o f$ shoc \Nrh r \ i n l l e nDn( , r ru r ) iA

nontrmcnr tionr Smcdcrrvo oD rhi.h r..rliir]P .1rl th^) litl(nLn , frvid,rr lirnr\aDifr!iurn is nrenriorcdi'. noirns 1o rhc pEscn.c ofx clothcsnrxkhg cnrisnian.

N.\! 0 dtrrlnri .clx!on\ dd thr into,lucrir ol oe\! tlhno o8ier le(l o r lnnlfolnrrion of t[c cxistnrs L.rc La linc crat]s ccflrcs.sh idh . x l . ng t r i r h rh . i . r v l t l onncd rnc \ .bccame lhe ch.mpioDs of . srrons .coioiri...\r\,r1. ior o.lt nr lr. qunlrxrn. brr xl:o i'r lh.qurhotnc seo\c Archreologrcrl mxkrirl fr.nnr. l. .Dd ihc li c.nrLtrr slio$r dr.t rhc chan-!cs\!c'c gradtraL. thc...noDr! ol vnnucnd r.rching is I)drk durilg rho I . ccnrury rod ir\ culntrxl intcgrillon b.ingrLDoi coDrpLclc Asynrhcsisof xtrtnlrdnm.us. I1rli.. N{cdn.'md.xD xd!L clrmonG lioor \\ir Nl,oo. gi\. \'i,ninx0um \ nrl.rixl rnd spiftuL crlturc rpccific Imns A1 lhcs,n,o tL.. !s x .c{LLr .1 rlrc Lrrg. c;oLlrrnio olsoodr . . !oDs. r r \e l cF and nJ le o i f ! i i Ls . l r rdcllotrrhb.d, \hl.b h.d a posnnc impa.1 on thccill \ lnuDcixl nrdgr[ Id rhr b.guri,rg tholerdrng role i'r trrdc mu{ hrle Lrelong.d tohalians. Crccks !nd SlfidE. r!ilh lhc nxtncscrt.htr,g rt \od,.rhrt 1r1..I'!u.d rlr. mLdJL.l'the 5L c.fiurt.r aireck lvc,li'r Vimrnxcrurn rrhohxd ori!inrLl! conic to lmdc {Dd had L.lcr scnlcdhetu J'rslntrn)n\ lion rlr. ol th. Li xod rho6.slnnirr! of rhe lr!..01rr]l, conli.n lh. pEscn.col \r.11 1o no .nizcDs $ho nn.slcd dr.i' .a0lhl

. fuh lL ! ro rks . bu i l J rog i ,nd \on ic .s \neLcfionr KonoLrr. lrhe n) crLlcd ..Sich Brnkre ol

Page 58: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

solaui a apyro ,nqej BepoBarHo po6j cacBrr(oM y pyur, nonHoor PacyHrL

BeinKa OpcxEeHl(nt. rp.osaqa jeiofrqsa nocrearqa craiHo.raunoHupaHeBoJcKe ca pcnoBHnM nprxoEnMa, kao I nospcMcs'v noKloHrin (ojc cv,le.noHap' no6rjd{, i.rrM nreHa n cyve (ojaje qcni,hnBaHaHa(oH oacryxeb. Bolro. pok.. Bcin(aHoB{aqa cpeacrBa c(oH'leHrprcana t nphBpe,nn r cranoBHnnrrBy .pana. npyxara cy

nprupela B uMioaqrjy dje 6iacHoBaHa n. uvnoprr. ain u e(cnoprynPoo3Bona /loMrh!x 3ararc(oyMernrc(rr

'the Banker Srele ) depicts in relierrhe bankingbusDcss: a *ealthy Ronan is sntnre at a rableand counnns moncy while anothcr terson. mosllikely a slavc, Jcroll in hand, is rendeine ,n

The larse nunher of nrerchanc i\ ! losi-cal consequcncc olrhe prescncc ofpemancntlystationcd roops lvith a slable incomcand wirh.nocca$onal r$vard rhlt legionaries were eircn.*ith thcir shae of the loor rnd rheir dh.harsemoncy. The substantial .dpiral conccntrared in rhe.conony and D rhe hrndsofthc cny r inh.bnanaoffered cxccprnrnal busincss oppotunirics Theeconomy ofMmina.ium was dvnamic. b,!ed on:nFnaion btrt.lsoon exponing the trcducts ofrhe localarls and crafts workshops.

Und^s'Gdurso l i]qagd !md^s, G d! 4o3 Nirr u greb

60

Page 59: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

safla{Lcgo - yfietuLuuKa iipwKuuja

Arts and Crofrs hofurcti.ort

Page 60: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

jc,". ycnocraDrarLa prMcKc Lr:/icf R.niatr rnihrf! p.w.rhad bc.tresllbhshed, a proce$ of go!emrnent organrzarionxDd cconomic lrxisb.ration bcexD. !s h.mo-nra l io i \ ! i rh Rodan. . r r roDrLc l r (s \ ! rsrequtred Orgxn,Te{l exDloiiarion of nnoel begrnafouDd rhc middlc ofnrc l. ccnruq and n Lcd rothc litridnU ol lorxl indunri.l and cralis ccnrcs.F!en iln.{ }clclcn.Ly ddlined. ir crn be sumosedlh.r thesc Nerc formed.rouDd L.te La Tine noiksliopsw alrcady dc\cloti.d l..hNlog! and DlsisDifi(nt ch.nses look plre pro{luclronore.nizarion xDd prodrct dhtibtrllon. Str.nexutichrhrnous eledon( Ln rLl xsncc( ol rlrlcnrLcuht redur i | s rhe l . ana in rhc f i rs rha l ro l lhe l .

!oj{e Bnam! 3anoreote npo lec oPf.Hri(Hje ynpaBe u rparcQopMaunje npnBpesc. (orrje 6rno H{,nr.nro npnra.osnrr prMcuv

O F , r H n ! , R ! H r c K .

Moaraquja fyrnrM 3rnoccr. cpelnHov Ire(a. !cs'x Flpepabnu (ur I rnH.Lc{nx rlrHaip, Ilrk.jou n,je lacno scqruHrcaHo. voxe ce nperdo.raBrrr n0 .c onn Q.f rFJt o(. Kacron e{csx panuoHrrr.. c. Beh prrP.teHrNftxDo,o.xjd\ia. a qa ao rnacalrrr npoNcna

! o r tu !n r , , r t r j r c rMclpotrrBonrl. unrcrpn6yqrjr porie Hr ro.ope

Page 61: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

cBer n . rxr ru ! cxsxror , ! t ' i \ rcuri ui;rdrrNr Nreptrinnrc K\rryf.. t.roNI I I r noo t no ro8xox J l Lokx OHr c lH r t r rpn r r r r Jn \ M .a r i o , , pcp rbnBr ! xo t IKcPa\oN!t)r{ot ncir rHocrr

ne f ro ' r ! o i J r c c raa r r r r , r I L rB rn r retrPe;rMc n.mv!o3o lojre Hc! opvxj.. il r Kc. x, r H,c(r r xorcKa onf.\rr.atorr"fio oocrlre I np. ljl,xr ntor,0ne

px | r ' oH t rue Ko tc cvntar.lit nui drtre ncnrtc. Frrkr8pc r .iinrr r 1 ) t \ x t r . nP . c8 . . r x .nn i x c ' n r r t rqc n0o rexn . i Ka3 \ ' y Ba r J r i , ' r o ' re ! r rq r i c . a r r n

PasnoiMr. ( koPo noN0HIrrrpoprr Mrlrr} neroBa Bornc onf.le lkr4jeHr rporyKqnj! avro\rotr0\ rlets,!pn. ur s ranp rnaEnnx . n . { rn3o r c rnaoBHnDrBa t f rNcxnv noNoliHrN rplinaMa. rjFqH. .f n'r.rr

Bpr. nr]MkeHrn vrllxHnL!pc6po\i (ojr rkrrrjy Hr craprlc ryr.\r*e

r.te lrrrBai. ce nprNcpax .a r!u0rp.nnMopoHraflrN rpa{avr. rrrcbe ro3Har iarcxcKoj (vnrrpr,r c'nrHr je orryaur a ca dpc

rcnru.r x.e I p.nrd_r'rdLra(tr ol rh's Th.! xr.moi Dohbl. nr nicklhq\ rnd.emniirs

During rhe nrililir! ftbili4!rn ferrod. A l l r .b jcc rs rnh mi l i l r r ! x l ]nh( r ioD t r$ .fefuc.d. nL.lr .s: !nn\ DqucJtrirtr xDd ho.sc\alon.qtri0nionr. ba ze k r.hcD\r'r crr Thcs.Lrere fqhrc.tl bI inn|i.\ xdd lnno(lr os \hiclrrcconrpanicdc!.'! lclx

\lrions kinds ol x.n\.DrosLJ spcxa.dxn\ rndda l ros |D i rbd i l la .cnri luenrer Lrrt xlso ro dilli.col \'orkslrops l[r.lrnosl domi'ldl L, T;nc lik.lo.n o]dunl prnrol Drl0.y dqlifnrenr poirns b thc tn ucl nn olxur,chrlonotrs ccDtrcs bul rlsr io crnbos oflulocrl poDtrLarioi n, R.nIn rurlli.fy tro.r\Spcas \rirh lcxr:\hrnel hc.ds \!ith, shng F d-dlc ridse ol rlre bhdc \hi.b ro.e h!sed oD oldcrrutochthonous nrodcl\ x.o nDrnerous. Nolxblc N lspc.ncn uilh eocrusted bronz. bxoJ\. !lsoknorvn io rhe L. fiDc .uhtr.c Lr The snuation ns i in i la rw i lh .dorvs inddas !cA lhcp i lu r .s re rcnradc wirh nyDmid{hapcd h.dd\.r LVrrh ..ow-lhrpel tips Dattlc are\. r\o an nidispcnsabldpon ot nnlnrry equ,pment, had a nandxrd l-a

Page 62: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Rbnl Lurl ltt i !N,. rtIttrt l

m{aMa n rjouexxMa ntilr'r c! ca nrpaNn_

luHrMrPo6ojqe ud.adpcracrflMEprotrr'cropq rtkobc ooaBesaH rleo uoj,Ic onpeMe.ymmeHor cy ndeuornror o6rnQ. lorctrrPxeorosKrx lcrpaxrEosa BnMnHalrriyr.mje nnoHateH Hn FuaH nPuMePaR lanopt\!cxor M!ca. cnyr'rjHHro@mre1t t ceiy Tn4rH. (craHnlra .i./x,,,n) n Kon noxaPeBr,(e 6.rHnuc nr IEen, ykasiy H. spro cHaxHy nrleD.Kypaarrirjy u y ouoj Bpcu oryxja rEPoHsaHo

nmybe nok4jc rcre lrq.je BporraHoleApo (rrrrd). ur fpoiiuo.6yHaPr. c KlaF I nc noqerxa lJ ue{a, nPrrna. rrny w.ncNann,Beoua pacnpocLtialLcnoN uxpod ERfoncnoeer(ov I u (cr. 39)! llrrtroBu rrldlmatEaJy pet.lpoHabenlx 0prri.paKr ]M6a .a cpcurLrir

Tene like nlapc. No spec,nrens ol carly Roman$vods rere toutul duriig archFeologicrl tlcava_lon in VimiDacium. Thc mndom finds ol lir$cenlury slords o. sites in rhePrescfdaytrlhgeof Tar.lane (he l./ I',r,, station) and oer thchosnnrl 1i Pozarev.c revedl a vcrl nrcng L aTinc tradrtn,n in lhc prodrction ol rhis kind ofan.s too.l Bruf 7e kilchcn\rarc dGplays idcnri.al,nlluenc.s. A broDze plrl (rnuL) liom r bunrLwell from the cnd of the ln and the bcgnrnin! olfic 2n century bel.ngs t. rhc westeRrnn (j"pc.

rery conmotr acrlss EutuIje aroud the beeinning of the l! .cntury (fi8urc :19) r shLclds .reless commonlt found ard lhc fe$ lin& ofunbone! \rith .alotte-sht'ped .tntal scctons lndwidcr inrs are chdractcfhtic oflhe linal dccadcs01 (hc OLd Age.'i Anorh.r ind of grelt t,gnill

. o B i ! h { ' F ! \ } I f ' L

! i D r L d l , R i c r , ! f r ! ! L ! t u t ! ( (

o B r ( n r i ! D l i | ] I . ! r r ] f l N n A t l ) u i ! ]

. r n i u , \ L ! i ) ' L ? r i . ! , r ! r r

Page 63: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

( r ro rx . r xv qc io \ r u r t0N .6 .n .N kx | . (r c fnc r0 ! ro r . ! r x r kJ .n rnBe , rcqc , r ' t . r , r f ce l ) t j Bn l J rH r ,h jnH Inn r r 0pu rc r rD . l d !

ou .nx ( r , , i dvtrr,/r,J. r. t)rr0rl,Nr i J rLtrHie. trotir cej rB ,b . H r i , r q rpoonrM. ronaFa n n t r . a r i o r ( , x ! ( . r r i r L i r t ) ' o , r LnJ - ' r .De . H r , ( r , c ' ky r BcKr r i

tocc.arDxr!.N pov.rinrouano. rpln

! l l rNx r r rn t yM j_ c .

l. rlt arur\rt! rtt qr

i o t s d r . \ D . ( i \ r R ! t - ! . o I i t r L i \ . . , ! '

cdr .c i rc pads o l i rod nh l . r . r \ l t , n t 9 tu,rtd] \trlr t.rlnrnrn)o\ in, joirnns. \ rl.h ciDbr sroo on rgi,)nrrrcs rnd dx lirl1 ro.ti-!rlcsroDcs is c.rlr- rs th. b.!nr.tr,g o rho

$irh rlie seflir! ol r ltomrnlzcd NftrlxrioD oa citl'|-dNcllcF. [\tr,r_ !.oJ\ li], |.xdrcrlr s!g. rntrx. in VLnnn&rm: onps. toi ctrics andnrcdica l0irunr.nh. limilur. d...rxrnrn\. k.y\.lo .ks , . . s .s x id .he{ \ . !o rbundanc. o l|I)tlnLL'os. ligurrLhonTe plastl! arr dc lhc sc!rLerneol'�s rnililarl crmp dnDosilion anr.d.J Il.|g. nunibcr olsaLcsnu aiJ tx\clhog inoller\.

Page 64: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum
Page 65: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

nojauEyjc x iy<cFHa po6a yrrnnrapneroarerH! n MoarqrHc(q

nHdpyMcrrn, y(pacn HaMeurija, KBy!eB!,o{our. {acere n (oB{exrnn, o6rrc ani{{a,Ox.ypaiHa 6pomara nracrr(a u 1(p.ArcnorqrF rcjFrx rorora lcroeua jexrBy +pe$eHrrqjy nyryjyhux rp.oBarra !&Baua. (oju cI cHa6ueDar! Rynr(eHaJPa3HoBpcujoN po6oN nr Merporo,ej Mnle rspatruarr Ha nruy Mecra. Dedro npnra-.obaB.jyhr cBoje npor3Boac yvcrrnc(oecrcrcxnN n pcinmo3Ho (ynrHUM xprrep!,jyMuMa noknHor craHoBHrrrBa. Jly(cylrapo6a n l-npBe noro8mrc Il Be(a ce MoxeBcaar! ra mMnrHc(e paltroHrue (ote cy no!ja(rM yrrr(ajeMtsapornro ane(caHEPnjc{or PanuoHrc(ol{Py.a. TaKaD 3anarcxo-yMersucRn paa upe!craura 6poH3aHa niMra (l!..,d) calpdlrHoM Mac{oM Mnanof [nonxca nm errnarcKe 6o.nBe ro. (oja je roxoM r Be{a.

who supplied custonreB wilh a variciy ofeood!ftom lhe capiral, or madc it on rhe spol. skilfulLy.dapling lhen foducts to fil dre al1isti., acshclic lnd religious c eria of nr local population.Luxurysoodsfronthe liandthefisihalfofthc2qrccntury aft.$ocilted rvnh rhe sorkslDps ofcanFnia, which were undcr a strong inlluenceofthe Flellenistic crafts tudnion. in particular rhcAlcxandiian nanulncuing circle.An cxamplc ol'such drtcr!ffwork is a broMc lamp (/(!,?,)vith the lmsic maskofyoungDnrnysus or ofthcEgyptian Coddess Jo, Nhich, dnecdy or i.direcrly (via llaly), anivcd in Viminacitrm refiroryduFInBlhc ltr cc.fuiy (ligur 43).1r Brcnze lanps.rcFarl ol the inventory of the norc.lllrcnl honesand *ere often used as votums in rempld$ andshrines. The aforcmcnlioned bronTe lamp speci-mcn in tho tnm ora ship. with skiltully crancd

68

tr: ilx,f$tr cqra Lx x

Page 66: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

nr0.Rtroar rrr rrnnFc(runr! ntrcv (npcKol,Irnxie) !odrenr Hr reprloFtriy BrN,,h, r i j t vx (c i . l r ) . rJ JaN.c on 5PorLc c r npensrrBi ne 'ts3rH,rt kr"hj iior.roirr fFbdra.a lc.tu cy troryeorhnHHe tr kn'i R,rr-n ' !\FNosnMr r cBcrninurx\(. Beh no!eayrrnnrN.trx iifoirlanc raMn. v o6in(y ijpoqa.

r h r N x , , I r N q r I

kn,tra. ynlhyrc ur pniur xMnoPr. BepoB.lHofanr .sx r la . a (Bar r r . r

nrpa;jc Hr Dour (urjrnHr c Ir-c ''r.rl

c ' reqr+ 'so$ pnMc(or ̂ r \ x r r f .cnro cc vxHrrirc!ryie y 6poHrtrHor. {tr,rrx LHoJ nlcrnur. Kot. ce ccprtcxx rporrtsoltr r('ip .rx Kx. qr.ncruo racorou(c x pcrx

dctxiL at lhc prc$ sccms ro be rn clll impor.pn)brhLy liodr r (rq).DLar q.rkniot. tuLd rlr.qualitv of rn'lt\.unslrip sugge{\ i1 b.li,nScd N rpcNon ofhishcf shlurc rl

T h . \ N . i l i . . b a . a . ( d . 1 l l i . R . N i d \ f ;

ir foun{llrs prnicultrr e\trc\$o'r i'r hon/c liruraL plxsrlc ad. \'hich Ms prndLLccd scrlallr atrdus rdn \xm n \o l i d ro lo !1 . r l i dd . .o .o ,DLc t ( )pagrndr Bnvo dxtrLrt.\ rllinn Rooun r,1r\piopag.ti|g rlrc c!tilolrnc till )r(l thc /)il,V'lrd,.r srilL. its Drinarr purposc is.itkric atrd

Page 67: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum
Page 68: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

f l r . r r . 0 l i t ) ' r xHn. c rn vcr . r r 6por r .r4 , r f r i , , , ! f i v . (n , r r r i . n t .n r .x t r !h t r

Nl.tr$ r! r, 'rtr,x ,,ftrNrn n cBpxr j. lNcro ' {K l ) n . (1 ) t r 0D i rx t r Bruc fo0 . t r o ro t r !

rn f0o . r r on t .hc iu r \ aox . i r .L r r | , ro i !a.xrlcrdr flx r!tr,hc r! ic1lrreflccrrrtB1r f t )x r i , . i D . pn \cKo. l taurc . r r : J l r | ' et r . N ln i r . to . 0 B . r . f c r o | np t rocrcn l r rxBt r ! ' r r r ) ' \nnpH0 Eu. AMot . I I fn i ! i ' .X r fNt ! I Cr lxp l lo tcn 16r r . I [h r re t roonpcj.r a.x0uxu" ! rjr Lr, rrrloDr loncrrr, (h '.tr r: Crprnrc. r Arncx.r'r auojn!rrHr rctro y!.rnxlKM sdrrcDA'r trr;Lrrincc .rrr!.n Illlilna n,)arn.,Dr 0roxflocrn

nuo\r .Foxb! n

&i I rn ucKcaflnpnj.KnPr r t roH, r r ( r (P ! . r t r .u r r !uc lMc ls r r ( ' lcrrr.K. Nrparr.t .rn(. .Irdb! .e Hr 6poHr , ro \ 0 .uor r r r r r ru rPc ieN Exxvcx ca\r' | 'tror .n|x rpenor rlr(apul .x iiljft\,

r fa ( .v n rk t r I eHoNrroirourNr ojur,Kyie uAeH ocr n xocr.jrHc 3d1r no,o n rpcro. Mluko. rnxx Gr

J l .x ,n r | ,F ,u !k , (L r tn .bnrypunc nracnoDoqn r . n roDrHqI i .

i r raun lc (o . F x r r rp r ro i r \ oqoDrorvcrn lye r r 6oxr r . rD! .

l l x i . ro iH i , i c c r cnrycrc , ,a fo f x .HcKof6oxr0crBa. np . ryM. ! . I . Kro BeHepr c r

nolcr(oN ll BcKa cvarl! c c. nttrnnBnp.a crr nr c.ucfronainc(3\ lcHrrpa. Ino( tri ntrortrk,(L'11ro0xtr Hr rsrcrsnrcry.napolr]o Hnlior o.rnualLa ,t!L1llt Prxrr\it1Kpa j . ! I l n no lca(oM I l l BeKr

d{rtu1nr rnd r.lr niorc trbour r. t)n|rtrll,i1! |. o r r r rD dc ( r cs l . . o r i ! l . i h . \ NT , ! r l l ! iN .n r

r r r L l . rL . i o l l h . l t . n r rPrnhron: rupircj: NliD.tr. anrl \'ti 's rrl otrr rfrr. lcsscf !ods Bxcrlir\. ,\trrtr. f,lintrr.l l . r . uL .s rdd Sx r t . An rn l i lm r r cs . . b t r l s . ldotios Nho\c ctr rs hxd bc.D ii.t.trcd lnrn th.Or .D l r c i c l . und d !a r o l Ss .xp r5 i n i lA t r \ r , . \{xtLcto ol Prrrpus. thc dcir! .l li,tlirt xnilrbnfdancc. Nnh xD itrun lnLl o !,rfcs .0.tiu6. natrds orr Lo rrs rrtinic qu.lil! rnd cm b., s$ r i x l eJ \nh rh . n i xnu l x . ru r i dg c t r c l . o l 'Alesrndjix. \Ic coDrc r.'.s (ho lxnc rnrnrc indsl!lis!c riiG.d thr hr)o/c depicriD! tli. btrnor B,crhu \!irh a \riircsklD. l[. ,.lr,rsrnh'n)ooi ! 0 tuE m.n w(h rhi.k bxir is chx.xrlcrrzolbl Doblcicssridllrcdr$ilied Lre t! ofi nixtu.mrle liue (fi9. l,1 and.l5).

Local pfoJucrnn ol ligtrtul pLrnic idgradtrrll! Lrd k) pnrincla iziton $hirl n rr.{h !,rblc iI s.h.nr.rizcd l.ad iilucd$ rl doiric\Th. mo$ Dumcroos ir ll,c {xtucnc\ olr oudctiDr.lcd.ill rhflghl i) hc \icfrs LVirh x.hill.,i

Thd intlux olobic.tr lioniodh Ilxlirnrontres dccrcxscd .i.u rhc hog,oni,rg .f rhc 2-l.cntu! md l('crLt(nluutior lriloed monictrrm.Jsp rcL r l l v r f l e r t l i c op .n iD ! . i r h . , , 4 , / r r1'nrrr.n ]\'.uid llrJ c.d ol llre :-r dd rhcbcgi,r,ng ol tlrc l . c.nnrry,xklnd ofhdnrg'uolLtrLon rook phcc which b'.ugli xbotrr r risc r.mpod.lioD llln rll r\.. rhe F'nni,e 6oodswcrc r r i s \ r l y i r npo , l ed i om Ca l l l . . r l i .NJeLIitcruean, rlre LIla.k Sca and li.d, rlr. FrnLoc.l cratis Ncr..i.i.hrd Nrlr nc\r,lcrorinv.tcchDiqucs (p..lo t.n. cnnnreLliirg..rcnurarionrnd orellol Objells for .\crlda! us. x.c \c.ynun r . rousandds t l a j ' v r . rus r t l i { i c i ' r f uenccsrnd x c . l nooohrno $ i , r t . r h i ch wxs l ah l t r . 1 l

! | n r d . D ! N

4 j ! i ' q . i o o ' !

\ n t rN^ r t r f I r i , r x r i j r j s ,1 r ' : . r j $ n r i l

Page 69: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

5 ). oraeeMa ca qmHrcoa t ArtjatHnn,Kr|j n nFoe q.cNtk r 6ua

4d oIa rld s€ad ded,ls al n ld edr4

leDpcHe rpfoBacKe peBoryrrrjc. rl. aoe(cna o 3nj c rMnopra ! 3 .Drx a€i oBa IIapoBa.MacoBHo ce yBo3r po6a u3 laiuje, caMe)rnrep.H., noHra n llcrok. Io{arlo3asardBo ce o6o.aiyjc notrrN' ac(oparoBHxNmxHn@n (npo,aMaBe, eMajnj rayr!pa6e nHuero). npcaderu,TrnnrapHor Kapaxrepacy DeoMa 6pojr! n noRaryjy pa3n'c'recrrnc(e yrnqate ! (ocMoroinrncn uyx (oJ,e ocetra y cB!r' c+epaNa xrBora. Brco(oasuaPA DoM{HalnjyMcrcrnorrptyjy pa?rrcurr Me)ur(uHcruj R@Me

nHoPyMeHrr. KorMerna{o MellqrHcKa qTrja. nxrc{ua, .a rpgan-{N opoaMcHroM cnmnxn'croBa tropebaHnx }Buny pn66e {pByur!,

areas of life. The pesence of an as$rilent ofnedical insliunenB, cosmetics acce$orics andloiletries are proof ofthe hiEh standard oflirinslhe populatio. ofVimi.aciun mjoyed. A cosnel,i./nedical box, a pyxis, with a carved omamcntin the fonn oftiny Ieaves laid out likc fish scalespartlt rcpcas thc omamcns seen on the t/ra sia//ara vessels ftom Rhenrzabem fiom lhc nid2tu century (figxre 47). Apart fmn .osnelic bo-xcsj a liequenL lind in Vitoindciun gnves arcbron,e, silver, and les fiequeltly lead niros,gilded or not Cncuhr brcnze and sihcr nidoawcrc dccorarcd wnh simplc geoneric omanenB.arved wiLh a cofrpdss. Miniature leld minosshor typological laiery and bear far morc complcx d(orations, which. likc the niro^ them-

72

Page 70: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t: .!!\k ar 4tui^1 tl tt 6e

opHaNeHrlxy r.r,d rigil/dd. nocyar d]RhcinzabeFnr, cpealjHoM ll Be(t (d ]t).OcxM Kos errqsx (yrnir, lccr rpBnor tBrvrHaLujtMc(rM rpo6osnNa.t orne!ana oIiipoH3e. .pc6pa. a lebc oq onoua lir can@naroN. Epourana r cfc6pua orlelara.qyxde +oPMe. cy t(PaueHr FnnoomHoMrcoverprjc(oM oDndMcrr!{on x3BcneHoM!recraPov n tpe?utsaseM MnHrj,rypna.o,oura ornerlara no*ani! rnnoron'(o6oraacrBo ca JH.rHo croxeHrj.M ac(opauijoM xotn Je, mo rjeIH. sy6rhe cqM6oin{Ho-xyrrHe rrlcJcCndl{4{cHe ctxr.Ke {apa(rcpscrn{e yKa

svit Ha dponvxurjy BrMnnaqrjvv.xc paunoH

r\e.5 Bp,o Pcrxa. a 160r rexHr(e rcPauecKyroucra PerbeQna orneu!,1a cy 3aoyrrBeuaca enaM npuMepd{!. PcBedrHd npcncraB. rercryurBlHa !a raHKoM 6poHiaHoN irtrv, I3ar{M ce Bpuuio nocle6pnD

selves, are cairies ofa decpcr symboli. a.d culridca. lhe sI)€cin. stylislic chaiaclcnsl'c\ suggcsllhal Lhcsc $eF cran.d in . Vininacrum Norkshop.:r Vcry nFreliel nirLoN. pr€cious forthenprodudion lechnique. are rcFcsenred r,y scvcnspe.imc.s The relicl was nude on llnn b'onzcplates by chhclling and thcse Nere then silveF

tlatcd oreilt Viminaciun relicfmirroB fron thep€riod of the sec.nd halfof the 2tu and lhe Inshalfol lhc li cenlu.y arc characteizcd by quahq craning. vhible in smoolh nodellins andrelincd styli,ation ofcharacles. ldealizing i. thesp,nr oftne Classical style lnd hamony ofcon_position prcper places rhcn arnong rhc hrghesrqualiry speciscns of th$ kind on tlre leritofv ofrhe Empire. lvilh notable inllucn.cs oflhe AsiaMlnor and Alrican production taditions. Theoriginaliry of iconoeraPhic tcpresenhron porntsto an educrtcd clienr€le and craftstucn, $elLacquainled lrnh lhe Eligi.us and phrl.sophic

!\r'.,rrrixrlor I r:

Page 71: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum
Page 72: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

h !BaRc B0Nr r r l l ! v ! . r I r r i r ( rLx ( { r ! ! f

n , n r 0eP t r , r t r r l l l . . no rn000r I I nnL r

nonoDnnc l l l s r x r 1 ) ,1 r ( \ t ! x i r . r n01 . r i r r rHa l [ . i l r . r r r1 t r r ] i f i n r t r L l \ raDrL . i \ ! . ( nMoqcrrl,i x n .r.dr0,rR)i r, 'rfir ( ' rL r!(om. I l i 3 rn r r x ' u r : r L \ lI r , fNo f l n i0 ( , c ! ! ( 0 r0 . j r u ! . c r r | . nn r! r I HxJ ( i r I r r . 1 i00 r r I i ( r !Pk .1 t r , r r l , . L I r1 rp l rop t r t ' I l r J {a r i . \ r rP rM. r i r . r r i 0 rx t fNdoa i r r cKo ' t r r ! s r l t i , q l l r r (o . n l ro iLBonro r x I l f f O fL Hnnr r ) cL rL ( , , ! . f f r

+c (n ' l , ! i .QDa I rn r r t . r r r o . f o ' , 3 rH !Hr t l e ro i ( r dL r r r0 i . . l oa lD tno r i r l c upenrn r .Ko dn rn . r , { , r I n \ ! r 3 , r ! r l l l l lBe ( r r . n fosap r l l hn \ I 0Lo i i o I k , ' ! ! r 0 ruaMa r ,6 t r ro3o

c iMoor r (o

(u .50 .51 ) i l

O i c i r rH , r , Ln r N . r .n .o t c faboBaqxnr l an0 . r xq r .B .Jo Ie !HoroaFo jH t rn t ca r ie l t r t so . i r r . n i r0 ! cs rKoqrcBUoNxrDor t unD i r rHo , r ' & t * t r . rdbunumx:

ron r . r ; r , ue . n nc . L rd4 .x rnHoB i l l a rn K "1 t \ . 3 r . ap .B r . o ( "B r

ap rx r 0 !Kp r . t s r r r . 0n . ra . npcnc raBs r y

oflarKc Narbr\ ni0 Hehrr r.Brof! rlxtrs,xxot,i ct iirnr oarD*r

xHBcHrrp ctsrKc rllieMa6e Kr_ r ro . y . r l x r r . r x cMru ra l 0

r , 1 ) u e L n . f n t 0 i i o f a .a ]'ve1tsr!xr o6P.sa onnlre j

craHJrp;rl Bnrctsnxr bf.nrrc onnarc cr

teBc+HoN !c (opxq , ' r oN Fn .3 . r . ( tqaBaB.v ra Mrrpnur. cBrxr(o cl iHr.Hocqtrrs! 0 rar. l)cln Brs re(oplurte olrxnpcu e l r . c r eoropn jc Brvnxaur j tvai ,o r r l t rP0 6poHrrHe re r .e4ue onnar .Je!tsr oniara canpror flep.oHnOxKruxreMcceqx ,!lL,drHrrr n.6a. ̂ ftm NornB rrta..ocar r .a r ! rpe tn iceH ! t rL rer lc r ru ,N l ! r . .

B t r . o rco(c aaHxrcxo !verHxr re!o e re B,^o ' r , r l rJ !M. (x \ rx . ropn cyn .cc fn r

L . I l r i , r ! . i l r l r . : , r i r L . r 'xhlt nlrh,l.grrxl ,fxrr..! rtrd rlr. r i\ .lL nrl

r ' r r , | ! l i r . r rL p r f r Jn n : n , ) |Jr,n. is nnr.\raL b\ Dr n.ilfs frl..\ f...\i r r n . . r rOJ r r h l i o l . , \ i l Ld r o t d r l L r r lr . r n inn l l k \ , ! . | i \ ! l r r \ . r rg f r i l i i h i r - "I u ,$ r i l r ! . . 1 . 0s . dx lLs l n rds o l k . r s . o . i i j .h ) r l l . \ r t r d n r . r r l d . ( t r x ron . r t u Lh . . rn , r i , r . lr n iL { ! , l x . ! . . . h . r5 . \ h r .h r ! . r xn i r r l .

r).r!rbl. i1.n D .r.ry horschoLd Si L.i bo\.s\.r. tricJ lo, nrnig rid .i -!dlt ${r.t.rr..5{rr.\ !f(l !fl!irc\ rniL th. xdr{rr Jaliingo l l l i . l i . . o l rh .box d .pended onn re o \ r c r \irnd! B'..r. 0lrlir! sir| rll.f dcc.idlonicrxic(l Lry chrlelling lnLl{Nrog ! duti\. \!r\ r.'kinly a mof. cxpcDsne nrd iheElore Lcss.oDrn.n r!!) ol drc.,dt0g rh.s. obtcc6 1l!.ccxaDrples of bDn,. reliel pLf.g c. o li{'nviiniDa.nm. ODe ofrhese fertures I persofili.l!.i ofllic monllN.nd scasons. anoth.r oDc rhcmnil ol r Thus\'r xdd r lh'd orc d.ticc r

vnninacnm crafRmen rchieved !eNh ,shnxddx ,ds iDn ia l i ngb ronzc i c$cL lc ry .wh ichis rlso rhc mo{ ourndnius As ! nixtJrixl bnr/s.alcitd Ihc most opporlunilr' for rppLyins allctuli,ng nDd Jrc.,n{nri (.chnLqr.s Thc r.drniques of bronTe perl.tuliIg rere Lrrgelv u\dd.cspccixlL! iD nrxkiDs beLis rnd accessorles. crrn.d ni Dnrulc dckll. and olicD dccofxtcd wnh gild-ing rnd en,mel. Rih lnti.x(c \!cb shaNd hJllomL Drolifs The bronzejelellery ol the 2,i lo.1,...trtri.s dnplal'(s ercxl cmning.nd !'mpoloaicrl \rrirrion. $(h rll rcch.iqLLcs uscd: .Nnrg.fo|aiDg, cuning. liligr ee, granulllion. f erlorrriirg.gildtr!. cM'ncL1ing. cn.nrrarion. chisclLnre andtunllurilg \l{\1 duDctuus a.c bron2c b.lh.fiDrs. tibu[\, L].xccler\, tendr.( rn! rmliques.

r . r ! i , i r 0 r ! , r l , r 3 r { ! r r l

Page 73: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

! !3p4r! Ha(ura oa 6poH3e (ojr je ' najopojHuj!. Eporua jc xdo varernjan nplxanr

Hljunpe Moryh{ocrr r! nPrMest cBn rcxHn

Ka 6paae tnc(op,usie MacoBHocc (opncre

rcxHn(c np.6njaha, nnp.quro ra trpaly

nojacHrx .aPHrryPa n annn(lrruia. nrpareHe

!o (paj6e MrHyrrno?Hocr! a qccro v(pa, cMnnoM a ffoxe{N

Mlexacsrtr I uere.a6trHuN! MorrBrMa'

DpoHlaH! Haxnr lI Iv Bexa, nota3]le Ber{xo6o.aroBo F .Ipn_

MeH! cBrx rcxHnralrlarLa,o{rn.tana {anynrl(4c npooxlas!,

n@rare, eMajna. rayu'paEa, 'cxvua'arla I

nrH(r{pasa Hlj6pojHnjc cv 6PoHone:

nojacse .apHnrype. npcrclne . qnbvne.

HapyxDnqc. npuBccun n annrmqnje ao( cv

whilc esrings are soneNhat scarcer Vinindcnmjewellc'r to&ing tas obvnruslv dd.rnrn€d bv

ilre .ccds lnd means of wrder toptrlstron.appaEnny nothaling a..c$ tojescLler-l of hieh

Alongside bionze, iron and lead,

vinrinacium craftsnren aGo used silver i' produc

,ne jewellcry. orhcr decorations, objecs lbr

everyday use and luxdry kitchcnNsre The begn_

nnrg oflocal oduction ofsilvei oblecs cannor

as vet be orcciselv daled. silverhad been uscd in

$; prcd;tion orluxury eoods ever since rhc 4Lh

century BC a.d dohinated in the La Tine penod

rrrlul o c0u6Pi

, ! i i , e . P i r p r 6 ! ! P ! ! q ' n i 1 l

Page 74: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Heu, l ' pebc Nt rHb! t rc BrNnr ! 'u jyM cKanposlkurtr HrKrraje olHrrellHo 0Bn! Jukripana norP.6ava n No.yluocrr a urPoKuxHrponHxr.roj€ur. KojrMa Hnj. iino sodynanry{cyr.H Ha(Hl Blco(e ynelHnr(e Bpe)rHoc

3a urpa!! ra(rra x !py.!x y(pacnrxnperMela. ]rtrnnr.p0ja x nlxcy3Ho. nocytau{rorHaunjyMc$ M4oopn cy ocnM opotue,.Boxba r oroBa. (op{crrr! cpc6po.noccrax ro(anc nponyxlujc npeai'cra o!cpe6p!. 3, cala ce He Lloxc noyrnaro xpoFo

During lhc pcriod ofRomancoLonizalioD aDd sta-hili/rli.n. silvcr .bj.ch. ab.vc all jcwcll.ry,retained autochrhonous lonns, lEared thn)Lgh nstnthcshof llellenistic, lllyic. DFciaD.Thmcknand cehic clcncnts A dcpot containin8 sillcrcoins-jerellery ,nd religioos objccLs in thc rillase of Bare near Pozarevac. dated by Donritian scoins nom thc ycaB of 8l to 84. h thc uostnorrble €xa'nple ol rhis.ullural inlcgarbn (l,guF 54).r.Thejesellery liom ilr s (GI)ot(braceletsand hoops of$runs vire as rvell as lhose vnhspnallyslapcd ends, or wilh ends shaped likc thcherd rnd lail of a snakc, wtu.g tor'tDct \rcrc ro

Page 75: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

i\ rt r,,t tl i lnr q\ix nt 4.rtDr rri.rr, nr r.i ' , I i idrrr

Page 76: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

iouxx o|pc,lr1

cn!aFrlcc aa rrPrJy rlii.r_rrr\npca\rcra xotn.rr .ri .,rv r t s 0 r . . n r . \ n r , t ) r tn a l e H c k ' i n i e F r r ) [ !nepno ly Fr rc ( . (o ro 'sua$ c r .n6rrni,r0j.cpeonHr r J r . j rn$ n fecBera HrN01. lu fx rur !ayrorronc.Potr\. xx.rxr.k fo r . t r r r . r r 0 o fc ,LL , rR e \ c j e t r | . I j l K t r \ . r l l 0 p

cK t r \ . J r r ( i r \ . rPn !K i r \ r

rB ! .F6 tx . f r t r r ,Q . H r(trrr I Klr H,\ nnorlerrm cen r 6 !pc {o r l l ox ,pek i ( j . x .ao t rn r t s ' iB , (e !

r:lo!nuirHr Ir r1 3.r. f..na j rsprsxrx io jc oprM.r ).3c rrrr)fr. rrrfrriqrjc(d r ! ) . i Hr ( t r , t r r o ieocrr8c LH.F]xDouc r rr(cos lu r c r . x iuc . Kr .0 . i r !.a .nx ta r rk r 3 rM. xH,NKprjcBtrNr Ltr (F.teB0Nr v06 rnK ! r f u8 . r t cn ! r \ n .rotnrllror a.rJ(trcctrl. (no

rr)ex,ssk nr"rxroHe +o.Pre. lF r t .he ! l J rMr r lrjr!r-�\y r ro(.! Il n llJ

n rFr icnHo c r roKarHoN nPory(unjoM nrol

cra n naurx ot .teopr.c. nlBrN tr,ucKxM qoce-DeHruxNr 0 rp .ouu lMa.na unMnraq0jyN.ky renn{otsjv crrx} tr ,'PBn nrK.rrHx ntrHcp,01 Purckof

h \ . rn - r \ ' - n n rc on r r s {L -rn in ! i uu .h rho t ro t r ! l . . r \dRn- ! 1 l r . I r od l , r o l

P r f t L .L ro L . . i l

zDdrclioD ol !h.r fbicr[i nd j c " . l [ . ] l ! \ t r , o t r \\Flinens of ltomrD rmlir

tDdudroD b.grn rrilnq n\jmna.runi bn,oghl br th.ii'n llrhc \dtlers rnd ir.!rhnon A sincr .!rxili. d.

frin! rhc sc.n..l ll.Rrlc\J l ! h tng th . l n ,n o lN .n r$ sxd .rtrr.dirury errmp c ofx lirn centrLry sorl ol xdlhc mcrictrl.us crx trng onldeco.ritun rechniquc. r!lrh

-qoki encnutcd d.klk, po,ntrro .Lcmcnc o l rhc l r r cllcll.nisric. ,\le\rndrxn irli-n i r c , r ! l c ( f i gu r . 56 ) . 'A f . t re r spe . rDr . r N x r im i rtuc Jh . r i a tLc tJ .L r l , ! \/ r rhd . \ h i rh m. ! , [ e l !uied 10 bc lhc dccorxtlr.he rd o l . ha i i 0 id JL idg ,us b )rh. hxtr{\lc \ rdr I dirlenr inthe h r i r . c r . r rd . r i s r i . . l.nrpiesscs PLoriDa (T.4xn \consort) rnd sxhinr (fl!(lr i xd s .onn ) i i c l r b . d . redro rhe nr i hrL lo lnr .2 ,c .n

^ h,gn c.ncentrrrnm ol !kiLlul cmfhincD nlrhe minine dGticl r.d.ubredLlr.ortlbulcd b rhe anis!. J.attr,ng .a bcal cFfE-n.i. r'\m.ns 'lre said skillcd

, ( ! r , u u , i ! r i

( r . r i . qnq t r i l r nuu , ,6qD r ru . j i r i

\ , , ! r r ! N r r . i r r ' . { . !

i , i a r r ! j i

Page 77: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

rlHxa.rta. u,,anPeirH ra-narc(o tNertsn!xn Pxrl rtrI ucKr rlJ.qcrrrr6r cpcopHr a.pdl,, cr drcnoNXeFKra I 6oPOr ci fl._Mej.(nM nr*4, N oHJ_qrorHr rc$r ( r r rPr rc n

x . (oPrq i l . cn ;Lc Lxn i \ xr cn . r0N r \unPx$er )rn ,y .yk r l j r 3 r . r$ reHr r

r rcx . rH{ t ) r l . xor rNer r r '{x.. Kpr_fr 1.n. j6l.r: JIP!f t r d f rvcP.K ic ! r3 , i r r l ri rn .nBa l r la . r r l \e r ! ( l rnn

rnDe BBrr . l . (o r . r ' r lD ._

tJosarrrte.,qr.n.ra3"1r ]kPrlr'r rraRr xrnc ra Ko.y.a rqc l i i r o . .hpr3yr t r . !rrjax.NoN r Rocr. tupnkrctrtrcrr!rot l rlxpnqen io r r t ( lp r i rHoBr x . 'r r ) o c r6r i , r (Xr ip j ,8 .Rx x . r r ) . Noxc . . onPer3r t r L r y rpBy ronoBrn l ' l

3.Htr'c(o i McrHtr' r roN c r3 | rcBr r6 l i . (dnnx\ r i c lo r r .Rara(o je : ro -0 tn r . r r JLxxra xoH reHLr , .u r ia Be

d \ ranr r r r j r

J_ t)vnsicrio\ ;L,,.Krpn(]).NIeb! Hr,!rj. rrro tr Natc.r .Pr x3 , r rnxr rx r r xn.(nx n n.lorki McnrreDnH!R '11 roPe! Ic r t r r .n -rapa. no\d!Irn Pcdrr;'rLj.Etro\. l'[r' r,.!!Mr,,r.Ben,Djrn. F ropckro\ nrf p l k e r r n i ' c k e o A

crxilrci ndrc Pcotlc tioinfi,m,us llrli. rnd FN.rn-NIcdilertun.rd rof.ulrc !3.tr.s lhe rftns\xiJ l{cfldiusFuh!hds. /.,/ri d,t.,trrna.Nar F)brbll- fton Cnc.c. ola l t eL len id i . couD i r ! ' r \S)_,ixD diasporu \$ loinrcdiir Vrnnnrcltrm rl rh! .nd olrh. 2,! anJ rlr. b.gmnns olrli. l- cefrq. rlrougb rr!sc t r l ! d r .D r o f n r . t l . UouCoDag.nc in S!rl!.j Thcs.

!y r.ll..lcd un.n th. mporlirior olgo.ds liofl tht E.$ as\clL N .o lrc.l p.odrtrod.

c.,i.hing ii wi(h d.$ lonnsxnd dBr .mr rc recnnq t r csnL.h is encns1ali.n, liLlgree.gruitrl.tion an(l niclLo A ilrer $ror (/r.!',tu) \rtl' atrceg-Jhancd borl .fd I hridlc with r. cnJ$g shaDcdlrke x (go.l s) hooL is l' oll. ccnttry Ihe m dlc ol nsb.$l is drcoratcd Nilh ng.lJ cncrlslcd rnotilofx fislr

S iL \ . ' r xs u \dddr.rc r.relj-� nr dr ing Lrelt\.Libtrlds and ring\ Sil\cr cw-eLle,y lilni th. 2'r ,nJ l '

.cntuies N \ii.Plc ii ftrnn.rnidc by lr{rng or tr.n!.m\tl! dccor.ted by crNne.]\ccort.s trJ Lr. zoro\rc.lh!n in rc.son ll)r this qas lheh igh Lo ! .Lo lpu i i t ) o l rh . s i l!cf u\cJ itr \i lnnrt'um

wofkJlmn\ \hl.h f.nlered i

Page 78: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

(p i tc ! L , , f I r , r r l l 0 f r r r l l r f , i I ( rjNl c. 4DtN, r,.L .0r, I

I ir., ]Dr 0ir!I r r . r r i d r K l j

\ a re r t j ( ) , i t r l ) i , rn jL (Dr . r . : " q r r r r r t j r . j I r ) L , t r | r , n \ . rI . r o r r I r ! . r r r t 0 i . ! r | L l ] , , n l n r l L \ \ l , r

F t so3 r \ r [ ! ] \ r \ x , , L r \ . f r r i 0 r0 ! ! L j \ I r rM ( i o ' , i r \ r \ r ' t 1 0 i t . . b ! , , ' r l , r r . r f r n

r , t t r r . r f r n t rL ! r j , , r r ( i l J r i . r l . . r t r t r lr x r t r1 r ) j ( | , i r : , , r j r r f j r r ) \ r l f . rraoPor r i r , r l r i 0 f , R r r rL r r ( r r , r i ! , n r ! f r )q).nxnr0a\r !. L\' r \ t r i t r t r i . ' . 0 f . , 1 . , r i i , | , a , r r . r . a \ i

( f r , , l n t j j , r l n , r , , t r r 0dL t t r ( , i r , . L rt ro i r cH , \ , 1 ) ,n , t f i r r r i ) 1 i1 , r l n f i L . r

dL r l i r : i ' n r l l . L i r L ! I nL . J . n ! r J ,L r \u , l ' r t t . l r L r i P . n i r ! r r L r h , r . n r rI . q ! r x r l , { L r l \ . . rD (L : i r | \ i r I r i . .

( )L rn i n l rd ! i | . l \ r rf i i , i r t r n . , f c i , r ! h . ! r . . l I i r , f , { r 'l l . , r r Ls . n nJh r r i . : r ! I r l l t r r r$ r l Lo r r n i . r ! r r rL r L ) l l n l \ . : . r . LL ! . r

n r l r , ! r .D t r \ l l i ! L r r 6 ll l i r n ,n n t , r x r . r : \ ( i . l r . . n i '

\ , t r t r r r r i r n \ ! .! i r r r r . h . rn r r i nx \ \ L l . r , r r . . L l ! r , \ J rLr , ( f s r . l r . r r r r , n , r [ . . f L : n r L ] : l r .

Page 79: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Cpe6pHu iakm B II III BeRajc jcnuo.raBnnx

+opMn, !3pabeH inleseM r uce(aBeM, anajqeni6c yvaraBaH yperDabeM. ocHoBHnpa3ror 3a ro jc. xa(o cMarPa .[,. 3oroBrh,

qucrohe .pe6pa (ojc jcrcPruneHo y BrMnHaLlrllvc(rM p lroHur\a

Heoo.oaHo ra obPauy !oox4ljc rmrcrc rcMrc.6' Hajccuhc jc3aqyrDeHr lcetlorpaHynauijn qox cynpnMePrr! ca qmnryaHon r .PaByialnjoM

r,I3)ruaja ce npuMepa( cpe6tH€ MrHbyre ca npenneroM y Bnay Xepi{nolo. $opa xojr peQre(ryje rrlqaje xerelocrnqKo.3rarapcrna. npc cBc.a qpHorropcux 3ia-rapc(nx {eH'apa (o'. 62).d

HajcHaxHlje aPxeonour€ norBPAe oBrMqHaurjyMy xao 3H.cajHoM mpcrrc(oNrreHrpy npyxajy Hana3{ cpe6pHo. nocyba. vKocrorrry jc 1899. rournc or(PlBeH neno(oraje crHtrio: ner nexlpa o/r rcjrr cy aM cano{nooueM, uBa rabnpa ca yKPaueHrM o6oulMa n jenHa unMslp{cra ryrnja. Hda3 ceAaryje y Apyry nonoDrHy Iv Be(a. t43R{MiHaunjyMa nornae n cpe6pHa 3nena,3BaHPeEHe nPane. ca ulPooM ooonoMorBlecn{N .nmrM nepiaMa. (oja je cyaehrno sa(HanHo ype3aHoM xpxcllBoM MosorpaMy- nPrnaaaia xPuhaHrHy. '3 neP,oqa v-vl Dem norrceloujeaaE Hand Koln c meraFo os !m 3acrc na urpo(oj. uytrrojcronuj Bpio 6,rc(e nl)crxoaHxN 4opMaMa.nperuocraB$a ce u! c! {opuuheHe ! .o(!xPluhasc{rx o6pena. a dnrc(o ce B*yj! 3a{crocro-Mca{rcpaocu nponlDourn (pyr.cne{trdu!He r eneDrrtse $opve unMnHawiyMc{ra nocyaa, Hda6erexeHe y peneproapy

Ha dnl)o(oM npoooPy oaEpuraHrje Ao CperoieM6!, AncMne ct y uuMruaqnjyrc(nM ropeyrc{lM paa{oHnqa a.

sit@ j!wt,r,2i.1h !,uf

witn dccorared cdses and a cylind--shapcd box.Thc nnd is datcd lo lhc sccond half of the 4,h cebtury. lso coning lron Mnimcium is an exquisnely caied silver bowl, vith a wide nn linedsith snall beads, Nhich, judsins by Chri$ snonogmm, cngiavcd 3t a l3t&&ro, bclonged toaChturian. Anorher lind, cofring from the periodof 5*-6,, century, consisred ol iwo bosls uponwidc, nollow6ascs, v.ry similarro canier foms.These are lupposed ro hale been used inChristian rituals and are slylhlically a$ociaredwilh lhe Easten Medilenanean manufacturinecnclc. Thc padiculor a.d clcgant foms ol'Vini..ciun cocke+ ibse.l tion rhe inrenloies of sinril depols in tbe Nide aFa ftomBrilain lo lhc Mcditcmncan, Nctc madc in

Page 80: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

I r , 7 \ t I n r \ ( t n t \ r

rb rxoDr .d r . r . ln r . r r r i cKr npcnor i r rr :h r3o . r I oF t r r rHrn , ' i c . t , . r r rmr r \ J l !.o r ! ! rd r l . r rcKt r r ts r ! c r I re ! nn ,n t r , rr rx y rnqr j r ' r r rN ra rnr ) cy 0pnnrqrq . i ,cpcijpr. ( trtrK! r,1 (. !r\ .r rtr rrl{r vH i fo rnoN Nr re t r \ l r r , ! . l l r l \ . r j . r i rn lHnf.Iltr.\ !\r.i\ I nli^xp.t rr Kr, 'trrr

\ i i rn iD i . l t rDrDreh ro r In rops . lh . i i x r r ! |d !r lLA! . rd iq t r . r . rs xdd. , i . ! ld r l i l r t r . , . 1 l i .ro {Lr . l lo rg rcdr l r r rd . \ f r i .n . r r t rd .1 rr !n r r ! i i s n f r r ro0s rn l lLc f r rs ' r Sr ] t . r sno ! rs .r l ! . . o f \h i !_ [ ] r . [ . ] r r d r rc ld r i . l N l r r .u r ii , r B . l ! , r . . . rd Dn. d ( ln 'N t r ( ioDx l N1! ! . t r r i t r iPolr'.\rr bcl(trigrd (i thr.r n. lnrd T 'r \nrio

Page 81: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum
Page 82: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

ii,rri.,r ri: .: r\ Ll rnr r

a t , r a l , ! , t r ! \ 1 1

r . f . r i ! [ , , ] r r l i r i , r 1 , , , , , i , r r !

s c t r r ! i r , . t . r r , . L t r , ! : r L t , L r

t r r L r r r rL r I u i r r r r i r r r 0 r | . r : r r0 r r f rt r o . \ l l , , , r n t r t r t r r r . h r r rL . t i r , ! , r , r r ! r , !( u r r r . r x n i ) r i , l , r , ! i r r i \ | : f ' . t r r ) ir ! , r L i i r l t l r 01 r J t r i DMf i i . I r t r ( r . a f , , r

r i L : r . n , ' : t \ rl l ] | l ] ] r l ] \ | ] ) 1 , 1 l n \

r!' l,r)rrLirr.r tr lftrrf .r lr

J , , l , r , L \ L 1 r :

ri cr.tr

LUtrntr' ,

S r L , r : r : . , r r r i : , J : r t , L I L : r j L , \ r \

. . I . t r t r r l , \ f l \ : r f r r : L r , \ r ' : r L r \ : . r . . L ln\. ni! l fLl\ n r rf \. ,-! {.,: r 1ir ri!L r i h r r L . r . L , i i N s . + r , i ! ! ! l , r ! ( r , ! l . r ,

l u L r n r { , . L : r f ( 1 l t. L i : \ \ : r n , r r r L r r f . , h \ \ A , f . L l r L . r , .L l . r / . . 1 . r . r r i r . \ r : . , r i ! i \ ) l . r l r L r L i. , r i \ r f r o \ r r , . L , r d r r i f J r i L r , , L l r ! i r r ,

\ r . r o r r r n . r f r r t r . r , i [ t L L r . ] , , r / r h f \\ r , r \ ! . n r . . ! L \ , r . . 1 r \ 1 , ! r i L , . \ r , L r .

r r L l u \ n { r t r n . : . r : r L r r l i L n r . \ . r . . 1 ! t r ,r ! r ! , r r f f ! L ! : , 1 r \ ! . t r , r 1 . , r a l ( f h r . , 1 r .

r , r r r l i l . l L l r . i | : ! ! j : r . 1 i r . r . )

r l . t | . i : , i r : L . , . t r . r \ i r , r l i r l l . r !r r l \ i L t r . r r r r \ L r i ! r . r L . r , L , t l n . J : , i i t r r Lr f . r l i . r r f i ! | , t L : s L r 1 . 1 L l r r \ , : , 1 : r t f L f f

Page 83: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Jnaao on cpe6pa. Kao Merporona rpornHu!je. BMHaUljyM je lnKrrpao NoaHa crpy-ja$a, +opNlpajyh! yryc upoxnx napoluxMaca. rrHremuDHy npo)ryx'ujy uurfrH,r(sjyMc$x p.lnoHrqr, Kota ce Moxe nPar"rr Jouo! nocern ll Be{a. norBPbyly 6orarc xorc(-qrj€ 3rarHor Ha{nra B HaporHor MFeja y6eor panyir " H.poAHor MFe rynoxapeBrry.Hana3 3nrrrpc(or Ha{oBba Ha npocropt

yxanje Ha nPncrcrBo

Intensive prcduclion. which can bc followedfrom as cant o. as rhc beginning ol lhe 2trd centuryj i conlimed by rhe nch collecrions ofsoldjervellery fron lhe Nalional Muscum i.DclsEdc

and thc National Muserm inPozrcvac. The Jlnd ofagoldsnrith s anvil onthereFilorl of the civilian senlemeni indicarcs thcpresence of eoldsniths (r,!xhfii), anongwhich lncrc mn$ ako havc bccn crailsnen fr.mthc Hcllcnistic lrans ol rhe Enpne Judgrng by

67 3,oau \ubtt 4 n tl a6

66 3,nrlrt .rrrtyrt!, t tf rt.

) H4oruN !r,! jy ' 6q!

Page 84: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

rt 3.,rn*.vdn,'k Lrt 66

sarapa (r6.,/arr;), Meby (ojrH je cBrk{o.6mo r 3aHariqa rc xeieHnd{cxrx o6ia.r!llapo8a. Cynehn n. craHlapnHtv trpoBnH\rjdMM OopMaMa jeaHocraBHe {oHcrpr(ulje,m nPony{qrta jc 6ria naNcrc?eub{d (arc.opnjaMa. (ojc .y crHrre@nmy BrMuHalrtllvc(orHaj6potHrjy .pynyMHtyure (ojc ce. no Hacnry (oncaM, ncrc ylpr rpyne: ca or.opcHuM,3arBoteHrM nxaprK${a .J o6inK.. v o(Bripy bnx cenojasyjy EpojEe BapujaHre crje npcqmncxpoHqou(e o(B'pc H'je Moryhc re.prH'@m 360r nPontxeHe yrorleoe rojerriHux{DopMr. opec{a !3 lv Be(a cxeHe ca MrEbyraMa rnnlcH{N 3a ll-lu Be(,iaj6oEe rrycrprjc anrcino.r nojcansrx

oopMtr ro(oM ^yxer nerso^a (o,. 67)..r

dre standad provincial fornN, sinplc in naking,this pioduction was imended lor rhe lower drniddle classes, which conprGed rhe larse$ pafiof viminaciunt popul.rion. Thc latcc{ Crounol'gold jewellery con$srs ol e.nines, vhich,acconlins to how lhey vere closed, are diridedinto thEe categories: open. closed and Sahaped.wilhin thcsc catceorics. nnmcrons lariations 3iclbund for the fraling of vhich no specific tnrefranre can be defined, due 10 the pDlonsed use ofceftain fonns. A 4s ccntury frcsco dcpicting ayou.g wonan weanng errines lyticrl lbr the2r:ld century is ihebest iuuslDtion of the pop-ulailycenain foms eltoyed ord lonscrpcriods(fiEurc 67).6 Tnc sisplc$ and nosl liequenllytbund vcrc carings with crossed rnd spnallywound endings,olte. wnh d wne pendant in various shlpes . The peiod ofthe 2dr and l( ccn-

. \ m i ! i ] r u I

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Page 86: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

:t 3lrtrt lttrrtt. |L|t 6t\

HajFaHocrauHLte x H.j6poiHric cy MuHbitrcnPn(e ca rleoaaeHnL! n cnupdHo c.Mora,!,M qajeB, a. cccro cd x'laHnM nPnBecrcn {o]lr Jc psixrBlo peueH.Ilclno)r IlIII Dem (,paRrepHUe 6o.ar.r0o +otNr crspno EpaxeHnM (oropr.ru,(n' eo*tuManoa yBrrarcL! noirxp.NHo. crma rcjn snxeca nocerrefl0rlnNr rcrocflo. nopcu!. MorHnrPeH! H.iaxe Macotrny ynoapeq nonyspa.ofmMebai oflcepa n daKieHe nalre naparcrHo ce Hocc vrrbln'e ca v(pacHov riauoM yMIy{arore un po3ere ncryqase l3nrrHo nnMy- xro ! ntrHbyuc ca yRtacHoM.naDoM y(olol le noitlparxnacra. nojclrHe BapntaHrc cl )ronybeHenprBeoun. os 3rarno. rrMnePnlqaMa ra Kpajy. Rp,o ne(oparrRH!+opMr npc^crjuBljy iiuHbyrc (oje ru.rartrr \'.pMeptsof c.p(oQa.a v (oMe Je 6macaxp,Ber! Hnar. xeHa.ocponopexr. Ha Kaprcnun.,S" OopMe ce narartnpaBoy.aoua j/(|,.H. ri.Ba ca y+a.onaHrr4a.crupaHHM fprHaroM 0m! py6'HoM), a HayfrloBxva trrcere cc rarare rt.koo noma

nrics $as charucterizcd by an abundancc offoms wrrh very markcd c.lourist effecs, afpcrrirrg undd thc inllucncc of rhe polycl&Jni.c strlebrought b] setlers lom drc Easr Farhion trendsdi.lared rhe mossivcusc ol semi precious $oncs,Fansand elas ta{e Ar the saDrc tinc, ernrngswLlh dccorarile calorte- or r.sere shaped heads'.ade our olnrin eold weft $onr, as *cllas carnngs wnh a dccoarile head rvnh .n inser semipr€ciotrs slone .r glass paslc. ccnain Mrleties$crc cofrplemented rvith pcndails.ude ofgoldfoil or wne wnh bcads ar lhetr ends.Apat ofcatsrlngs, found in a narble sarcoph.gus in *hich ayou.a wondn. probabllr Ea$cm r. ongin, wasburied, is an examplc ofa rery decomtivc formThc S shapcd caftinghrs !decomrivc rc.langularhead lvith rn inset raceled er.nar (.rruby).lvncpc.danl! are positioncd ar lhe comes ofdrc cass.rle in a radial layour. Base! on lhe archacologrcrL contexr. thcsc xro dddd to lhe cnd ofde 3icentury, or lo rhe 41.(figure rl).

E rinss of high adnric Mlue. counri.eo. the refined ta$cof$ealrhyfeinaie Rorancn'7ens, ar€ considfdbly less comnon. The rcason

Page 87: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

tt 3a'aHt.\ttrrru tl ttt qr'

u6eHn. x"crHri nDrte.qx. Ha ocrouy apxeo'rou(or rcnrexoa, ldryjy ce ! kpaj III n Iv

MrHbyue Esco(e rauar.(o - lNerHrc(c upclnocrn,rixycy 6orarrx puMcux .PaltaHKr. c] 3Harsop€be. ParnorroMc cy. cBaKa{nEacrc B'unHaqrjyM.(nx ryo6n{Lra xoje crro(oN xx Dem no6ue Heo'yneHe parMcPc.ocsL' ro.a. prMcKa 36opKa QopMnpaH.la,eKe 1895. tunxHej ca BcoMa 6o.aroM(ore(qnjoN p,Mc{or M(ma. remda je

for dris is, ruEly. rhe ccnnrics-long midnrs ofviminaciun lombs, *hich look on unforesccn

troponions durine thc 20d century. Apai. fiomlhis,lhe Ronan colleclion fomcd in rhc rcnolcycar of 1895, $hich included ! very ich collccrion ol Roman jcwelLery. dislppelred dunnselacuati.n i. l9l5.i Thc nore luxurious types

a , r c j r , n i l r n ! 0 { r H p o h ' n r j n } r ! p " r \ r '

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Page 89: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

npnro(oM eBaKyalrnje 1915. r.i6 JIyrcFHuj!rnn.B{ rrnbyua cy pabcnn y rcxrrq! o4rt"rcras;/., (ojoi! je, nponaraber Merarano.rn.lYr ctnrucr tr{ca(6r Y rPYnYMuHtlua Brco{o. yircrrnc(or KBarrrcraqraudir/ rptrNep'u co lolnrBlHoN kaMetoM,Haj.'erhe ou nnaBo 6exo. orana nrr (Baplajca nonyrapHrM npescraBaMa Mextre !Avol)a..r HajpcnpcacnrarnBnrj' nprMcpaKca rep orrje RrMrHi(ujyMd je xrHbrr! c$aja lll Be(r. HabeHa Hr repxropnjr ceBepnnx ncqonora BrwnauljrNa. v riarnoL!.'oDndtoHorJ . (uu tv Hararx .e uMel r o , laBosoFu dfa c. oHcrov Myu(.Pua ]

of carines scrc madc h thc tcchniquc of o?,s,trerdJle, whi.h achicved a lacy lo.k .l rheDetal.rr Earlns specinrens Nith inset cameos.nost frcqucntly of bluc-a.drvhitc op.l or quaru,bcaring rhe a.pular molil\ ol Mcdus! andAmord belong to rhe sroup ofhigh anhdc qualily earinss. The nost reprcsentalivc ncm ftonthc icdory olviminacium is an caiinrg fiom lhcc.d ol the 3d cenlury lnl.d ,. the nonhemvimlnacium necropolises In 0wDngsold frameLies a cameo ofnvoiaycr aeatc rvnh drc br$ olanx. sccn as a righl ar.llle Fourddlph,n lhrFdsold foil pendants with perls .i then ends aFiEpended fDm a horizonral bar(figurc 7l)..',

Cold rings wcre n.$ly tr.duced by crlling, wirh srrong shoulders and gem cassene or

d iNa'o,7,.auu , r. tr

I r u r r u ! L H . F s u r , i I

no{4rur. rrNr\\.r!M ii rHM. itrrrip!,i'L iDr-.

i^1 \rroitrosfi. cru ,!!ur oi (\ s ! i r \ r L r { x ) . D r r

GrK;n Nrirlii r*e ! r)! | rsr.u! ( {}, iL,!

92

Page 90: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

'.J

Page 91: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

uaroBaHa :cpeu!roM. onnocno(pajcM III trcm. Ha .raB! npcreoa ce 3da3' yqracouaH, rnarHanioquq! ca perLeoHoM nPea-craBoM iryu&pqa n xeHe y oauyddtfttun n6i.tio, Tstt\iaM atr3D. ..BcPcnrcrc npcreEe lll lvuexa. IpcreH je upor3Boa D!M!-HaqrjlMc(e paanonuqc canPlMerE M yrnlaFMa uo.rEoMcunrcpanc(or {trrypHo. (Pym

BnMxdaqnjtNcKc o.prnuecy y.iaBHoM camauBeHe oJl Pa3no6ojr0x ncpr' n ceNeHaraoMcacro catsrjeHo. naHqa. norcKaa cy nepre on craffieHe .acejnolYAParor {,Metsa. hMroapanm (opxnr- (o buHoBanc ca ncp

ruMa. nperexHo unirH-lpnqHo. un no qre)lxflH npourpeHor 06r!m. oDa$a pereba o.prnla cc Be3yjy htcrorHo MalnrePaHc(c yrrqaje

3aBHnan yMerH,r(n {enm{ Koj'npeDarqrarn crakaaprHe nponrnqnjaiHea.pMei DnMlHaqnjy\r.(r Matcropn cy ro,carno y rcpaar Meaa6oFn ca oo.aro ac(o-p!can'M o{Rnp'Ma outr,arHorrnNa n y+acoMHIM (aMejiMar ocnN rLrx. upro troryirpHr y neploqy lI-IlI Dcm .y n MendrboHnrc(yuaH! y 3iarroM rnMv ca perae+HnMnPesdaDaMa 6oxaHcraha. Heuro c(po nnjyBaptjaHrv c, trrpaxeHrM (oroprcrnlRkfie0exroH. npelcraBsaly npnMcpqx cn rcpunprHr

oKBoPoM n t+acoulHoaxrcHc nacre. rlkobe kpanepnorcss 3o

Y o$npt panroHr (e i rupany Ha0raosBrlaiacc nnerrrk.cr raHarrnja 3a o6paalnorynParo. n eBa. rj. ra rrpanr .cMa u

Vnrinacium nccklaccs were nrosrlr nradeof belds in v.rions colouB and segnents of 3loopr.loop chrins. Occasionallx bcads madc ol'gla$ nAtei sennprec'ous sroncs. anber or cor.l.weE combined wilh bcads ndde of sold foil.nostly cylin.liical in sh,pe, somednes Nnl awidei niddle seclion. Such fonn ofnecklice Gassoclated rvnh rastcm Medirerunean influ-

Viminacium criiircn acnicvcd lnmr{lablc cnltsnrnship standards. surpasslng cu\ton!ar! trovincial fomN, in naking medlllions vithnchly deconrcd liames ol gold foiL *ith inselcamcos.i Apan liom drese, lery popular rn thep.nod .l rhe 2i,li ccDturics weft medallioDs.hnelled in eold foil wnh rehef depictions olderlies. A sone*hit more modc$ laricty, withnxikcd colounst etrecs, Ncr. sFcrnrens with a*rune liame and xn inser gllss paste $onc. alsochlEctcrisncol lhe 2r:ldcenturics (fiStrrc 77)

cnttsmen modellins sc.riprccbursto.cs.1.e. genrslnd cancos. slso work€d wirhinrhc re*ellery-making *orksh.p. In dris type of

Page 92: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

xaMeja. v o(Bxp! .ue nNstklrtrc noneranoda je 6nra Yc(o d,elnjernlje Bam dra D paxa 6nra noBepeHa oeqBjjnEoM 3anarmjr Haxon nprnPc e notylprror MMcra. nprcl!,',no - ypcanDalbr. rj.@pa!n reMc. Kojaje 6r,r ,@ereHa MajcroFyn yper ae (dn?!,d). u3paaoN Pese$Hux npercr.B! KaMcja, 6aBnre cy celaHarisje nor nMeHoN .../,n 4. 3arrM jc

dearrro ronnpalLc. r r3prx. H.Krrr./l.cMan MMeja 6rnr F no8cpu,a Najcroprr'. troJ',r'eHoM/dk,7, r ..,ry.rtr.,d. ()6patnDa6e

curlrx (oMa)ra noryqparo. K.Ne l€ 6norpno cnoxeH n raxrcBrH nocao koJB lcsrcnBao senr(y npclrn3Hocr n qEuxj&k

mcrpyMcnre. no!lrlplrorpMo nnlroucn'v MrrepnjirsM. m(o aa jc

Benr(a norprxH,a soocna co rrpare KiHeF snicrc. Kojc cr rrBeHe y

rcPaMrq(!M krrnrNa ElojM trarav.eva

produclion rh.r. was natro\r speclalizlin,nrcsardins rhe kind olrv.rk t.rfonncd. wilh indi!idual cratisncn speci.lizing in ind,vidul lro-ducton nagcs. Aatcr a scmipEcious srone hddundergone the trepaation $agc. it vos caned,ic. a gem $as rnade, sh,ch rvas donc by caneR(.,rdt *). Rclicfnrotifs on canreos $crc madcby cnnstoen caltcd .r./drd"r. Polishing lnlloyed and cEfisnren callcd/drtu ii and .onpa\,,/er wcrc entrsted \rih rhe naklng ol i.$-eller! $itlr gcns and cameos. N{delling !.!pieces ofsemiprcnr0s $oncs was a compler anddcmanding losk. *hich requncd grcat prccBLonxnd spccial in$rurnents Semitrecious sloncsrvcrc rcgsrdcdasa precious matenrl. $ rhal highderna.d led lo tlc productioo of clmeos $dgcnN of s!a\s rr{e casl h ccramic nroulds.Nrmcfous firds of senrs ind cttr..s fronlViminr.iun nrdicat lhe existence ol r (iodgglypric rn .entc aormcd in the nrld 2d

t5

Page 93: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

r Raveja B B,Mdaqxjyya y(a3rjv oacraxasrinnrulK, qesrap xoj'jc oopMHpaH cpeunHoM U Bexa.rr O.nM nprMel1aKn ocpen6e.rcai,rcra,,3auajajv.e LpeuniHo.paBnpancn MoacronaHe rcre r K. ejej (oje y(aryll Hanlt.yrHoc, Beurnx Maldopai nobfsx '(,iHrDuaqa xeneHncrnc(o puMBnN{narinjrNc(a .nrrrMua nponrKq'ja .corfouuHaMd, rj. MuHeparnMa, H,jBehrMreroH cH.6qeBana B Mdrjcux jExxum.xoja ce 3aJenno ca tlnlv| Meraiaj xon-rlHyrPano cRcnnoarruy. jou on npanmofr

F. 3a mF^y rria ! kMeja Kos PrMcrHd jeHa Bxco{oj !eH! 6no axari (oj

*o darHo - ForcHe rifue jaBsa r ucn-rparHoj cp6sjr. y rrcrocHoj cp6njn. ynoroq Peu(oBnue. pc.nfpoEara cy nexflrra.panara. ffaHar n KBapucejaBBajy y[epccurq' u kon EiarejeBo. {aMcHa. a ],Bnaor! kl)n MajlaHnek cc jaBr,'j! xevarnrn .FHar ,rlexrura KairunKpenosrHa.rr Mr ncprr Hr 60turcrBa Cp6nj..a nocc6ro urMsBa,lrjyMcKo. rancba, nrpertrno cy v1r ! .na !a pa3uo j rn f in rn lKesjHilcxo ]MerrcKc npo)rvkruje.

BuMrrarlijyMc{ujcupcHx Brn MaEpnja c I nvxouHe KynrypeonlaxaBa nPanncnc. eoercKe. pe,n jc(cn,! rPo+c oHanHe norPese rlc..8o.craroDrrrru To ce Hapoqlro osHocn Hana$r oI3n!ra (olrje. Hc cavo MoIHr. Beh Icrare'u(x- noponncnn. (yirHH Mn BojHrcnM6orr Y ro\r .vBcnv. Hapoqnro .!snaqalrc 6toH3aHe ro3ra6c c {D(iyie(pd.oopaiHo. rnna. uuu,j, ce Ori6yna caue6ei!'r crojc nori,re 4jerpo6a. rabeHa c. HoBleM !3 320 329/:10 f.@n6i!'!je ao6po oltDana. c.r.r(rH. Ha Bpxj,,aunBeHnNiyKounqaMr. Hi r.penr ce Haiaru

centuryrrAparl imm averrge quahy itcms, n.ely cnsra!.d and nodelled gems and .aneos srandour. These seem to indicatc rhe tresence ofskilledcrafirnen sho wcie rvellacquinned wnhHellenistic and Ronrn glyrric an vnninxciun sglypric piodudnJn mostly dependcd on Moesiandqrosns ror raw material, i.c. ninerals. lhcscdeposits had bccn conLlnuously exploncd alo.gsLdc nclal ore s,nce ihe pFhistori. penod. AAatewas hlghly ulued bythc RoDans in rhe produc-lon ofeems ard cancos. Ag.te deposits appcarin Centml Scrbia as .pal lslte-jaspcr nrses lnea$crn Scrbir deposits of granatc hrve beend.lccled rn the Cieek olRcskovicr. cranate a.d'luartT lre tbund m Ncicsnic, and ned BkeojevKaDen, *hcrcas hemarne and smnarc arc 6undin viaole near MFjdanpck. There lre calcitcdeposits near Krcpoljin rr Serbias rich nincnldeposits. cspccially those in thc Vinr.aciunrcgion, dtrdcrly rei ted in thc development of

As a spccial lbm of marei.l cuhure,Vininaclum jeRell€ry rcfl ected thc pracrical, !es-rhelic. rdligious or prcfcssional requnenrens ofirs potulatlon Ihis Nas cslJe.,rlly true of goldjewellery. rhich. anan liom beine a fashion !ym,bol. was alsd a class, famil,.rcligbus ormilitarysyhbol. EspecialLy signili.,n( in rhis sensc weftsllded cros{halcd brun,e fibulas Norable ts afibula Nith a dick Lyerofsilding ll-on ! skele-ro. grale. lound sith coins fron ye!$ 120-329/10. The fibula hwcll presdned,with lnoolhbulbs. pointcd toward the iop. l hc bcan is decomlcd with a band sluped pla$ic ondnentwind-ing in rn 5 spnal At thc niddle ofthe arch andthe catchplatc, rhc band is{lecorated rvith a nretlospiml. Thc car.htlaie cortains nvo lra;\ ofptas-!c pelra shaped volurs and ar ils end and bclowthe arch aF nvo pnis.l se'ni lolutcs. Thc bulbs

. r r n ^ r h r i r . ; L r' r e n r i r i L p i ' i r I n N ; r n s ' . i . L n ( 1 . .

!iilr;r.,]*' '.'"'r*e. N rr I noaui,. liin{;

| , I ' l | | ] ' I 1 l ] i

L n . ' r r . r r r d ( * ; . 1

,6

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Page 95: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

y(pac on nradrqnrx rPa{a cautjcn y s cnrpany. IIo cpeAtHt iyxa n crlre. rpa(a icy(pueH colpdo

y H{eno rexHxrrr Hacrcm ce Earase uBa napa niacroqHnx Boiyray oturxy nerr!, a Ha {pajy cronc ! ocno!ny{a, ro nap noryBoiyra. IykoBnlre cy oanonp€\He .pe,re oauotele nPcreHostMay(paucnxM nceyuorparynaqnjoM, a ncr!npcrets ce nara3n Ha no{erxy rlyk r3naA

Kpcroo6pa3Ha 4n6tia je cnMooiBojlc .ryx6e n cacraBtu )reo Doluc onPeMe.On6lie oa 3rara, cpeopa t tro3rabctrc6poEe cy ,rore"BtBanc oo{unplira n {umBHnqrMa HnxefplHra. npolrBounr! cy rx)ruopc(r vajcropr, Hajlpe sa Ma(ccoq!-jsoM, a 3arw. KoncraHrnHoBoM n8opy.PalnoHlue 3a nrpany nBop.rc BojHe ucrHoEqrcxc oQeNe nPeMeurde cy cc ralc!-Ho ca KoHdaHrrlroM. npareiu .a Ha ryreBtMa no UapcBY. Ka(oje no rlcm cnryaqnja na [yEaBy 3axrelana nyxe npr.ycrBoqapaj y neproay n3Nety 318 n 322. r.KoHoaHrlH je Duue nyra 6opaBto y BnMrEaunjyNy, aa 6{ ra parono ca capNarrNaooHouo loBein 334. .., hj€aaBopc(ou palxoHrqoM. @!6yna nPelcr.BBaKoEcraErrHoB sodar{E o$nqnpyj npnn!(or!oopaEu y trcproay 318 322.. tm, mo jeuepoEarHrjc, 334. roarHe.Tr

are sepanred fion thc loizontal beam by nngsdecomted by pseudogranulation whilc an idcnti-cal iins stands al tbe besinning ol lhe arch, 3borcrhe catchplarc (fisure 79).

The cros{hapcd nbuh *as a symbol ofmilitdy senice and an integral part of militaryunifom. Cold, silver and gilded bionze tibulaswere dwarded to oficc6 and lorver F.Ikingclerks They were tmdrced by .outi crafismen.at Maxcntiuts and lhen !t Consrantinek coun.Coua, nihar' and cleical equipmentpoducringworkshoN tbat produccd noved along withConstantine, fouo{ing him on bis joumeysthroughout rhe Enpire. As the polnlc,l situalion.long $c Danubc demanded an exlqsive ptsence of the Enperor i. lhc pcriod beiween yemll3 and 122, Constlnine stlyed in vininaclunon d nunber ofoccasions. and clne heE again jn

the year 134, dunng $e Ssmalian was, alongwith nh coun sorkshop. The tibula wasCo.{anlinc s gift b an ofrcer, either duri.g the318122 sray or, morc likcly, in 334.14

rhFradryr;ja\vtr 1.6@a4

Page 96: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

9"o,.",,t r" u3pa,iy npeft,era orom 3a aaaje nocucsoqesa o6{6e npeu

a,mo rEanainM! norlo6patcotx PofoBalapoxam carPafoDnMa o6pane. Cynchx no

oBpc{oor ! 3aHarc(o yMerflnlKoM (u!

ry, Moxe ce 3aK6lror! qa je ro 6n,adxa x Eo6po opr!Hn3ouaHa Masy+anypa.omPy xole cy ce onBnj!,e lerarHocr!

creqrjanrouasrx panloHrua u uajcropa.CorlAEy 6a3y 3a EeHo o.o{BaILc npeu-croBda je crMHa rpaa,qnjd ooplne (ocruy. Mo tr parBrl.no oocapnBo, H.Pocnro@eAapcrBo. PenartuHo 6p3a ! tcorllap.!a ysoB,ia le celxjc(! npot3Boatry

:Zr cxhtcncc of a workshop vhich prc'duced bone objecs hN b, now becn confimcdby the prcsence ofan lbunddnce ol ob jecrs andthrou8h tne finds of seniproce$ed hons atrdantlen beadng cranine narks. Judsir8 by divcFsity orobjecrs and de quahy of cransmnship, itcan be concluded thal lhis rls a llree and wello€anizcd na.ufacture featurnrs specializedworkshons a.d crahsmcn. Slro.e lraditions ofbone-pmce$ins and Nelldeveloped clnlebreeding tr.vided a solidbasc for thc dcvelopnent ofthh industry. Due to elalirely quick and inexpensive manufacture, objecls for everyday usewcn produccd in seies. These werc moslly per

BoE a144dN t!.14 @re1

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npeuMera 3a cBaxoaseBxy ynorpeoy. To cysajqeBhe npenMern 3a n!!Hy xr.{jeHt r K3Merr(yi sanr n acroBr EoD6e, oaPMa-qeyrcKe cnarlre ! xaurrci dacroB! naMeuraja, BPereaa, nrne n q. oH{ct !3patrBaHn sa rokPcrcM crpyry, dajqeniie oa .onebe (oo! r Pora, a Pebe oaRocrdjy cEtrEai (oBai (o3je. 'jc'cBcr pora.HaruanHo cy y$auaBaHx ype3rBaBeM nrmqarLeM. no rapyu6nEr. PysHo cy Pe3oapesr npeAMerr yMemrs(or mpanepa

sonal hrsiede a.d cosmcric objc-crs, jcwcllcryandclolhing decodions,phamaceuLical spatulasa.d spoons. tools and coatins. pieces oftumitm,spi.dles. pins, n€edl€s erc. Thcsc wcrc mde onla$es, hostly out of cov bone and hom. lesscommonly ofpiS or horse bone, goat hom or outof deer mtles. Itey w€r€ decorated by cNinsand polisbi.g. Expcnsivc ivory imporled fron Libya vas used in producing connksionod nmd-cmed objsts ofsome lnhdc value (wind insttumenrsj parrs of strinB€d instrunenB. niniaturc

100

Page 98: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum
Page 99: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Eore pi), y.ua hatt ofaM Ku!tua&!tuout!,!,c!6a j4an P!\o\,

(AyBaq& rrcrpyNcnrr, AeroDr xnqannx{HopyMe@r4 crrHa nraor{ai peceor)i 3axoje J€ ynorpeoDaBaH. cKynoyBoxesa m nr6nje. HajncEamje panuornqe3a mpaay npeaMera oa (ocrrjy Hda3xre cye y BenlKnM rpaacMM j1eHrpnlla da MeunrepaEy. a Eeuro McH'je y r'My. ocr{j!. flrcnn Anrrcj!. v trcptroay on III-V Be(a, ryrMarDoaehnx uclraPa hc nPcy3crr paaronnqc yKoxoarmFotrocy r Are(casnpnjr.r

plastic at, rclief). The nost renow.ed boneobjects ptuducins workshops weE localed irlarge cities ofthe Medilenancan, soncwnal latfalso in Ronc, Pisa, ostia and Aqlileia, In lhepftiod betwem the 3d and 5r cotunes, workshops in Consrantinople andAlexandnalook overthe position ol leadiq centres.rr

xllcnn,{o o iPe^Nersn ox {ofl

FE a reDnoDnie.ork Mfl! e. Beo4,^ rer. erl F( u Rprro|trje ropk Nttr!.. E.drpu ree5 e :0.

102

Page 100: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Korr rHs n t .nMcr r n r Br ra rHrqr j !n in \Pots.nou(n. ynr0njr r

locanauEe rana3c cn leprrrirtrre qaNrBa

IIpBr rlKcr ldr nFrv.rn o! (oc'!' una.{!uro cy xoebcHr(4. (oin KpricM | tseKr.

rorase ! BsNrrxqriy

T.\ ncfrory nPrnaAajy (o0a,n. y(ocHrue cx x.rrcKn\nonpcjeL!. cnyx,ne .! rx npncBPuhr Bc no6irxoB,rLc xeHcke qr rrlpc (olr lc-noHexanj 6nla Bpro (oMrrxx.uana. cax I r.Beure poaxHn-qrpnrp(e ('drl.zt lo.!6me DlcoKo '6xr.rtrc .Fpxrrpe. I ,Lx .nrMo.ne la moje. (oltrtrrh.rt c! yNeun qrxtse

xocc. cBete tsaKnaxHo r_xP.o'ru!Ho JnlaJcvac l " i 4 , t r r lpx . \

l_rpoloAi..lL,v rnd .hn,nologtxlLy. boncobjer( liom vnnin.ciuDr fir if rilh r..\Lodsfinds nlnr (he teritll) .f rc LDrpne. Thc fir*[r\ ] bone objecl\ rcre thc or.pcrty ol them,grnns wlF aaivcd in viininac,um xt thc.nd.lrhe fiF( cdolut BoD. hair pins deDicti,rg rlinraie bu$ bel.ns k)lhist.ri.d Thcyscnedtorh.ldidg xDd sli.ping lhe fe rlc hnni!!c, $hicb\ ! r \ . r r !11 .s ,vc f ! .ompl ica ted ,even l l ) r rhsskL lfulfemxle han{!list sLa!cs (d?,ar'n.s) The hatnls {!n high up r lihc hxn iNerliors *ereuscd in order lo keep the hnniylc upriehr Lareron. thc Mnnylc nas deconrdli Lv,th dixdcms.pins rod ll(nv.f Fashionable h.n$yle\ $e.edicftred by thc cmnrels ri!L h.r lxnicliFwaitins.

t03

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itl rdnuu, ,, ,.rt.n, ,e, ,.),,tu I tn r,r

n,'(trrprr. uaptr'le I Narf.He c. uapc(orlBopa. ykrr4lue ca t.nalrno oornkoDrHoN.nao.\r l B0ji! ll.r.De rnx ){cr.Rc arcrenpcr lc rBrb . i ! no f r )e ,e q rpnqa. l r ro j jao . !v !eKoparnDBe. x r j r t ) x 0 ronn. rHnr \d ryHKun j tk r r ! l ) . UrBdr to t rH 0pxMcfa( r r IB c [ a , i e l I H o . l ] u ! 1 ( ' ] c Hrc r Bulll! Crnr-arRe BeHep. (taru\ hklin) car4i+nno\ j\Ic(n orcnarojr rena. oriuaxcnof rrrlxn I 6crarx

rp.ncrxilr kojnnoxftr no,Lr x.o '{(uc jaR}r L'rdrrdrrr;jrqnrov. PnheH. jc no !rrc/y na \.

reHncr rckc r r i fe . l lpa( . !1c i r i t sy KxucRlA+poxrry n A{irpornr\ 0i Kxper. (cn s2).3rarr0 jeqnocral! 'jtr lrn qrluryne caofHltori Hncrc tsr n.1Kr. (rtrkrepncrn!ar

te rr riaprrle Oalcrrr! J!Hnop n il!rlrn\Kourare lxocnruc cj xeHcKnM n.nr,.F! 0r

ll.npnx rrrh he.ds slupdd likc !i.us or al.DaLc bu$ rrc p.nriirr of cmpre\ses. so drdlrhd,. functioD wx\ nrr oniy dc.orln,e b[ nl\otR)trgdrdisl (liglre 3l) r BxceprioDat ilenlkoDr rhc l. cdnn!-a probxblr rhe hcad or I haiFDin. is slrnped llkc thc TiDrld vBnus (,,i,uPxJxd l r i rh . d . l thnr 1 [cso ] i nu leL l ingor$ebod!: drc ntrde rLrlom.nand hulrocks. lrld1 dnp-trig .ofcrifg rhc l.$c. pnd. lirllr- adherer ro lh.cLrs ic r l r .adn ion l1 r ! !smodc l tcd ! f t rc l t cD idrchrrprN. Pfu\ireleis AphtuJrrc ol Knldcs udAphrod i le o lCt fcD. ( l ig r .e S l ) .A tur lh smplohairn!1. \!!s cham.lcnric of ernDr.rse\ F!utiraJtrintr rnd Lucillx B.oe hxirp Nirh tcn,lsbrrr lfoDr nris tenod. \.rli.g in lrisri. rurhr).r so poh n' llre rorl .l ll)c! cntisDen IriN\!i1h rhe rrnr of s.bxli'rs. I s!nrt]()l ot ttnilil),.,.suftc.rioD rtrd rl inniitlon rJ,nd dcirics h,d l

Page 102: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

oBof ncploln Drr0cxror raHrlcxo y ea

! ( r , l j ! r na paa ro(a!Hm M,Frofa \1a.nicKo kyrrro. kp!(rel)acyy(ocH le ca ca6a3nieBo! fykli KojaoN6onnue nnoaHocL. y.xpcnlhc ! ooxNHcrBa nH!,0rlauntc(o. tupr(repr. lrla cc nonynrtnoo !'trPr (fajcN ll n noler{.v lll D.Koirranc y(ocHr(e lcnrocraBHe .FoPld .i"nNane npa(rnlHy Hrved! rlr. norBpbyly6lot'rr Hri,in t xprBeHrri \ol03orrnNaKopnuhefle cy (ro nncrPtveHrx rj nlBnares. so.operrx 4nnma r xru'qr\iroje cr cposHrur rmin

y roq rahr HrrrrF6oB,,Nj cuojn cporHx(rr'

3a r!tsits,. Kor\ier{rxrx trPenat,ra6oja n .tscp. cnrxnnc cy (ouftHe Klr{re

nxeical and cult chrtucrcr atrd wcrc incieasnrell

fofuldr durnie nre 2'r and rbe bcenming ofnrelr centtry Borc haiDiris *irh \i plc shapcslreE interded lnr tra.rical use. lvhich ,\ .or-nnncd bl numerous linds nr sacrincill layeftThe\c R.r.rscd as iNnure.( lnrGkingoullhebumr out lusos of lanps lit al funcrrl lcNs byrclatires ar the gra!cs ofnrn lovcd ones.r'

Bonc boxes,D:vd.'. serd dscd lor kcepngcosnreli. \ubqaNcs. color$ rnd n.Rd.r Boncbores oflarn,us sbxt.s wcrc aho used lnr {.ring scwiig accesvn,es. xr c.db cascs. toi keetingjc$cLlcr-a aDd oiher valurblcs. btrt also medrcal inniimcnls and me{llcr.es Ahc{deonaln.t-sided Lrox \rth nvo larec Iemisphencrl recctra-.!cs \ras cenarrlv u\cd lor cosmctic or .redicrl

L0i

Page 103: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Kttadtt kratatrn'r\rttd) I tl i ':r

urnnnnp!{He +opMe - n!rcflse (?s,r.t. v(.uranuM (yrnjaMa cyDan j. rnDahr npu6.t. leurseun. HaKnr r rFro,eKrpckr HEcatyMexar r nekoDr. Kyrnja nrBrNnHrr rn jyMr . uecrocrprHo r rpNBBeHrxcrpana. carDa Dcna norlronracra peqrnnleHaa r n.xronrreM (o/ a yuracn. ! xr.6oBc.cBaKrKo te (opauheHr y tso3Nertr1Ko ne|Bqrrcxc cupxc kr. 86). On (ocr! cy x?pabxu,Hr r ldn-ae y(l)aucrn jc!re-drev.eoMerprtc(o

opHareHm(oN u( k.i\d6rPncnlL! qyxrhrMa llrFeraK rpeacrrBsarycna onrara rposcrno. ceDBa ca ePorckorlnFrcraBoM koja lMa !y6Bc .nL!6orrcno

purposes 11 Nr\ Inun! in vnnr.acrum (ncure86). Combs rveF aho m.de of boDe and thcy\fcLc dccoratcd wnh snnplceconrcri. odarncnsor snrll .o.ccnric cr.lcs. Thc arch plaring ol auomb rvhicb.on\i\ts oJ rhrde pids rvnh !n eroricmorif has a deeper symboLic meanins (fieurc

Judg,ng hy nomeou\ ch,ps a.d dicc. rheinhabilans of Vinrinacium were oo dilTerent ft omonrcrpcoFlc h nor bcingablc to rcsnt thc F$i.nntr gdmbling Alrhough Srmbline ]v!s prohibned.eqreci0lly lo soldie6, il ras clandestinely rerywidespfead Stones or chips sened in pLayin8board earncs $[ich dcnandcd shrc\vdncss andinlelligence,sinillrlyropEsenr drvch€s!(r,/,t

106

Page 104: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

CyAehn no 6pdjstM xeroHnMa | (.'l

a, Eoq(aPc{oj q'Iacrr lrct olone,xqmoBstrqx BnMtHauxjylt xaxo lc (orl-

e 6"io 3a6PaILrBaHo. Hipocsro Doj

aj mrajHo je 6'10 BP,o pacnpoc

6eHo tlqo rnue rnr xlrorr .y cnjafnrlElaBe nptmBeHtx rirlla (ole cy raxrc_

de lncnpeHocr n rmu, tHu, , j l . u f G.N ua\! (ldda\ tatnn'u! t urt).lloPc!\

asd! t|pMacyje n lerla 360. paru{jaraErpoyMHocrr. KourtruelerHomMa o! Jeaan Eo ued, xoPnuneHe

y lrpr dncHoj ,,coBcqc !c Byr! ce .

6Fajje6troaa e frpl (c ,rx k.,0 u F trroo,na @ derajy yjeEHoM nexapy (t'ir,t.

rBM rcrPccy a !o6,,FHe BPeaHUc

luruculuuh). Apafi ftonr grorvn ups, it rvasplayed by children loo. in ordcr lo hclp thcmdevelop$eninlellige.ce Dlce wilh markcd valncs lron onc to six were used in u glme simil.ru Trilial Pusuit. lt ivas ctr$omary to play wilhthree dic€ ('ssed fr.n a bcakft (/i1ilh^). addinethe rclled values togelherr3

So trr, rcscar.h has rc8GteEd only onebone toy. lt was a rolding cradle with bonc banand cuFed less. Ils sideboards weE deco',ledwitn stylizcd sitrons.r', It was obliously a dollcadle, one that ri.n n$.bnants of Viminaciumwere able ro buy lbr$enchildnn.

Eocala'lBnN lcrpaxuBabnM. per

osaEa le ca!!o le)rHa nrpaqxa oa Kocro.

oJe (peDeraq ra PacManaBe R.lr cc cacro-

h oa rouraHt rx u t rnxr | , ,p t i rb rqrcaHrx@ca. tlqole fiocr ff oPaHa cJ ykpueHe

ndsoMHN rP{dFHrNa ' ocn r ieaHo ce

r{troRpesertrhi r ilrr' .Jk:B !t Foturtr@FoBHnqr Br { t rHaur jJMr ru rn r r

,rr{tsxltsd hr Fjtroido{, $ni, , Hu! c l

, d r r J n p n n L a l u lra roi*rutE Bbui,u!\fL ( ri 4):) I Hr

tffli,r, r *p,:,

s crpM4rdi. Pi! sojob?tslor \!rji ,1. Ho .4

!.c!{{h.36rcA rrkotrorror r.r!D!uio a' ruaHr nnFx{M$! R{vurqni& (F?7 rer). i H!poarl ryri no^4u!u r3e6 rr,6. rloxiplm( r4x.

107

Page 105: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

jn - , r ' .0, , t , BrNrHc r , , j lMc, 1rcana, Hnjc norDpbeHa panooHrua oa{na. Ha6eHo ntrrolasc ym3yjc ucroru 6poj 6d-ca aP4yMn yje,lHaceHo.noDpr{Hco Hana3r crr(neHe Jfylenp!.ycrDo ayBala craffa je npernooaBrbeH. sa ocHouy aHarrcc ry6a ca pc.-ndpoDaHoii npodedJoH,rHoM a6pasqoN'.riHajcnaxHnje aonpMarrBHe rpfyMeHre y roMc xcny np€IcraBrajy !3y3crno no.onltreonorn ycno!, Ha lxoj u rlxlol repuropnjo BnMmaqrjyi'a, uro je nolerKoM xxEe(d. pe3yrrupaio oruaparLcN Qaop{RccraMa y Kocfontly.{L feororn(y ocHoBt yxerepnropnje {uHe nec(oBrrn u urbyH(oB,trrceArMcnrn npoccsnc nc6ronc 5.20 M, aox/le0j6nra aryBslaiHnxu6yHk y !o,uHdr. Miale n IIyH.Ba ,3Hocuo! 10'40 M. Ilrpa rcparopnja BrMrralujyMapncronaxe n3FerHrM MrHepainrM .npoBr-HaNa H€onxond, ia craMapc{y xtsnycrpujy.v o(oinsr Kpetro,crHa cy perucrpoBaHarexnrra xBapuoor nec(a Bpio qo6por{Farrrera ca caapxajcM cuirqnjyMa npc(o

To(ov apxeoiouMx ucrpax,Br6atsabeHo je npcrc 2000 crahcnlx nocyna,y.naBHoi! y rpoarouuMa i xprBeHtM no

3acrtnrcn! cy cB! rlnoD! (croHonocybe- rocrbe 3a lM6aiaxy r (o3Mcrrqxo

QapNarreyrc(e !penaparel. kapaKlepBc'r

! M l r r . r J p u d ( r u i , { i p . u ! . i ! L4 i . i r ! . | . \ q i .

!rKo.hnir rN70 i,ro. \olorydrj.L

:/he exkrence ofa elas mkine workshop hls not been connmed by archaeologicalrescarch so far'lhe appeamnce of a larye numberolungucnlariums similar in quality. as ivcll as bysurface finds olglas sl.g sugge{s there wasone.Numerous finds of teelh rvith proressional lbrasion should sccm to indicare the prcsence ofClas blovcs 1 Thc $ronecsl areuncnh nr thnrespect lre the exceptionally faroumble geological condilions in thc closer and wider irround-ings ol vininaciun. shich rcsultcd in thc opcn'ingofa gl.ss factory in Koslol!c !t rhe beginnineof thc 20s ccntury rr The seolosical bise of thecloser mvirons ol vininactun is conprhed ofsandy lnd grarelly sedinenLs 5 20 nctcs thickon lhe avemae, whereas in the ralleys of theMlava a.d thc Danubc they Each 30-10 netrcs.The wider lernory ofvininacium h rich ir highqualiry minerals, essenlial in the product,on ofgla$ Dcposns of quanz sand of exceplionalqudhy conta:ning olci 90% ol siliciun halcbeeD detected near Krepoljin r:

Orer 2000 glass vesseh werc found duFins archacolo8ical rcscarch, nostly nr srares ando. lhesarilicial surf3ccs ab.vc thcm.

All types ofvessels chlBcrerisric of rhewidcr tcritory ofthe nnpne are prcsenl (table-ware, paclaeing and cosnctic/phamaccuticalreceptaclet. The re$els weE made by casling,prc$ins. mould-bloNins and fi ee-blowing.

Fmm thc lnlo thc4', ccntury thc.umbcrof glas$ lesieh vaned and lhen ,.llux R.s a

v I M \ u , i . c r r , , i p u ! ! , N i , r ! i i r ! , , i ? l$ r ! i \ r r n J o r , . \ 4 ,

' lL d:n^ri. oii irri o.q) r (olmrr. !r\rLN^.1!M

! d o f r d , ! . Y n e i r K .

108

Page 106: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

lnn ra u0piJkr '.fnropnjr url)ori ll..Jr.

c t l r p rbcnc r rDeBen n l [ c .DarLcN. n \ t s rH . !

t xa{0 r .r.4.!0rM |!tsx3,.!.!rdr-,1 r.ir.cr c1rtr reH' 1 n.crnn o;r I

lV tse{! Baprpn r dr\o8 nP0rr | 'ritrxxxD.

nnoprj.Ko-norrr,, Kr .dr!.uxrr_. o;rtrt'!rkr

. r cneH l t i i a rn r rq ' r c d vKay ! .Ho . r i I

an fncKy ' r ,Dn in raun j r . c . r . l c c r r (neH '

x . r l t j a i I B t tu NaroaPo l rH ! . n t roc r n i(mHrjd n.Proqr. tBJr 0tc!.riD6r nrx.!r ir

BnacrlrrBo nfBr\ locen'e{rKi nPxn.lHr kx

EorHof r r|Mtr3r.rFarrli(' x ',Fax Lrrr

rcllcdrni ol lhc hiioricrl d loLr!.aL irtrxh0n.i . . o l l c \ c l i o l u i raD lz r i on dJ l .+n rg xb rc rs l. fC l x * i c r l . r 1 r !La t i on . l h i s t r r ! h .Y L i r . o t r ' - rg l ! $d r . r c i i x l i s ! . r r cc r r , r ' . d ro r re r l r f o rois. ri il \.s x hr\ury r hcnni.lcd r. rli. lirnrolonln. thc tr,. bcrsofrlr. nrihtrr! dl iddrtr-isrrxrn. rf0x.rt6. cl.* !trj..tr nnrcr trr \!nii,ir.nm by .\c. l,.Dr AqriLcir. rht hig!.ntrdtr,g Nn loi Sy.irn rod \I.\indrLrn ! x\! \

u! nI(Lt b) cssinS if r nfrLd. ulng i 1..hilqu. rhxr rnntxtcd dxttrrl i.n.. th. \,!.ll.rlrgxr. -rlx* (fgrro 391 trcloDgi ro ihrt nLnul!c

Page 107: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

9a CnaKrdt nt !r., t-tt @KGks tccePbcter, Frzr ce,hry

Page 108: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

reHa po6r Je lrcrHtrN k'\,yHrKnurtaNn. rrA$xlcjc. (ojaje.rna H.iEel,r nocpcxnn( racrpxjc(o n are(caHspnjc(o crano. no.pcMea !o BnvnraqijtMa. loM t.nn.r0!k.nxpy.y nPuraxr (prtf plbeH npecoBrBeM yxdyny. yrexHr4 Kojr nonPaxaBa npnpoxnrmnei.Bu. a\ar-crano (cr. lr9). Ha(oH.rrfr@saur te ! , ' f i Le I I l x I t r " r . Kpr jeN I r

Mnopr nr !rar.cxo ran.ox n rcrocnovcErr.parcxrx pr

a!oHru.. To c! nocyne a.nr01 h cHixHnx6ota ko rru c!: ytHr on t!tx') nirrcr cmKra. 6oua xoourHo rirBe 6ote ! (p!rr oxraOfdr xrro. craxra (cr.90). ox cpcsnrc Ilao cpe,rxHc III scKa 6pojriocr craKreHornocyra ce Ha,trooorHor utBaEa oMoryliaBa nolaul nornlnoHoBrx cropir. llapocrry nonyapnocr crucc

rurDg.ir.lc AIi$g.r.htuonr xnd r mrrket ha{lb.c. cnlbhnred ar rlre eod of ihe Li and ar rhcboginn,ng of dre 2i centu( importarion iionirllloGlllic .nd L!$crn Nlcdircmnc.n lrorkshops bcg3n. Ihcs. \rcre re\seLs ryam rnd brightin (nour such rs r um of bight blue glass. acobalt blue bortle and a saffron-yc1lo$ glx$.jLLg(fisurc 90). l;ron thc nrid 2r l. rbe did:r, ccntury tlr. mnber.lghrs !essels increased sharplyind rhe rechn,que offree-bLowiDg madc n possi-ble for compLctcly nc$ inans t. b. inrodu.edColourlcs or discolorrcd glfs bc.dnre e\rucialLy popular Fan tion llxkr Gxlhc glas{are, drpioduce ol C.loAnd Rhrne lorkshops \tas .Lsonnpor ted , snnnhaneous ly rn [ r [c innur . leoods |Iom \4cdilcrmncrn ccntres, rstecrlll]lrod CylrrLs Thc morr nunrerous rere toiletllr\k\ (,,,s/e,rd,t,,iJ) used lor norinE cosmctic

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112

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fierriorts. rc(.i.prcano c Kio. Ocx\ nrrrcKo. .a rcKo, . ! t s . i0 . . fo6a nr (c rn . (o - tx nc(n\ parnoH Ln ,rPUrents. .r ofrnrrio!pooe nr vcnrreprHc( r ueHrrPr. H.foi i'r)(xnpr H,j6f. nntc .y rorrcrsc aoloucoarcavrprl!!n x.lc ct .i!xrn. ra crBarl.

d r rpNILB! r .k , , \ ' t re hpr txCraKneHe nocyqc ! odrn(! .rnrr3oBrxo.trrrtle. re! !trr,! .t).hy ct roKo

n\xcfnenroJao! l . l \ r Bekr . n tc ' , i c r r ts 5 r ce ] l r cymr_annc rn nP.! 'ro Jor0pribc lcrHocrr )4apNiruj', rrn (olicrrun.lLn\ou! no aBa !aec j rN rponot rnMx BnNnr r ru lyMx. l rcakrlenrrlj. crlPo urujLehe nn q (ot,n' nsHe

f retoonJ- JIJ Jv ucKa loc..urra j.rexHonoukr rpenocr.lnxo |r rronrr,' Io (!nMlHau{jc .rakrapckc B.rrnnc. nopcx Behn. r ,a rm, in r t ru . n . jaBr , t l r . . n n . r r . raovrnlpa x\ropr r, (entsrKo PrjtsLKs\ nqpfl.vopcK!\ P!nnoHru.. rrprncnHo caroxr,ts.v oporynuJoN (ota rooj DpxlH.Lr ,loMrHdrtse 60l. { r.ncno

na. Lle.rc N 60rrc caxc(cr.orarH!!! Peunnnjer rov !Kpd0reH0M Ro. rN (a !cn t faNa IKo$cu nex.pr. Hqreulie r_KPrueHr ao6xuarn or nnaDo. crana. noj.

6nrRa (cr. ea).a nllctrHo te rorrP.xrBnH,c cMprjs\ Re|n

rpopMr lKaHr.poc o!sdno Nernerd nana).\'

Octrr ,kr.!)ri. .r crlkfu .! MlcouHoxspabrBann nPoropcKonaPol o t III lv Bc(t 3pcrocr roklHecraMapc(e prruoH0rre norstb t 6tojrcFMe n kveje o! cr.M4e rncre. JlrEee cry(aiyny cccro no FoP! n! loDarr.ra(ona c!.rcxErltrBo. .n!xrr. y nornrrc(o npona

.rd Dhon ceuticrl srbia0ccs. Birds of !lx5sl,'Jlri) s'fc pr.s.m o\.r x loDe.r pcrod llonltl,J l! .l , le.rurt Th.! rr. b.L1c\.d 1o h .rendd turprccise dosrge ol liqur( in phlnnrcyrDd corn.rics. lhcn xppcamnce iD chiklren\sr.r.s iI Viinniacntrn lcnds Dc\! cr'rcn.y lo drcrld thcory- tlul thc)_ origbr hrye bedn u\ed ln.

lJr rhc Nriod lio,. llic l. 1,, ccntrq. inrgc .L tdlhooLogi.rl rnntrdrl xr\ rcrchcd. !)nrr[h.r. rrs x crhniolior in ll.sinakir! sk]llroo. Nc\r toNs appcijrd aiotresidc lh. .lrc.dyknoNi.rcs hd iinNrarion lnrdait.gnc Rhnr.ud Rlrrk sd! [o,kshop! fredonrnaled, parrllelro loc.L DroductioD. \thich r.s aho reaching hr0.xk. Th. lrr.!dlliig .olous $.r. bluish g'.cn.olile greenud.ross sreen Bolnes Nrh he\agoDaLbodics dc..rarcd $nh diasonal bsand.oni-cxl bcrkors. d.{l} de.o.ardd rvilb dots ol bhLcglN! rere the rnostfrequent. Ceirr. \esselr halve,r- nender.nd elegantconlour (frgure 9J) andscE niodcLlcd otr oLdcf ccmmic aDd mctaL lnrnr.nL.h A d hghl.ln. gr.cn gla$ ltdth&N s'

Aprd fronr rnrklog receplacles, ghss tra5aLso ridcLy rscd ni niaknie \rindo\rpancs .ndj.\r.Ll.ry, cst..idlly Li rh. 3! 4r c.itrlcs Th.nrltuity olrhe local glrssnukifg !orksl{p5 i5conlimcd by a Larec nrmbcf ofglas pastc scms,nd cdDeo\ Thry rrn crs i,r ,norlds rnd lr.rcoire. rn.delled on c.in\. !, thar rhen exclusrepurpose was poliical propagandr

N i a l o r d r r r f N { r u t r

r l a P $ ! ( r n ] r n I . i i r i i

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: i r ( ^F* " " " ca r t r r ! , r rs rpaBeMpoMaHnaqnje , !p6aHBaqnje, Ha rep'rop'j'BlMnraqojyMa ce nojaB$yjy npBa c(yinropc(a a€ra MarLlx !{Ncnr!a x }TiaDEoM pei!-ruo3Ho. Rapamepa. XpoHoronm rAcHr{-

Onkunja noM3yje ua ce (pljeM I ueenojauB e crrHa 6poH3aHa nraoxk, a nojammMeHe c{yrmtpc y.rcarnc rrcrm mc!4e,y npBnM leueHrtaMa II u, Panu ce o rMnoPryn3 Del1lx tMerH!!rux ueHrapa UapcrB.(xraruj€. naHoHuj€. rpa(rjc), BncoKoryMerHllKor $anurera (oju ce crnnc(rBeryjc aa .pcry cxyrnrypy lv B.n.H.e. l,by3erHoren pnMco paa 13 ror ncproua npcncraD.BadEua AnonoHa (urn BeHep€). rcja je pabcHa

Y3oPY (cuKa 96).sKyirfla cqinrypa 6c ncof,m.lur.rnqxeo,Un(e salpxar! u ro(oLr II r III B.

Ha{oH ocHn!.b. MydrunnnjyMa (117...). y nocrcErloj oal! poi'a'reaq'je. nMa3nao npeBrarrlBaEa pnMc(o. (yiryp8o. Moac-na y cBnM o6nacruM. yMerHla{or oMpaiaurBa. E(creprjepn yp6aHrx npocropa(rproDa. rcpM!. jaBHnx ! npxpaMoua r rc.) ce onreveBvjy voHrrrcHrd-8oM cKyinryPoM (oja, ocrr enoirrncrc-npona.aHnEy QtHKroly y u!$yadopMa\rje Bern{e r NohH€ r4Nncpltc. HajaBllM MecrlMa ce nolaa!,aaly cr!rye uMneparopa, yrncAnnx mclocrn r 6o.oBa. a np,BarHa o ooxqrlema raaBa ce y$auanajy(ynrHoM { oPoqaHoi! oiac (ov cpelBer+opMara (ao n 6pojHrM pe,aeOnMa.

& q .ri!$r \( r lmrp ! r p6 , t ,Np,! trd! r- r6,p,c Hrpua, u drnjd ) nuifsul

Jinultaneously ro intensined Rona-nizalion and urbanization, $e ti^t smallersculptural pieces- nostly religious in chaEcter, $!nedappearins in lhe terilory of Vininaciun.chionological idcntincadon shows rhat smatlbronze plasric arl appea€d at the end ol the licentury. while slone sculpluE Nas soon to folloqappcarin8durins the nrsl decades ofthe 2-rc€n-tnry It Ms mo$ly inponcd from thc lorgcr anscentres of the Enpne (lt!ly. lannonia, ThBct,and was of a nigh anistic qualiry, shich was srylisrically relaled 1o Gieek sculprure ollhe 4i century B.C The head ofApollo (or Venut. whichdraws upon a llellenistic nodel. is a pafiicularlyfinc-looking cx.mplc of Roman scnlpturc of lhcpenod (figure 96),rr Religious sculprure kepl ilsNeocla$ical tFils duins the 2tu and 3dcenturies

Aner$e nunicipiun was fonnded (in lheyear ll7), dunne lbe lasi slase ofRomanizalion.tnc Roman cultural nodcl stancd prcv.iling i. allareas ofadnric creation. The apteannce ol urbanspaces Gqudes, public baths, public and privatebuildinss. temples elc.) w6 ericbed wilh noru-ncnlal $ulptmi which, aparr lrom naling anaestheric funclio., also had apoliticrl and popaganda tunclion, anning !t sfiimins the ideaofagrcal and povcrirl Enpire. Slatucs of cmpco6,disringuished cni4ns and ddities {ere displayedin public places. rvheEas pnvate lnd public edificcs wcrc dccorarcd with niddlc{izcd rclieionsand se.ularplaslic ad. as well rs wnh nunerousreliefs. P.ivate portraits from Vminaciuh are nol

s ]l co.jourh. A. U.N?ronh (yan{oB,f. PstrkqrnrDa y.P6r,jri

dr <j, I nu* p4(1.

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l l p r0arur ro r per r ! r l l rNnr r r t i j r rNr .tv l r tu ' ,o JocuaurLnM 8anar t r^ i r . Hrcy . ra .pxj0 oq (P{a Il D. tlniHPe;(r nPr\.FxKotr cc crnir(r r .l!l!.rro u.!. rnLrapnq. I l ra la l (194 217. . .1 rnx J rnrq tnavr f ( l l r 222. . I . ra lcn r . v . rn ! r le ro iBepoDrrHo cc pan| o.1rrr-tr I 0nn nonf.tvl(o a cc 0anxr0nr v c r io0 t . l r c f r . t [ re rentosrDr re{r'reHurtc.r l1r o..ielse +rn,,epro;rn Bolflc xral)\xt.. ,o rire ficpMcpirlnoprpcr K3t, (r Nl. plheH I narotnt.nsoi

t . r 0c rx l^o .cLrnr ro . rccucpn aucx . e , ( ) \e . !3 na

old.r thxn the Lre lr .cDlurr jLLJsing by prr\ iou\ lnxliirls Ar c\c.trnruL piecc. syiini.rll)rod torn.ll! x\iiciri.{l \ith lnrt..$ PlrulllLi(y .a rs 196 l L l ) o r lu l l r P . r l . ( ! c !^ l l8 l2 t ){as l rLnJ ,n l l re r i l l a !co lP . lkx u r l r r r ras p rcbrh ly n narue lo f bNr ) rh ich \ r r p . r lo l i rc - [erior ola pri\!1. resnlence..J A rn.rbl. tonrrii ofCarus( l igurc8 l .scu lp t .dn ia ld rgBFlh in l i f cs iz .\rilh cldnenrs ol r|c r.rh{rc st!|. of drc t.iSe!eriaD cp.clr, \rrrlr lftces ofrIc kiIt]] ol lincrrrly and ryli/nrion LVhich $.r. rr trevrrl in rhe,1 l..nllr.v. dI.s tiom lbc ladfbr!e ofthc pcrlod.l'

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.oBeoraje ,ldeaPHoq. n ourcaqqc rclahe npeoBranam y lV D.36

Y Iv Bexy y BrNrraqrjyLry 6opaBescrno yMerHnuni d,mpu n c(ynnrop{ Kojncy 3a co6oM ocraDuu JH.lajHa srxapcm uckyrnropcka Ieia, npnra.oreyKycy oopa3oBaHo. ooja BnMuqauujyycKeaprmo(parrje. ckyrnryPa xepryr caTereooM, 13 upBrx neqeHnja lv u.. pabeHa oa(Ba&rerHo. yepMePa. noccayje uucoKy seraHu,jy.a Ha ocmuy cm,c{ur {apanepndn-xa rrnrcrrx 3a rpq(y c(ynorypy IV D.n.n.e.jHaj6inxa je .nrcnnoBoM op!runaiy.$

CyAebn tro AocaAaDBrM Haia3lnac{ynnryPa y BrN'{HaqrjtMr, QopNopaBcc(yrnroPc(or lrerea ce Noxe onpcacrnrr ynode!6e leueHrje lI B. KaMexote3a!(o {ne,capcKa paE'osnqa (oja je n3par'Baraxprnetsr(ej 34rrpo6Hecaprooare,je oopMrpana paF F. noaerKoMIl BeKa. I6eHa perarruHo paFa nposyKurjajeno.lcla nocrearrra HoDu o6lqaja caxpaBnBaEa (oje Je ar(rlPano aoceBedo

BrMrHaqrjw je trpeloaBBao jeaaH oaEaJBenn nMeHoP*acrc-c(yrnropc@x uerrapa y ropboj M*njr. tI3 BxMxraq,jyManorrce foroDo 50% cBqx ckynmypa ropEcM*!je, Mo r DenuRr 6poj peBe+a n qirnnx r(oHa.88 OcnM roraj o(o 50 or(pmeHurcap(oda.ai 6pojHr aaurlo6rr n enrrpaoc{ncnoMea,qr HecyMBlB .y ao(a3 6o.are npo-nyr-q4e 6c.oDrx panqoHnqa n yMernrq(erHrqxjarrDe EoMrHaqnjyMc(lx Majcropa s

Du ng thc 46 cenrury grca1 arrhrs,painlcB and scduo6, resided in Vminaciunwhi ch leli beh ind sisni ficant pai ntings and sc ulp-lures in line rvith ihe sophisticared rasle of edu-caied Mminaciun aristocacy. The sculpturc ofHercules wilh Telephus lion lhe fist dccades ofthc 4r, century, made in qualiiy narble, boastsexquisile elesan.c and, in Lems of stylhtic chaFact€nsti.s typlcal of Cftek sculpturc of the 4rccntury 8.C., it is closesr to the onginal by

Judsin8 by prcvious sculptuE finds inMninaciun linds. n cd be estinatcd rhd asculptunl atelier exist€d in vininaciun durinslhe llsl decades of tnc 2i cenrury A s!trnena-son\ workshop, {hich prcduced saoilicialsto.es. emvestones and sarcophagi had beenfomed earlier ar thc beginning oftbe second ccntury tts rclatively early production ivas a logicalconsequonce oflhe new burial rradnions diclaledby the nqly setled populadon

Vini.acium was one oflh€ mosl imporlmt slondnsonry and sculptural centrs inUpper Moesia. Alnost s0% ol all Uppe. MoesiansculptuEs orisimtcd in viminaciun, as weu as alalge .mber of Eliefs and cult ico.s.tt Aplntion this, a.ound 50 discolered salcophasi,nuoerous gnvesro.es ahd epigFphic monDnents arc a conclusive prcof of tbc rich pioduc,tion of its Norlishops md of the anisdc ihitiatileof vininacium's cFiisnen.rv Marble and stonesteles feature numeoB decorative nolifs: toraland geomclricalj genie scenes, nttnologicalscencs and aninal friezes Tnc lonb stele ofaug$rar Laert6 and his vife Marcella,||ni.h.blsed on its iconographic characlerhtics, is esli

r fD r \.p'rru r.reii\, cru

B B { M N € $ j $ o j ! ' r i t r D o r

{oMon M rorostrh. nplnor nornBiB\;-r$icitrr

rActrM r 5.3PHM. n;^aoiotrtr r^, !u 3!:rt. c K c i m F 4 o ! ! n u M , r ; & , \ c n r o r r n r L n ! o .

$ v;i &i0 {!id!& {6 cennd b

Bssmuty i vrrrNAcrvM r.r. 3pHM. !oxao;!;!

1 1 3

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tt4r^bn!111 !dt6 tl luJ t(t lrt t 1,r t lrnn

Ha NepMepcnMnolaDE_vlt Pa3HoBpcH! ne(opaBercrabmHn n.eoMerpnjc(r. xaHP nPrcop!.clexe 13 M{roro.nJc r annNaror qPrcoB!.tbreraH uecal]cR. trierHsqRr pa,r npe,loaD6a na!.po6Ha crerr aBrycrrn.. irl,,,b,rr a ! rlc.oDc xcnc. ,v,,rAtue, Ka)a ccnpeMa nkoHorpa4c(nM (apakrcpu.rq(arla

maled lo hlve belonged to lhe penod of MlrcusAurelius (161-180) and Lucius Verus (161-169),h !n exquGite $ork of slonemasont art. fhestclc h archilc.lural in typc, rvnh carclirllyshaped lields- each of *hich cdries d,llirenlideal and religious conlent. sith rhe synrbolicco.tcnt of rhc lasl icld bcing dominant. Thcmolil oi a itmale rv.ll wnh lwins. nodelled in

Page 117: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

rt) | tp.i i/,t.tu ' (pr..tt, u n,pa

"! inu! nl l r t t ! tr ! t t l

onpener6r'je y ncpn.x Map(a Alpejrja (t6l180. , . ) ! . l rqn j i Bepa ( l6 t 169. . . ) ( : rena jeaPxnrcKroHcKo. rrna cn opnxr,uBo o6pabdnni 0oBnn on Kojlx j. c.Ko ddnrai(pa3h!!ro. rnejHo perr.no3Ho. caspxljN. ca!onrnrpalthoM cnL!6on{r(oM calpxrHo nocrenae. nora. npexcraDa tsyrrqc cj6r!3aflulMa pabeHa y knacruncrrc(ovmniy, norenqrpa truejt 6ccMprHocrn PrMn n'lapc(of ryma u y nornyfloj le crM6.rtrcKojxapMoH,jh ca npcsoaoori no(oFrft rcjr j€6to cBerrcqr(, ynpaBo ilapcKo. (}!Ia

the cla$icisr s1),1e. propagdies thc idea of 11[,nnronalny ofRomc andofthe nnterial cuhand6 in c.mplete syobolic hannony rvith thc depic-!.n of the dcceased. *ho sus a prie( of thc'nrpenal culr (fisuE 99).

lnporne sarcophaai were madc ol ,naFblc and oflocal $one (sandsk,ne and line$one)The engmvcd inrcriptions on rhesc yirne$ tlarwe,rthy Ronin citizcnsj no$ty colonists, tivedin Vnninacium 6on lhd 2iuril lhe end ollhe4*ccnnL+_ lnd tlrar s.rcophaens buNine was then.usurl burial rnual Vininacrum sarcophasi ca.genemlly be gaoupcd in|o rhrcc basic lypcs: rhe

t20

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nMnoaHrH! capxooar! on Mepvepa {noonHor kMena (nercapa, KpelBam) 'yMecaHn narnncn. cleao{e ua cy oa Il aopaja lv Be(a y B{MrnaqrjyMy xnBen!6ofau p!tr{cx! rpabaHr. nperexEo noccBeElqri (ojrvale caxpaBuBaBe y cap(ooarrMa 6no yo6{lajeHo no.pe6Hr prryan.BuMnHaurjyMco capxo4a3q ce, .eHepdno,Mo.y rPynncar! y rpr ocdoBHa rnna: BB.Ma,oa3!jcx, cap{odr., 6- lcKopamuHoxy(pacaj ca noMonqeM rcjr Hay.no!!Ma ri'anonl(pyxHe aporcprje: npyru rnn caapxtpeDeQst o6pany cadsyKa r noruonua.CasAt( je ca npeaBe crpatrc role6eE Ha 1!onoGa, oa Kolnx Je cpcaruB{arnnc. yo$rpeso onpebeHrM opraNeHrd

ccHe opde ceHara3e HUUe y xoj'M Nory 6trrn nPen-mDBeHtr reH'j'.noprPern noxojru(a. noje)rnHn nprMeprjr sano{rotrqy rvajy uMhaqnjy qoBa ca re.ymMa. O6a rona cy npollBoE BNrqaqnjyNcKepalfioHlqe, (ola Je (opncrlna noMiHtkireH m rerc. oa oarrrx6!

so-called Asia Minor sarcopbasus, sithour deco-rations. $iLh sdicircular acroteria at the conerohhe lidilhe othcrtypehasEliefon both tnc saicophaaus and lid. on the front sidc, the sarcophsgns is divided into dree liclds, of which theniddle one, intended for an insfiplion, is boFd€red by m ornancntal motil with nichcs to rheleftandro tne dghl, in whicb senii. nythologicalc[aracl6 or porrrans of thc deceased could bedepicted. Ceiain spccimens featue lhe innadonofa rcof with lil€s on tbe lid. Botb types weEnade in rhe Mninacium workshop, whicb usedlocat slone fton one oftbc nearby quari€s, prob-ably fton the Kucelo or Homolje rcsions. Inwortshops locarcd in these qumics. the saFcopna8' wcre given then basic shape only andwcrc thereupon finhhcd and deco;ted inviminaciun. Thc lhtd rype, tbe so-callcd sarcophaAus of Proconnesus with ganands wasnade of marble fron lhe hlond ol ?roconnesus

121

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BepoinrHo. tr3 06!acL" Ky{era n XoMoBa. vpan{ofl!qaMa. nPucaf xo4ar!va jc latrana caMo ooroBHa QoPMa.a re( y BrMrnalljyMy cv sc4lrnruBHoo6pabnBaHr x le{opncaH!. TFhn rnn, rB.npo(oHecKr crp(odr.r cn fnpn.ts,llv!rrpabcn jc ou McpNcpa ca ocrp8a npo(oHec(oolEo MapM!r4. o^aRrejc y rbopvr noi!-

+a6p,kra. H.KHaqHo r.tspureH. Mox^a Ipaauonnqava Tpaxoje. ua ry MoryhHoclyR3Jrje Qe^.raua Tpac(o. (orlan{xa na6ocHoj mpaHu, {oj.jacHo rcr "\e. ra TrrqaHempa(rcpxcrncHy n BaxHr. rrejr o xePo'vpa'oM noKojrnry (c1. 100).,)

(Mannan), fton Nhqc it *as cxponcd h lhclom ol semilinished producr. to be linishedaieNards, possibly in Thracla. vorkshops.whal seen6 to sugsesl thG po$ibility is$e motifof a Thracian hoNcmaD on rhe laleral surfacc.rvhich is a.leare{pressionolihc idea ollh. heroGn olthe deceased person, chlracrensic ofandnnporlant lo thc lhacians (nsure 100).q

The noncnasonry and sculpnml worksofvimlnacium aE not un,fom They lre chlEctcrizcd by the vaious lypes of stone lhey $eFnade ol as wcll as by lhcir craftsnanship and$ylishc chnrictnlr.s. wh,ch suggesl d,llerenlfiadilions- that is b sly work\hoD. V,ninrcium \

$i!0' i lo ap{oddr oy.rir lrri ! Nr 60[!u!' i lfsr(s oNor qD{odorNicrvM{.?PsM. n!^ip$u fa! n,. rr rlrr srn

i r r t u r t $ d u v d c r d P l n d ,&trii{ i,r-d'!r B rsnnn qrf.rrNlNAcnrl I i.

t22

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KaNe io tB i r {Lo .K r ro r . f . r

i 0 r x r rBtrwtsrll'iylr Hn.r ir ur rirrr. kilixr.plue r\ l)arnor0rlrf, r t abo rn . kN n r r r r r . r { i ! ! . r r t r i r . I

c r t r i . xc K rn r r i l , t r rn r { t i f , r i . l r x r v l r r rpa r{rrc rPnnn (L,tr " rririu J){rr.iunlrX . r cpo ie rLoc r snux i r i o i r 1 ! . t r r r v , , t , x ( l lcKe r r t vK ryFe ! . ros rn r i ! n . r rDv cK l rn i lP .n Kn r r ro f - r ' r ( , , r r ! r r . t , ! ( o f rL ! r ( rL \ .op ! j eHm! t r0 \ r ! i , 1 f r i , ( r r \ . 1 i ^ i r . r 3x I

r ro ja F r $ t rNx . . tP .nn r r i l 01 r r . x t r .xenetrrcr rro t)!(! r !xr..rnlcxn v]!url!.Ko j r rLo (a r ) ' j v ro r rn , , ( ' \ r , ! n r t \ . r . - . r \

0nDo i r t r o I n r f r ( r t \

! l . i r g rq rn ! h . r . r , g ro . i L ! r xL r .L l t h . p , r i . L r .o l s . rLdu r . rDd n l r . n ln n nn r l \ , l . oL r t r i g(n1 ( i R .dm. ( ) i .D l . l o r l h r r r r r ! l . l r . s r i dh . r , r \ Th .v ro fbn r l l r l | ( n . . L r l l . L l : r i i L .i n l i l l L ! f . r \ h r rn A {x \ lN ) r : \ L , r r l , i i I r r t ! , 1ol l! crnr.. rid r -!r.rl ic.dnn rl nll. rnJk l r x \ . . t ! . i x !L r t r i 1 l i . 0 . r . do l1h . I ' l . . nG

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_yenaH on HajpaBrjem rnara tl'Mrlilujrje Kepa ncapcKn. fbc.ou rsreH3nDao pa3Bot n (oHrrHvrpaH! trpo{rBolbroMo.yhnit cy B!3erHo IoDoDfln rpuPoaHn teKoHoMc(, ycnoBn:6orarcrBo uy oM. 6rr3!ra DoAc. niouHrpccHu ro(oBn s csaxH! rpn,l{unt. (e

DaMxqapcxo. ratsar.. y nolerHoM neplontp.Mc(e cra6!'oauqe n opraor3auxjc, (epaMrcaP.{a npomDo^Ba .e ondBj. y o$!pynocrojehnx KacHorareHcnx KePawqapcoxPas!oHrua. ILn{otra nocrcncHa otrasn3!qrona n rcxuonoum rpaHcaopna(BJ. ycneArhe HarcH ,r.irck! prMc{trx Kepdrcapa !opf .Hnro!.Ho. runoPra Koln Je npcacrauraonplnapEr xpcarnDn! nNnyrc 3a ,toMa6y npo

t7)i-l utrcrJ rere one of rhe bcst dcvc opcd

cEns in Vnninacium. lls intcnsivo developnentand conhnuous produclon were tossible becauseof cxtrcmcly hvourible nltuBl and economicco.dnions: the qualily of clay dcposils, latgefoEsts, lhe p'oxiniq of iratcr. navigable nve^and a strong potlery lradnion Dunns the initislpciiod ofRotoa. subilization nnd olsanizatio.,ponery production wenl on Nithi. thc exisringLatc La Tinc potlcry workshops. Then gndualore,nirarnrnal lnd ieclrnological lmnsforn.lionhappened afte.lhc anilalofRonan p.ue^ indaftcr o4xnizcd inporlali.n beg.n, *hich actedas lhc pnmary crcarive inrpuhe for donrestic prc-duction. It vas edched vnh Roman forms anddecomtive nolifs with significa.t indigenous

r24

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nyqqjy. om ce 060rhlj€ rnMcruM +opvaMa ! scKoPnrrBHr! N.LxBrva. y3 occraHyruqaj loMoPosne rpanru4e. rrra re snrarsocrcflixHa rorc l ! ll Bexa.

OcHrBa6e trJuornuc, no(arHe rep!d.drrcBuM!HaqulM Nl.tryr.perarrsnopaHo. y aftroi qcrBprnsu ll Dexa. N.xe cc

influenc€s. !er! \na1 dtring thc li and 2^ cen-turies. The lirunding .l a local lcm sigilLat.workshop of Vlminrciuto Mrrgun rclartuclyearly or, in the second qurner of(he 2i cenlurlcan be.onridcrcd as a conscqrence ofthe settlenicnr of Roman pouc(, bur rh. lxiecl! as a rcsultof lone-la$ing ceft Inlc extericnce

r25

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${arParr nodel{uoM [email protected] prMcktrrMajcropa, an! y B{rxoj Mepr r psyn.aroMayxer (epaMnlaPcrcf lcxyoBa.

3aurrrEnM apxeorou{! ncrpaxrDa6nNa na npocropy jyxHrx oc$ononrorKprBeno jc 1.1 rcpadncapcox nehn. yo(Bnpy .tHrapc{o q!.rap.(or ueHrpa .ano$,BeHnN rPeMoM 3a cyreBe nponrBornjnoPaxelc cy 4 (epaNGap.(c reh{. Ke-PaN{cru npo)rykuuja e ny.o o^Bnja,a.roxoNrr n rr 3eKa, uro trorupbyjy Haa3nrrBaBa

OcnN.cnepdHe noaeie mry(cy3dy !cBaxoancBHy ((yx!Bc(y) (epaMnKyj rcpa,v'qu Marepujan e. npeva pcrrncMM Kapa(rcpnorRaMaj Moxc norenur! Ha: rcPaMr(y ca n3paxennM ayroxroHnNMpaxreprcrukMaj lMnoprj io{anEy repacrr{rary u pnMc(y trpoBnHqrjcKy (epaMn{y.

Yrnqaj crapnje, Eapocrro nareHc(c(ePaMlqapc(e oponyKrujcj npar! ce mxo(oa nocyla pabeH{xpyxoM raKo { (oa nocyAa pabeHn sa Bm!y, Py(oN pabeHe nocyne(ioHq! M maorurM opsaMeHroM (ao 'laqxc ro6el, cpehy ce 3ajefto a rmopronasoM r npoDrsqrjc<oM eepaNKoM tl Be(a.,]

Hajcrapntr Mopr cc Belyje 3a @Be-plorrdc(e parrornqe repa c!rurarc taaryle ce KpajeM I n. To cy dajeerhc aaere caaDtrltrpadrM ypacoM tr necarcM Ha IHy yunAy ?ra,ra p.i/ir (o. l03).q Ha reprroprj!BrNnaaqrjyMa, nMnopra rc jyxHo.ancrux

PaE'osn{a .oroBo na reMa. no( je rcrm6poj{ojr Mareprjai x3 cpeaBoranc(,xpaanoHrua. Haj{HremrDdrjr {Mropr cc6uex' y nosesboj qerBp$Hn ll !o (PajanpBe eedpraEe lII ue(a. npn,lBoN po6e n3

paAroHnrra (IajHqa6epH !

Potlery sas onc ol dre best dcvcloFdcrani in Vnninacium. IlJ nxensilc dclelopmenland conlinuous poduction *as possible becauscof cxtrcnely favourablc .atural and econoniccondirnJn\: the qualiry or clay depositsj larsefore(s, dre proxinity or waler, nalieable rive6and a $rong pouery tEdition. During rbe innialpcriod ol Roman stabilizalion and organi2alion,potrery prcdnction went on within rhe existinsLate latcnc potlery workshops. Their sradnalorsanizatio.al and tecbnological rransfom.tionhappcned dfter lh€ aftilal ofRoman pottc^ andater orsanized inpodation besan. which acledas the prinary feative impukc for domestic produchon. ll is enriched with Roman foms anddccomLive motifs ilirh sisnificant indigenousinfluences. vcry vnd dunng tnc lsl lnd 2tu ccn-tuncs. Ihe foundina ol a local tem sigillatawoikshop of Viminacjum-Margnm rehlivelyea.ly on, in the second quartcr ofde 2nI cenrurycm be considered da conseqnen ce of lh€ scntencnr ofRoman potresj bur aho lasely as a resultollonslaslingc€ranic experiencc.

Founeen pottery kilns vere dhcolercdduihg polectjve dchacological excavations inthe t\ritory of thc sou$em necrcpolises. Fourkilns wer€ exanindd on the sitc of a pottery andbick naking centre with a covred prcducenry-ine porch. Potr€ry production contihned over along period. during rhe 2M fld third centuies,which is confimed by the fact thaL kitns werercconstrucled and expandcd.qr

Aside fton thc Cme6l divnion ol cere,1cs into luxury canbenware and carlhenrvarc fordaily usagc Gnchen ea'tlcnwde)] according toihetr cransmanship and slylilic characteristics.ccranic objects can be divided into: pronounced-ly autochtnonous ce.amics, imponed c€ramics,local tem sigillata dd Ronan provincial cerm

The influence or older, particnlarly ldru,€, ceramic production is visible both in band

B{v!ctujtry. caonumEAq! .trrtrh. n!4rc! DowaiBy

ssoqa[Nn. 4 4]:

r ! ! r 4 , , d 6 r m r i r B 6 n D j ! ! H ! 4 f , o

Page 124: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

BecrepHropd). Koja je ,qyH.BoM rorpeMaHnao BrirHi,rnjrvco{ nrjaqa (cn. 10.11 co61!poN Ha rlo6pc .,o6pahajlr. uoc t oP.a.!u3oD3Ho rpNB'trrdi RhnHargjrM je 6norajlehn sncrpn6yrrroHn ueHr.p rc1o,rHo.a,c(n npo{38osa ra no.oPc n lacesa nlxlyHaBa ! ylHyrpirrs..rn Nle3rj.

Tcpa c r runar . noc lne . * , lpBeHoNnpeB'aroM n pc.LcQulv.wM yqacoM, he..ojdM rrnounMa r uapljan.raM! 3uc!a, rrbnpa H rexltr lrr\jrr H,roKMHy nFor3BorBy Koj. xvrrHpa repr cx

npoH3Bo)r$a roKarn. rcpa c!.nrare,paaronrqe BrvxHdrdjyM Niapry . noftfbcm je mrann npeKo 1000 nocyua ko BBerr0M 6Fjev turYna. lrcrrn Paano-srqruleHrante 6xorounpar y ilrnrnM Pc(c

a.d rhedl fursed yessels. Hdnrl tu,led lessels(pos wnh pLi$ic omimenc as rvell is Daciancups) afc sccn alonesidc imported and pnvincl!lcdrnlcs oflhc 2i ccnnLry'r

The oldest inrpod\ ato believed r. havcconc from Nonh lhlic tem sigillata workshopsand arc dalcd lo thc cnd ofthc l$ ccnlxn lheselcre tu^rly b.$ls wnh rdded decorarions.nd ap/d,,, rc.lis slraped mark !t rhe bott)m (ligure103) , rThcrc {c rca l . ros tno impons l ronrSouthc,llic workshons thc tcritory olvimira.iLm.rvhile mrrcnrl lion Middld Gxlli. \rorkshoFs s

erI.irc!6 nrFf trrorlrr!! prnrl i!crepr(,

Birit i !n,vioflaii $f, in rtudq{!idi rsn \ |i d! uli$!rnqlr Bnig i $r. ir, L ' nr{hL} ! rrr

t21

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Mraue, Ha, ro (ar r re ry , ,P tn !He, H. nep-{QeP'!r M}Hu\nnaiHor Hacerba. Bc.oBarPouyRqrla ce nparq on BpeueHa xaaprjaHa(ln r.), no (paja rr BeKa, ca BpxyHqeirnporBon6c n e(cnopra o(o cpeanH€ ll Bcxa.IIpon]BoAr panronrqe BnMllaqrjyMMapryM cy eKc'oproBairi y namF jy.IIoEyMeljy { Aaujy. ilaKo ioxarHa rlpa c'.'-

uynoproDaHoMj B"r{na!'l!ric(e vajmofeolrrxyre rcunnm n uHBeErxBHocr IyRpauaBa6y. Peneproap yQa.Hur 6!.!pa tuor{Da qnHr vKynHo 290 pa3nrarrnx crMrtoia. xojr ce JaBBaty y Benn(oM 6poly (ov6!

],la(o 3H.rHo pcbr, HaiaI .iebocaHrx i,ocyna. jcarscBeHoM crrrcro!opmrrcaqljoN opHaMeHra. yxaryjy ka npo-ay{rrrijy DlMnHr'ujyMcrc palroHrrre.HajoplrrnarHxjr rponrBo! oue paqno!'qcnPeloaBBa peBeQoo y(pa'xeHa rnctocaHanocyaa, LrencrApa BoaeH!BoIe , xoja F narrBasa v npuy nonoBnHy IIBeKa. Ha Ary .ocyle rara3r ce BuDe Nrdnx

sonrewhal more liequent. lnportltion *as ar rsmost i.re.sive from thc l,sr quarter ot rhe 2irccntury unril rhe cnd olrhe fi6t qu.ncr of the 3iceilury dunne the influx ofproduce fioD Ea$Callic workshors (zureinzabefr lnd wcslemdoo, which wls shippcd imo Mmnucium maFkcts by rhe Danubc (ligure 104). ln vierv oftncgood communicarions and ir organized narket,Vnni.aciln was the biggesr distibutional centreofEa{Clllic prcduce lnr camps xnd sentemensal.ns the Danubc and in Mocsian hreior

Tnc vanety lnd typcs of lena sigitlrtavesch (b.wls. plates and be,kes) *ith ftd coat-rg and Elief (i.c. inpressed) dccoritjon innuenced the lo.ar oduction. which the iniraled

The 6nds ofover 1000 lcssek and a largenunber or noulds confim thc produclion oflhelocal tcra sisillata workshop vininaciun-Margun. A laBc cnts cenre was locdted in tncrlcinny of thc river Mlava, at the site of''Rudine', o. the outsknrs ofthenunicipat sculement. lts production can he fouowcd lron thetine orHadrian (thc year I l7) until the end ofthc2n century, sith production and exportationreacning thct pelk nr thc nid 2d ccntury. TbeprodDce or the Vininacium Margum worksnopwas exporled lo Pannouia, Lower Moesia andDacia. Although local tefu sigillara lassedbehind inljorred tcda sgittata. Vihinlciuncmns.en weE known lbr skiltulnc$ and inven-liveness in dccorarion. The rcpenory of dccorative morifs is compised ofa lotll ofz90ditterenlsymbols, which appcar in a large numb*ofcoD-

Allhough significa.tly scarcer, throughrhe unique stylhtic organization of lhe; oma-ncnls, the finds of slazcd lesseh implyVimiDacirn vdrkshop production. Thc mosro.gml prodncroftbislorkshopis a alazcd vessel deconred wnh rclicf, a depsidm or waterclock, dited ntr thc it{ haif of tlrc 2d century Althe bonom ofrhe vessel arc a numbe. ol snallopeninBs lald out like thc holes ona shoverheadand, at rhe top oftnc pipe like handle, atso. an

123

Page 126: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

orB.pa pacnopcreHrx rxo KoJ ryua. x raBpr! (cBacrc qpu(c. rr(olc. orBof. Ilocl!.

lc npr na .rnl)xal. r!x. xrr. .e tenrl)cTrBno norutrtr ! re!Hl).r. {0le rc rcrrrrrr6epe.r_jrcano srrDrPrrL.N n orBafarl.Mpyn lqe ,La n t r rx i r . Kr .ncrn f r . M. tx 3 l )Bre&. Kot . te y c , rB \ { r pc ' t ' l l lK ] le lBcx ro r rnerno!. n.pnor0 xoic pcnpoqyKvic ctcnelehir: Ltl(lc.(. a(. c. sanyror !iccr orsopa na {x!. r mrr r., trle l(i kt"r tr!ts. trl0 ccK. rKo B ' r r r 01 , r 'd k fo r .Brx .c rn !orBopa. rlrrnts ..uc crnPf . Kro x rrcHoanr(. norlcv ou nr Kracnrror qrrK.fneptronr xxn. cv.n!xnn. r. \.t).r6. (t)!1xr'\

B fc r iexo t r0 r 3H, .P3r !n Ko; r Pr^ur . rHr tey t ro r tc6usr r i I . t ! r t r ru1Mr . F{ r r o .FnHtr Darlx up.Mlirr rrnimrlx fouofr0r(r. !

ot.itrig ,\ rlcnsyd.r ,r n lirncpiece Ibrch crf()n\i\tenrl) rncrsurc rr c nd.iod. fheperl!dr nshoNsdr lhe fo lLowi r i s : lS0rc .onds l fs i ropcn-rngs arrhc bort.ri 0r..lt\.d md rhr I rlcr ll(n!\rlvough.ol! onc rndn,ng. rn(l l0 secofds rl.llse\en holer are lei opcn lhc lcnn _clcpsydrx-

and nrc ri.pc ofa cl.Fsr-dra dxr. ds lir hxrk r\r|c Clisrl.rl G.rk ffrn)J. rhdn t \cncd li).olcrrurng slafl irnen!ls of li.re. lhe llomrns!sed n in cournoonN. in ordcrro lnnn dr.lnnc rJpc.ko \!rs xlLo\.d r! sF.ak. L. cd,.tric. li,.rak rD-q thcpa lcnr cn !Ls . l rJ ( rx \ r ln ) rodx i l ) 'tr\. in {h. hoolr (rigrre l07l j

l l ! r

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Hel(rrlnu! 3a ePebe nyrca 6orccHnxa. .6uia je u y cDarcuHeBHoj. xyhsoj ynorpe6r

B{ nHaurt}vc(y RcpaMoq(t npo,rytqriy (!ta(rct!re n jeuHa n..c6na rPtnarcpavr!Kux "..ysa. rcie cBojror orriHunManpcncraBDrt] BepHy uLllraunjy aol r rcpacrrrrara nocyua 03u. BnMnrraqrrM MrlfyMIl). BrcooM rexHorouxtv n y crH!!$ri

noctse npeBaqmr. npo-

ny('rnjt MHorrx i'pounHurlcox FunoH,\,Iexoparrurn MorrBu Ha nocynaMa ct Mnroiou(or. dnryparoo. r Be.er!6nHof Kapa(-rcpa. rbaBaj. e nrrcpa ca ePHa xHy, xoja ce srDje (lalc\r ll n t npBynoroBnHy lll Dck (cr. 108) I

vimilacium torlcry production is llsocharacL€rizcd by a specill etuup of.cramic veysch, which in lhcn shape *eF accunle imitalions ol tera \ieillara vcssch (the so calledVituinrcnrm-MarSum ll). Wirh thetr hlgh lcchno-Logicll and arListi. qualiry lhese vessek ourshiled the pr.duc. of many pmvlnciil \orkshops. lhe decordrive motili on the vessels werenryd.1ogi.al. figul lnd lloml in characrerOutstanning is r patcra Nith an eroric \cene al thcbottom. $hich is dated Lo thc c.d of the 2d century or to lhc beailnins of thc 3 i.c.tury (63ue108) . {

Cetuin,c vessek lor daily use are the froslnuncrous and rhey are chdracletizcd by a variet)of fdms. $hich arc standard for the emnc htrito.ry of {he Empnc lues, plales, bovl!. poa. ptrho1

; , i . r ; A r F r d i . r L r / r i $ |

h k i l u b n M i , . j q i n l

1i2

Page 130: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

(cPrNnr ( . .oc !n . r i . r rk " , lHeBi r rynoDeay . r i r ! r60 , , i t s ' ,1c . . oqr rKv i . nxpasHoopsr(ic, 4riF\n Not. cr crru.fn . i,lrra8y repxioPr v rrrFrna (r)cr

Rlp ! . r j l .n . . ro r r l r r . rnocr ronr t r t r ryNn.aM+ope tr ,Lf Krpr(rcpxuxspara or upDurol rdc . r r r . . r_ r nJ)0rur ) t rx r t r r r ln \ JexolJafrDrn\ r.\ior(!. :lxrryoJr,cco ie aoj.iLc.6ap6! ' rB . lpdn , , rse n r0qrurpr r l . . x r r .carLc ! Jp. nrpn.ntro .r rounrtr\, ,p{,ivKuul.M. rp!. ir xu.tr nv(c\ n,e FOae 0r rrna !Hn\ onnrc r o I lnFr , r r (u . 110) y o r0n f t.pr!apc(o roli.pcxo. rrcirrpr. ! x.t)rntr

orKfrR.tra r. 3!rrraNQop. ('!r ;L'ir!!tc Jr tc oDo. rr crra.jca!Ho dnrrq('. 0orDfl)crr opfaxrr.Brr!(cPavre( . 0p .x rBoJJLr . (o r . \ x r , r t ,$ r r rr npollxqn y r\qDtr A!,tDFe cr!cx,6vr t. R.trr ' heH. rr nfH.ooFr urrnf.n !qa . r Dr .c oBr roPcur no i . i r r0 r \ r f r . r rn BrxoDo. carPxrrr.

moilxrs, adr0hr.I drr The! oe.hxrrd.|^d h)-nnLd mx[r]g .f red burnt. glry .r \rhrrc .lrr'|.lilh \rriors d..omri\'. l..hniqtror b.rg us.d.ADroD! th .0s .d lc rhnntL io ,ncre .o lour i Ig .bx .b01i,r.. i,r!isn! rnd i{ldiD-!. ldr rsios .t.ALoUsinc LocrL producrion. Lurtrr g0o{ls \'.f.b.rtr-! rrt.'rcJ lnnn uc{or n pitrls ollh. lntr..(11- ! t r , . l l 0 ) A l ! rS . n rDrbcr o i s |n r .n { lxdrnhor r r \ c r . fo r id o t r rh . sn . r l l l rDpodcrrrbjickjni[:jn! c.nr.. trj rhr podcr'r kihEord \ast. rofi!.lroLrs u,l rotrfJ ib.m. \lri.bpi!\cs rhr( thr\ is. { frr rhe only ildi\tulrblltnrcf orgr0Lzed ccnmic l.odrdron lic irl\hl!h iDcnrd.d tb. pn'drrt.f or rnrphora..Anpborac \r... r\cltr\n.lr 0red tof.rnsN'1trj9t(rru* rnl brred on thc orilni ff c.nrirl1!F\ rnd on rheif coDrcn6. bxsl. r(n.nn. rndicx(ns ve trccn obrxnr.d hd lDdc rnd lrpDL!rd,les tof rbtr iqion r' rlrr |r.ri,r! rlom ihe l. -.1.cDt t r i . r h r \ . hocn dcr .n i ' re i '

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Page 132: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

x I u.in(o n.pnper .Hcr f rncr rn 0 l r .Rr a l ) f . r rH. reraBa jvhr oponnLr . rhnnBr3ss , ,Be oa !ncr 0

Kpx.M I Dc(a . ) 8n \ r i r ruo j ! \ . !nolerB nj ntr.rxxv ntro rintr tr1 ccBcfHc11r in t r re (B iBo) ! re ' t r11) r rd t r re ( i coB ' rilacruHooo rjrd cr l,rilenrjcrof rliyoc1pD..

A( l l rd cn i l r l rhe l r ceDluDr no lh l t rL iannrodu!e !rrled iifninc ni virnnia.nn (\i'rcJ.dd. soDrcwhat Lar.f,sarc.s aiJ.li!.oil lirtu rhoIb.rix. NinNuL! trofiol liuir liorn rhc we5refr\lcdi1!nx.exn. rrd. Lo.r th. nid-2,, .cDrur].rlnc ionr rhc Cf..k isL.nds Drrir-! rlr. l. xdd'lL', ccniurcs. $rr .nd oil brh! drn.d b.,ognpoilcd U.ni ]\na \li,$ xnd Noo xnd bnhnlionr S!rixdd Pnlddr.e fe.nx.enr trrdlng relx'n ! lvrrh 'he Elack Se. f.!ion had bc.n .nabl i shcdasc fu lyas lhc r , . . i t r y . lnd \ rh€x t \ r ,ncr oln. oiL \!rrc irntoncd lio llre.. Winc.

, L l ! J r i i n n : , :

l r i

Page 133: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

rPonc(o nohe ri r

rIlr.!dxurcFan.xn\o6racrn . a os cpednHe l l Bex . BuHo ca ,p{k r tricrpB!.T.x.\i Ill r lv 8.ft n3 Manc Anrte ceyBore 3rH. r ynar

iiai3aNr. n ! vl BeK!ErHornrnrnN, , o r (L r rn r i . n I ld .c rn i r . louro(oN lll Bek y.nocrnM,etsc cI lerlouHc,r]J.o3aqx. u.rc ca uProMopcoN o0rr0rrNr.onx(ne rPtrc'rx! xnro. irtry rc . (pa tcM l l l x y l ! Bck ! teLr . , r r )ac ccrnnotr Drra. lacrnlroBor yB. x Pr6jrr\rpeFrbsBrHr n r , \+ tnKc ( r .nnn x

3raraH reo (eDrNr"rc rPl)nrk{dl.otnnala urpary reP.(ortr (olc cy ! BcFrrapory ,ralx.ir. ra xprBcunM noBpurHruriyxH!x He(po0on! B, atr,r u0jvN!. v +uI(Iln-

olivc oiL .Dd lirlreries p,oducis i'nnods liomAl.,.r (E!!pland lunnia) wcrc fcgistcrcd al thcend o l ihd I r xnd ,o thc .1 .c . lu r ! \

A c.o\ids,ble l).iion 0l rhr p.tury ptudrctioD $as the nrnking or' temconr .btecrs.l.urd nr hr!c nunibcrs oD rhcsacrificial fxcesolilrc !,olhem d(tup.liscs olViniD.nN. $irhlhc fuDdion of u aDotopaic srnlicc r) thedc .cascd. . i lh . r c \p rcscd throLr lh .deDid ionofthe dcity or llrotrgh trs zoomorphi. symbol.!Aparl loin rhctr reiignrA usr. they Ncrc *idcl)'Ncd in dril! liti. lhe yafious inorils can begrotrpcJ inlo: rcLlEous. zoomoQhr.. cvcrydaylile tho,ncs did bts P!inius $at.s lhar wcll-to-dopnrcnis hld d.tre nliniaMe r).Loli.rL grrd.i\

Page 134: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t n ro . tan r . .K . x t l r r ' 1 i r " t " r i . am. ! !t r r t , xa r0 r r t t ) i6c 'oB , rn t r , , , l r ! r \ , r . i t r r a \ ,n r ( ) . , ! r \ |nc . r \ r f f . t n i ! t . { r r J , l

I c3 r ( ( l

, 0 \ ! t r . r r \ : J , ! n ,n t ro " r i i \ r 1 ! r n rn r , f l hn r r r t r r rn t r r ( .

J r r ! i f r r j | oJ r r . r j It r l ) rDx i rn t x r r r . ! n ,hu ( r s ln . r t r r ' r t 1 !! c I r n ' , an t r ! r r r0 r l i r

Hx 0 ( i r i r l

mn l r l . r j I r L i , { ! , l i , v r tu ln ! r I r r l D rL

J i r . r i r . l , i L { . 1 i r ! ! , r , , ( r x f )I op i r f t \ l f r r i r . l r r r i r r , ! q \ \ , i . t r ! r ) ! D f ! r )

f x rD0 i . i , r 0 fo rL \ r ! , i \ n1 f , , t r r ) . , t r \ i { r )l l r r . o r rL i i i r ( ' x3 ,

o xdo r l i g t r . n ! nn cc r o r \ d [ ! L r ! r r h r i r t I. r . L l o , t . r r n .n r Cx lL i i $d th . Rh in r r ! ! o rr \ cd .J r r l l r l i . d r , o l l LL r r I o , rh . lD . r l\rrDii .nr. r..r.rtr fr\|.ini i

, \ . t l r . l i ! . i r . n r . l r . r rn r r \ 0 r r l t r c!on if t tf.r ltlo.!ir \:i,rftrxrrtrn ilr h.d .\ r r \ . i - L l . \ . Lo r rd 0 ro ( l t r dNr o l L rDr [ Th .i o r ! . n j i i . [ o l r L rL ] r r r . l o r 1 l r t r r r r t ho l n r i \. l d ! t rLd \ \ ' i i r \ o r t \ L r0d i i r k i ( t ! , e / l a / r / t t. l l 1 \ . ] i t t l l \ l l : 5 1 1 . t ) t f l l l r i [ . t i i l t r \ ! t1 , r f . r . \ o r r l l , , i . L ! f i x l . u r . i r , . . sh l t l r l r n ri r ) r . d dLL t r i . r r l L r l , i r l . r , . . n r rG , \ j l or o . a r i : . l L i r n L J f t r m l q u r l i r ! . l l l L r c l l ) L l r ! i h .

1 , l l l i l l l ' . l i

Page 135: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

crrBrBat! Hin} Q!y,,a cd trerlax\r MaJ.ropr l.cARtA, cttRltALIS tARuS, t.ESftoctlt4 ! (cpa nc(!L! nchnMa .pncapc(o-,u.rapc(or rlerrpa. (oj0 je 6r. y qrrH(qrtnro (o r i l l r l l l Be (n .L l r rOc t rnKBannrer.rnHe o! Kolecy nrprtrBaHe nrNncn RepaMrc(e nocvxe lkryje H. trcrr

npBr FNrop roRrHn ' t r nepL l r n lMnxnor'ly !r BpeveHa Becna3xjaHr (69 79. r.) nRer y cc ra ccucfHonrarcxc fasmuqc retccy . odN kepdHB!knx . , ' l . t r rB .nx le r i y (

PcnarnBno par.. (prjcv I ! nolcr{oMIl Be(d. ca opfdHx3rrlnl.M xep,Mnqa,rc(cnPouy{unje. 3anorrse | ,,lo,,3B.,lsr rinnH.Kole Hacrajy no y3opy Ha x roproDrHe

Irnps and .cranic vcscls wcrc rnxdc ol inliiclres the srme rnanulir.{urinA cnule.

Ihe fist lamp nnpons date ftom drc timcof Vcspasan (ycar 69-79) and arc a$ocidedrvirb nonhemIhlic*.rk\ho .rvhich.apadfonccrlmlc lanrps, rl{ p( uccd luxury nretolones.

ItehtileLy eorly on. al the end oflhe ltraDd t[c bceinnine ol thc ]i .cnnLry prodnctlonol Lint! began b., n.dellod on ,hfodcd itenDbeoring ordks of noihein ltolic *o*shops andon igura l l smps.schcapcrva f ia rbo lnc ta lones

Crealivity and imagnralileness in decora-tiotr. documcntcd bya larec Dufbcrofor.amcrral norili dnd combinarions rhere.ll are the nd,nchrrrctnn,cs dl rhe Vinn.dc,um pruducrion.Mytholoeical or religious and secullr chlBcleBandob jcc ts$ereu$d,6wdlasmasks .zoonoFplic, noral 3nd gconchical noils. ecnro scenesetc Typologically ann chronologically, lheviminacnmr lanp collection is amonsrhe richcst

113

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Page 137: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

npnMeP(e ca necarnvd c.BcpHorr.nc(tr{Majcropa u +r.tparHe naNre RaoicqrruHxj!Eaprjanra MerarHrx (fl. 117. 1 18)

rraBse orxxk un nHruljyNc(e nPo-

nyKqrje .r (PearrBktr I NauroBrloc' yy(PaD.DiBy ro(yMeHloBtHe u.rnkrM opojeM rc(oparuEHnx MortBa r Etrx.Brx (oL!6t'

raqrja 3acrynseHr cy Murorou(x n "lo

4am , nxour. npccMe

Kyr.H.. r nPoQaHol{,f a{repr. Nd.{c, roovoPoHr. uerera6nr!!r '€oLlcrPnrc(B {.ftr3n. xaHp clretse x np lrr0onorKoN { xpoHonor(orl cMncly. RrdnnaujyNc(a 36npKa r.ritrB,Fr]!ajc or H.l60mD,ln r HarrM%jlMjrr. jeP je HajuchlM

Po6Hnx '(errray Ber,(oM 6poly cr' 3acryn-acnc raMne cincqaroM. pn6e$HrM lPeaclauavt HanrcKl I(rn.yfarne. O Dd3rtararnv rpfourr{rMFrMa x {fuumHoj nokrrol nponyKq4rralBnue '.Bopr nos.r.tr ru cI HaBuM!flaunjrNy ocraunie rparu lJ2 Onp c(p.J0rorBqe). o! rem ce 43 tto.y cNnrpdrntrnMrHrr\rjtvcuM, a :li+ d nasa ceBePHonrarc(oj rpoxyquj!. AHa

ItMc&x ra\'ruJe y eenrrcl Mcp! (oPtroBara

uoc.lrdBa {ponorouKa r annonork onPeac-6c6a. a rEnuojerjc !noceoaH, r3B.'B!\tr!

36npka raMnn 6pojn o(o 4100npli'epaka. rro je nope^ (B

rqnorou(rx RapaxrePrcrn(ai .trpcraBa yHdj6pojorjy r6rrxy iaNn! Ha reprroprjn

ard most iinpona.r on.s, as n has mo{ly bccndared b! lhe prcsence ol .oins tiom grales.l-anrps *ilh marks. rith disc rclicls or fi3urallamps are Fesenl i. larae nurnbe^ Thc lacr that32 rvolkshop\ have leli lhcirtace in Viminrciun.ou l . lwh ich ,4 l can he .ons idcrcd lo ha le bdenVinindciun workshops. rvhil€ l.l bcLonaed lono |1hcnr l ta l l cFrdu . l ion .spcaks inos tv i ! id lyo iderelopmcnl levels oftr ing ctinre rnd of rhc i ensily ol hcal production.AnFl,vsis ofV,ninaclLm lamps bruughr signlt].canl con€ction! b prcvious chFnologicrl aidrrtological cl0ssificarions. and . seplale_Vim,ndcidm'typc oflanp *i! idcntiucd l

The lamp collcclion numbers aiound'1100ncms. Nhich place$ t tmone lhcollecli.ns ollamps in$eternortol thc RonranImpire. resardless ofit qualitative dnd rypolog_

roPNt ! i ' ror ujc oydrislu hr \1ituoc vi . u!ii! u. ts@snr rrj

r40

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.l

icrtic t tt (ntdiu,Hal3HacaJrrtn q.o y ck.nopr! urN0rrqrjynckc nprBpcnc xNrrx cr nlnn,{,ulun . ia fcKr \ f , x0 .HrL1r BrnoHr ! ( ' , j v rc t re

Hn rePmop0jn lrraBcMdljc. arr I naHoiu, c. uro rKar! c i,rnooP. ot.arrs.Darr n|r.nr3.xHit 1p"Do']r nocrojrtr KBrn, re . (otl cl io(.nHu Mrtc.roptr orpxrnr ]o(ov (oirrxryrt,I.npol]Ronrlc ox I l\, 3. tlrrrorH. ijo'nm IrBan(e Hr n r ' !o !1 r . n io r i rHr PeKr . ao turdBo uy!o!. (ro r PtDxteH. c.o6Prh.tnavfcxa. rpe!.l.Bfurr c! ocn.ujnoRperaq(o. Ia3uola utrfrat.K. 0tsntcrprjd

j l . ca(x r rs r \ rpxeonod( r \ xc rpnxnBa6nMn o lNpxBeHo te r+ !n . rapc( r \nehn. Ou ro. 6poja. I N orxtxD.s. nfn

(/'

_/a1rd-snrg by hor NnLrFend brlcks b.d-n.! dla rix.k ol llqnn ,/ alrtrllrl arc. r'. .ric.oclL(lc dur brlcknr.kiDg prodrds N.r. rhe kcycxtorr ol \iiminrciLmt .coDorn!. vi'nrorcrumbrcks .jc .nc.umcrcd rhrotrqhrul Nioe\ir ddPm.onir. \!hich 1e{ilie\ io lell olganizcd proJuctnn. rrde r.d b r coD$.Dc! ofqullry dtrFiir! the rhoLe period ofDrod0crion. liorn thc lr1,.cfiur! Th. c\.qIi,)nilly rich c[! leposirs,thc tn,\rnritv ol .ners. rhe larle forcss xDd th.de\eloped comnnhicarions r.nrrk rrlol !sdrc bans lnr d.\clotft.nr.l hrickmxklng iir!ui

Preu,usxrchreolosicrl erc.\arioN hx\cun!o\ered 11 brickmrkinglilns. or.l th( ntrnlbcr.I $crdscov.rcJ dtrriig c{,n{.urrn,n rorksn \ . r iK . {o lxc in the vcar 1956. rnd l l durn jsrhe consenrrioorl .clnnics iD lhc p.ri.d liorn

Page 139: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

r{KoM rynlteB!HcKUx PaqoBa t IloBoNKocrorqy 1956. . . . a l l roKoM 3aurnrHrxxflpaxxu,Ba ! netuony or 1977 1992. r. y

oKBuPy 3.HrrcKor, .PHcrpcKo un.napc(o.rrcnrpa lcrpaxcnc cy 3 nchn rclc .I, .Inchrno.onpaukar la .6 r reny .o t !norpe6n y je , l

HoJ oJ 6Hx. pe.ncrpoBaHu cy aparMeHr!annoMycHnx one(4. reryra n oneKa caxn.oBnNa rrc t)U CZ, uro noxar,lc Ja ccralqooojnol Pasuonrqn Jlo.neFr u trnrrpeHocr Bx\ixHi'lijyHckc orexeKoja je y.prjteBrHrDcrBy KopruheHa cBe xocauPcMno. qo6a. cBPdaDajt IrnrrnraqrlyL! yjen lH. rmjBehnx. rKo He n Ha lRehx. , rHr i rpcKx ueHr.p H. E!!(aHy I t UoJyflaD,ay. y

6evt cy nPonrBoreHe one(e Parrllnrnxnr r lcHs l la r 06r rKakh,IpaaHe 3r .ayiiHhe. rylHe r kplxHe 3ncefMetsae .116.u ! . . (e (c . r rc , ' t c rnNa(HoxrqaMa), ia oon.rrbe {aoBa n cnpoDote6e rorro. Dascyxa. (poBrrc.rc.trc nrLrxo0c cnolHrqc rr!6pe(cn, R.loBonHe rteBnB MxH'juDpeHe noxHe one(e_ Hljleuhe xeKcaruHarrHo. rn{ nenrupacror o6r!(a

thc ycar l977 ro 1992. Thrcc kilns wilhi. {he tolrery and bncknrkingce.lE hrre been e\a.rirred.Judgins by the visible traces of fepans. thcscNcrc uscd for a lons limc. Fragmcns 01'hyp.caun bncls. riles rnd bncl\ beanng Ihemfk aEO zCt hvhich susse$s n sas a nilirar) workshop) havc bccn fornd in onc .l (hek1lns. Judgrng by rhc pre!nrus linds olkilns andthc Icrir.ry 1. r'hi.h Vinn.rc,um bnck\, haveboe. lbund, which continue !o be used until thcpresenl d3y, hare been found, Viminaciurn $asarnonerhc largc$bri.knakng centes, il.or rhelarged, ,o rhd Balklns a.d llong the Danube.Brlcks v.rying in shape ard sizc wcn produccdheE buildine bricks, sqnarc nDpcd ones lbrponsj arch.d and .trculrr o.er lor scg.rents oft i l l 6 .bnckswi rhour le ts .wa l l -coa t ingand in$ tslatlon bricks, tiLes (tesulac)and pans slich connected rhem - imbiccs (rainrilcs), watcr sumlypipcs xnd .riniatur. lloor iles. no$ly hcxdg.nal

The oldest b ckmakile kiln *!s larc lnccntury Thc kilns in t|c .funs .ente brl{)ns 1orhc p$iod ofrhc 2i 3i.e.lurie\. *hile rhe rest

l.1l

Page 140: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

' { . r Il " t '

' n''l't,,|;

H r L r . t , i r 1 i r l r r . L . n , i r . .r l ) r i r l r . . r n . i , , , r r L I { r , n r r r r r r ! . r rDcnr \ .rri l]1 r.L iirtr,r. . r x r . i , r l ) , , , . t r , I I L \ !

l l r t i , , Ll J J o . r i i . r i ' r r , i , , r l , r . , L ' : r , . r , r | l : n Inn i . r i ! r \ , t f a f i L

i j i oo r r . t . . t l ) . r l r r r .m ic f , t r - r r 11 r t r ! , n r un i r , , , t . L r .r . t u n a ) r t r | . , r r l i ' r l i I r r i r n r f il x e t . r L r l i l ] r r f . 1 r f D ! ! n i r l 0 f ! r lo ; i vx 01 . \ r r i r ) r L ! d i \n n p r l x r \ ) , , 1 ' , , i L L j , . , L . L , r I r , r frrrirc xrp.rr |1r'

i ? | i i ; i j \ r t r t l ) ! ! L ! r

l y i n H c K ' n r L ! ! . r r i , , \ r \ , r , l ( L r 3 , ) , 1 , i \

d c D , j ' ! , i '

F n r \ \ n n . . r L . ' r

f f : . n r r r \ i f r r i : r . l + , r r i r , , r . T , r

r r . L ! r f L r L r l , I r r L t r t \ \ r , r l n L r : r J N if l : l r : j , : . 1 . { h r r l L l : , : r i . L . r r , r , r r !t r ) \ r , r \ . . i n . . r r l ! . . n i ! l l L , ! r ! t r r t r I : i r .L r L ,L l d r ! r , r L rL r l r r r . ahu lL r r . f L l r r Ln ,LLL i r . . : . ^ | t L r , . LL l r r , u t r L , r \ f j r n r f r r lf , r rL r rL : rn r r ! r r l L lL r t l . f f r i r f r , I o ! i u .r f f . r , , r . r r r r i t r \ l r J . M \ . : r jf r i . L l r . , L \ l ! , r i SLL 1 . t r L lL r , r i r . b {n n f . r ri , r f r ! , r I r : : i t r L r r r r l i r n | . , i r l \ . l . r , f ,: r r \ r n i r r r r i l r . r i ! L \ i r ' t , , i . $ b i i ! L l r .n r , l i ' l . - ! i r I l / L / . r t r 1 i ,

r t r l , , r i i . , L f , - . 1rlr. D.tritrI,. li,!r- 1,, LrL tri t ir nrfiLtrrL rn f r r,L rg r { r . . r f r t r f r \ i i r n r l d n r r \ . . t r I r

{ ) j . r l r l ) r f u r r r l n . f [ s . L i ] l r n : r !D i r i r : n r . l n i i x i f r r r r 0 [L ! . r t r . ! , , ! ,r I . l i \ L n ld r . rL d r N I r l . t l l r ! n ' , i l l

Page 141: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Il3 BrMxsaqnjyMa norrce nperc 200pa3rrsrrur necara rojr norBpbyjy BojHy,ryafic(y r npuBarHy npony(\ujt, IIoM!8lpajy nean idlje tltt Clau.ld y pa3in\iruumM6lraunjaMa. l,b BnM{naqrjwa nm{cc !B4r& 6poj one@ ca xrrouuMa rpxBarHnxpauroHnqa: /,4t sEv. P AEL. SEt, STATES,EE vL EE.. ID (l), DE LICI/INI vI, SVC PROVINTIIL, U/ILERI/I, AVRELIYS CORBINYS AlP.ror T! re!ar', cy He caMo rHa(paunolncrc. nPeflGHaBaba, Deh n raPaHunJaoupebeEor nanrrera. BeoMa cr cccrcreoMerprjc(c uapc. ypcaalr .!M6orr,ocraqn xuBornBc{nx

t )2. zdhttki .dtu,: kiElnfln p?a)

Clarlia predoninale in ranous combinalions. Allrge nunbr of bncks with tbe ndks of privateworkshops also cone fronr Mnimciun: ,/,1l,.sEt/. P AEL. S[r., STA|ES, ]tE yL HE.. tD (?),DE LICIANI YI, SYC PROYINfIAI,, UALENA,Al/RELlvS COMINVS erc.)r3'l bese ndks scrcnol meEly an identificatio. of tnc workshop abrick ivas madc in, bur we€ also a quality guar,lntee. Ceofreric notifs, caNed synbols, mimlfootp.inls and inasinatile finecr-drawn notifs insoft clay wcrc vcry conmon (ligu€l2l ab).Thcir nmcrio. was pncticalr they *ere an indicalor ol if a brick {as dry and ready for buming. orlhey belped bind the brick to the monar.

Page 142: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

ype3r BBe,reHU npcoM y cDcxoj .insu Gn121 a b). rbnroBa +yHxlrja jc npararua:npoBePaBaH te crcncu rcyn'eHocrn ! copeM-

e ro qrn{ro aa6! one{a 6oDeDekna Mdrcp. CavoorkcMBa6e ! o3paaa nccara je Bpno 3axreBaHnocao. a 6poj flellan pe.ncrpoBanlx tBrMsHalrttlvy ykryje Ha Bpio ucure .paBepe. necar! ct {rpabnuasn ou /lpBera,mMeHa!i! Mmara uroje. kpaBHo, yrnlaro{a orrprny r (os1}pe so!a.

l,I.rpaxeHe nehn cy lerBpraoo. nrnnpaBo]faHo. o6nu(a! nnNculrja ocHoBe 4 5M.3,uaHe cy y {oMolHauujr heprraa, onexar rcryia a Mairepnc.fle 6raroN. Cadojc .e

lpta.fu-tirn) l cae^e{rmuara r perel(e.

lmpressng r nark ind nrakins the stamp was avcry dcmanding r!sk, !trd thc ncrc nunber ofbrick nra*s in Vininacium poims to veryskilledensmven. Thc stanps used for markins *crcmadc ofwood, slone or neral. on wbich. sureltthe lharlness ofrhe ldrcr conlous depended.

The exanincd kilns are squBre or rcctan-sular in shapc and rhe dimensions ofthcn baseswcm 4 5n. They weF madc oaa combination ofunbdked bncks, bricks and tiles, *hich werc heldtosether by mud Thcy consisted oi the fircboxlpru.Juthiuh), tched by bricks. a systcm ofcanals and a sysrem ofslots. Thh srncture wasmade or bricks and alloNcd an lo cncuhtebeiween thc fircbox and the upper paft ofthc kiln,rvhcfc unbaked bncks vere laid accordinC ro ,spccialpaueh. Boih the insidc andthcoullide of

Page 143: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

rrh tist ura pei lantEki certa')Rrict kitt |wa*,haPt

Pener{a je 3naa{a o)r otren ca orBoprMa 3aupyjabe rcn,or Ba3lyxa y rcpEr npodoprein, rne cy 6rre, no noce6xoM .noeMy.noperase crPoBe onerc. cno$rr x yHyrpadBr reo nehtr.patesje heplmeM (oj'jenpeMa3aE 6naroM. Ioxxure ce qa,a3!y(onaso y 3eMBy, a neo 3a one*e, rcsarr

CDe aocalauBe neh! cy or(pmeneBBaH.paa(d 6eaeMa (.r/d '!ros)i uro cydara.ann prMcs .pancxr nponncn. Kaok6ada pooa, one(e .y trpoaqrrna{aM., oraue cy peqxtM nyreBtMarpandoproBeq Ea M4rjc(o rpxmre nm

the kiln weE built witt unbakcd bricks a.d cov-€red with a mud coating. The firebox was dDginro the sound, wbile $e bnck pad was above

Up to.oq all lle kilns were discoveredoulside lhe city walls (etra a!Dr), which was aslipulalion of Roman nunicipal lesislation.Being bUky fr€ighl, brick scre sold in lbe brickplanl prcper, fton where they w€r€ shipped byrilcr, inlo the Moesim na.kel or tufther

Page 144: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Jlona.nna xobnuua ruobua

Tlwlacalmint

Page 145: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

,)i Z , ' n r . r . r N ! r . r J ! . I r . r r L l i ' r r .

3a Bpe\e r , ,p rL t r j r ,L i l l l . R INr t r r ro i j \ ! j roeKao npxBo nn r r tc r r ) t i k r f t s t r , ( ,Hrq?aror r ra . rBrpr iLc (oDi0ruc tukr r i re \o i lere cy Dnr.crptKn: Brlrurrrn r! cc pnrBr-jao y 60hr , t . . ,n r .n r r . i . r . x . .n t r ;1 i0 r ( r rrcorpa+c( i ' . o ' iL , , ! ko r n .1 . , rk t r '*o reNcr , l rN tL l B0N0Drur i ! \ , x !q !0no j .

na c t !3 ! r , . \ t . q r . rn I . \ l l J D. ( r . I rn i r r r .m j6ore Fr^ , .Kc ,pync . (o ,nb . i

Hn Ne, rjcKov a.r! xyrxo.ro. nnMccr.Ep iNr r d ! i r . r . ( .8c . P . ro r0 . n r rb r3 , .Bojc(e ot)N,.h!er j! 0.!rr0o,,r.N Jlrxrdor

i n n \ r l l rn ,ck ' \DNB'n'qJ'lr T|.irrro i. {,rno tlru,r(nrcJrltrDreor.rrcarn 0 .|.fl0Lo3xrn k.Diur0r ltrcnocpd rtr,,tnnr, 'tso rnrtsxtsix

Io ( rnH. KoBi rour ioDur ! Br \oH L(ttN] c t.nnix oir ll!r2l(1. no:i.1i:i5 r.llo trpek, rxjr nlrtrn1) !:.1Si219 ' lj:rrl5l ,B . toDar ro . rno . o r . r { . ro r rHraJ .Dr iLnKour ru .P lqoM.rorccyr ra rBan! rccra i l f fnntulenornrr{r loml)aF r,

Br ! t r r u jv ! t r lf.Dcpc! Hr1iorc: P rrLnrril,u /,rf, ri,l.l frp.riar), Col tt,ta),i tirrun,n). at rcc\ry 1n rt,! ano t oKr r 'Le € t )e ( . j r r r ,e o r I rL , , I \ ' 1 .t r3 t i sh t lh t r " ! l "He \ , , \ \ knrn oe H, !c(o33ro. Ih PcscFct jc no .pruny npc!

4nrrvF .6v!.3a ! rtf!onx(H! \u ro , r ' ( ' c f ! , ,Hr4r , ( r '0 , r r B ,^ r 'laqx jy ! r rn , , rPos ,Dn lL , te r . k r ro nnxr t ! rcnan 6rkoM r rxBoM. c0NnorrNr refl1ie r'1l(luttlat n llll F6tu. ko..,r 6p{Hc ! N . r r t r H , rD.N\ . . r rn r rc n r . r .

V imi f !c ru rn cornr b r tu r l je fo l lo \ ingnFcliF|nions on th. F\crsc sid.: P aati"tir) ttl,)!\h) s (1\tftni). cot n,rnl) ri,t tt,tdn,i)rnJ. hthN ,.lx lrl, rnil rlt ntrmircr olrhe lo!alcrr lronr I ro X\rl. exch lng th. yeaE \ atrd\V. \rhci no Drinrr! rook plx.c ^s x r!lc. rlrrr.\cs. l.xkcd thc r,l ol r lrmnlc clnd if Il{nrg (lrcs\ \rrh n beh (r fd$rifi rirnr olvrnri:rxr urn or th. Ptu!inrel. h.tdtng h.f hxDdro\.r i trrlLand x Llor,lh. Jnrboh ofLc-!i.ns r7lClnrlh artlllll l lr\tu,ha\h ol \rlriclr rc.c dxti,[cd i'r N{oc\ix Tho rh\r^e li]lure(l thc bu{r

/ / 1 . t , J \ n n m ' r l n i ! l , n r . i rt ho ) cx . 2 -19 . , l u rng th . r . i ! n o l Co fd i xD l l l .\linucirnr rclr red rhc rilht io niid ns o$r.oppcr mon.r lhcF rcr. niuLtidc r.r!h rn.ot.ri,r!. ifl lnr r LLr.rl .u.iclr Vimrnrrrtrrn\r\ do\oL,,fing ro r rr.h x..r. if rlre vicinitr" ofnriI.s !fd i15 !eo!tupriciL. polill.iL. nmr.-!i..i]d c.oDomr rnponrDcc nr llrc nid l, rco1ury_hn ghl n,o]. ol rho hrn Rrrnln hoof! ro\!miD.cnm. rv.ntr oti.n bok drnlri. hrnG. l . ng r l r . Vo . !ad scdn i o l r l r . Dx . rh . ho ' . s Anrirgc .l rhc *rtc cuneocr Ln rh. DruLre

fn \ rocc \ \ r s $u$ng J r !u fnL ' \ i n 1 l r . r h l rhm\!irh lvhi.h th..!ops rtc.i\cd rhcif Na!cs. lhcr.rlrs . nccd lnr u!.nt d.A.[Lor, \llrch d].xol..1r:,,! trp r rdl i,r thc trrtrr.di:trc \rrrorry o1 rh.

lh. Loci Viinniicltrm mnnop.rxrcd lioorthc !.x. llqr:1.10 tr) :5.11j5 Th.ft rerc i'rtJrrtrfhofr in Lh. ymrs 2l3rl,19 rnl l5lrljl. piobr-blr duc lo hiidmtr.cs lD oF nLppli.s ro llrc d'n(.c .us .d b ! .d rdnxb lc n l i l . r j ' xdd roh r i c r l \ i ( u

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rFpeua " cnrHdb. BnrlaP.xe (yhe oKPHyreHaJecHo. cuoBopoBnM BeHueM (rerHKa Fvarr 6pofl3a), nin rPaKlcroM (pyHoM Hr.raB! (cp.qEa 6Ponra)

Ilot.n l ofrnlaxa lIl. y BnLa.raqnjyN!cy jd , ' (oBnr t r : o t rnn ' I . Or tu r r r r r ( tn rnI l , leur ie Tpa jm. Erpycur r r , !eqr je I l .KDn i r r . xcpcrn lc L rp t .k . xocr r r r ja i r .Tteii.HrrrB rr. B.nr"rrj,H. EMnrnj,H.Buepr i .H . MrprHr inH. x rux jeH

l raunc or!n(c unvnnau,'jrvc(o.xoRaiLr . ! 6 t . j ro . r r rnaGa r unprnrBr rBd drml i rHd no eL ! qn tRrnduntsrnxtsr'0!rNoKe NoHcre ilrciexets! je Hnreprroprtn BaH ropbc illerrie ! nnHoHrir.i lanMaqr j r n !a ( r x . l t xnnqxn 0 lvc rsn lxnkBrn , , c ocu t rn rpr .KoBrB. feHepFro ce \ioxe pehr !r cy.prBcpn 6!rr no6pn Najcropr. a offnx)ic ux

o lcdncros .ndncnrbcF. l thcnr ln r !hous . lbcing nghr werring I truftl rvrerrh llarge sized andsnall sl,ed b(n,e coint or a rdial cnwn onihen helds aniddle-sized broDze coiE).

Isidc trc!i Gordi lll. lhc loll.$iig.Llers rl\o dinred $jn\ in vnn,.rurujn Philrp I,Oiacilia, Philip ll. Tftj.n DecnE. |jlnNciLla.Dc.itrs ll. Quirnrs, Hcrcnnitrs Ettrscur.H.$,lian. Trcbo.un Gxllur, V)lu\irn, Aernil,an.v l le r i xD. N lar in iNa.nd Ca l l ienus .

t h. niaiI cham.tcrhtics of VnninacnLnmnt.g r. rh.ldgc nunbd olcditon\ rnd rlrtr*ide .nculrtrn The Vi'n,.rc,um curdncy rvasin n \e ou lnde LJnter N loes i ! : l f Prnnoo ia ,Dxlmxii. and D.cix. lhcif tcchni.il aDd anisir.Ltrrlur- \Drics d.t.idng on rhc !cd' ol NoringIn Bcnernl. il can bc s! lhat lhc engrr\ers reitsood crrnrnen aod Nh.t ch.rrctcrizcd Ihcm waslhc usc of!ariotrs minting niotrlds. rdi.b r.suL{

t i l

Page 149: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

ynortc6a 6PotHrx N.nrnn 1r ^oBriLc. uro cp*r nFro !(oHo.prQcrr\r 6o.arcru.v.B!Mtrfldo,jyN.Ka nl)o;r!(,rnja .. n,iD,jr rMac! nPoBrHq, ' t rn t r r \ k "BrBn. Hrporn lonpeqnrrouhr_ xpolonou(0xlpyxrjj_osra(. rokrnc cf. B. K.xxnh clrrJ)a na cy 'icr(r+rtr 1.n trP'tr iBoniir ;Lrtsrrr

onur. cnpo\xu.rl. llrNrnr. n.ril

BapDapr v r r ru r r \ r r ( r r j KoBn6r*oRtr!rr. ! B0irHrxirt!M!. Kodrruyjc rarDo.pro rxnrjcn :i.1i25s r. Onurx n lrr3.I.nor l r ( k r . i r r ! . r r r \ ! rH i r j c , ,eFec l rorrnrv *nro rrr(Br,* rnnrcKor DoDu.

Y lrr\rrturilMl c! or 2lS. . K.Rxinlt raHruHrd0 r i0 r u i !0nr r r 1 . , ( , roN rn y r lDnaropa nr (nq ' , r rHr . Tpx i r r r l cqr ra .Tpenourrari l'rra. !ortrrianx ! rMrnrj!rn

OrD. t r r l . !n t . ( . K .Rrour ! ! BoNrnaut r j y l r . r .8 r

rL I . ' r { ,o v (oHre( { !n r rpc !p lu r , rcco 0ornr r i r (e x .Ko i ro !cNco,'ydoF. Bnlxi,u,i!N j. n.c.r.Dr. offunlrnunotr! r RijrJros.(! nr,r ri,oFN' nn{}:.1r.r (orxrLeN Y ar(nl K.rxse noour nP.!-

r ioMnr rk .0 r0 r0 r t ) roarl)r,trrv flrE I

Bcnori rPtrnneloN rn (!DriLc. cr !l.oMrl)lnnuljo\ I nPoBBolrlr x 0Nfrn! tr\lt.

c rp r_ Br r i r ! r r t . i r r r ( r ! r " ) . B0NnHrqn lvy tc n t r , ) , ,n tao .L , r r raop i

cd ld i cdnrg nh , r l r \e . \ny V lnnrcnmpioduc-t.n nrods o

r r i ss of orhcr prorftialco i l r !es , .spc . ix l l ! b t rh . N . r ' ! . j - o l thcchr .Do log l . rL dxrx i1 J r \ f l r l \ . Ih r rh , l t . i r i . s theLLr.il .rr x c.in rrs mrored ln. A.cording ro VKond c \ oplnioD. lhis produdion $as rnL.lill'dctcrNncd by.nlGnien lirn Rom. r

(;o.oruL Df0\crishinenr of thc hniflrc.n.liricrl rinrbilill, aDd x gro\!nr! .ur,b.r rl'Sr rxric in.urions.rtrscd tho Vim,nnrrurn mirnto nop i l s r . t \n ! I r r r \ rk \dd io \T b !(;rLlic.ui o tlrc ycr 2-rlr255. lhc-!.ncmLsoclo-pohricnl .irrir!lorcci rcndcl.d .ll rnL.t,pxl

Frtrn :.18 rnrnnls. rftoniniiDr lvcrcroi'r.{l irr \lmii cnm lor I'hilip l. lnl.r litr rlr.r$trpci l\c.rixd lt! T.:rrrn Dc!LUi. TrchofiriGrlhtr !,.hArn lndAcnri trf

lhe opcDiD! o l .n in l . , i i L i io\rrmorc n xpncirs !ril. log,rxl il ;o.n n thcconrcr( ot rlr. (1d.. !,cn, n.lilicrLJd chnoincshdtun Vmifr!i'nnfos!ersctlanor-!$rizilloD,l l r rn F .$rnc brsn . \ l l .h s .s l i rdL ! !L ,o 2 : l s .NIcn coD! . ' . r id1 ing bogrn NI in l i I ! i \ rd. ridrog rch\ty. r\ ir onirils lcchnohric.lfrorN!n! ol!r dxl ils Dtrp.idnri lnr $tr,xgo\ inn..nr \rxr xd id.rL cboi{ lor x nri rn!. .o t . . r i r rh r i l r Lu lg r .xd i ion o lo fc p iodu. r io rrn,l th!.rsiir!. in brsi. loi-!ir! (.dtritrttr.s. r.\ c a i r ' ru .d c i . l r rn .n (dnL ld ,dxkcAl .

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Page 151: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Mquuwta

Med;ieinc

Page 152: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

9l(r^."0"'" BtrN, Dutrj)Ma ,MarpaArunjy NeaolrtHcKe 3!o'rtr€ Ayry oxo@aaM Mnn€H'jyMa. EpojHn rp{eoronnnpeauern, noceu ou DtsHcaHcKe- n. cE Ionrrercxe unBDmaqtjc. lccyMB{D cy nok3rc3laBaEa onpeteHur ieRapc

@ft o 3npauBy. Koja cexe no HajcraPrjxx

Y/ne eatory ot vininacn,m has aseven - nillflniun long medical lradnion.Nuncrous archaeological finds, ranging fromvinca to La TCne cililizations, a.e an indisputable nroof of thc prcscnce of certain medicalskills and health car eaching all tn. Nay back totnc mosl ancient civilizations.LF

tr6 Mte(ltatto ko3letur\Ka nntjo tLtrt eek

'd11 Jiuaoun. ntii 'ooP{jcp ue^q1 c ' 6 { n 3 ^ r ! P \ B $ E u ' c o / n r r n d L e N u ri u , i n a f ! n F . r c , J r \ n c

,!n Ja@rc,!6 np!{!ropri!{i !u!!s , q o P r n , , p u { u { ,

Page 153: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Jlolrxx prNcxrx ,eDrta noccr(ov I3 .Ra r r lBnhe rHa! l tnc r t tu r r reHo Io , !ri,xc I coqniarnc npoicuc (qc hc rNrrarn

Hr cBe cqrcpc tauuor I ntsBrrHor xnBorayp6rrnrlurja I {.B.rnr * parBntcrnL!x l ! t r r r8nMa ru Ho ro rn^y xBanr rc r x rL ' i , rx l r ) \ ,oHor .n0ounrurur . Bcnt r ( . nocDr.nyha c! n.croflrvrr tsr 0o,ar op.arr3oBan. rn I rD.a3ere{rrrtrlctrc. ro r Hi0c olpxnorr, .rMo ! PxM!.Bch 0 cu^r nposuxr i.li llrpcrDx rlo6fo

roM r ( .3 !n , " rq rouo\ Npc)rojaiL. rsrIr (r"0rrrnr. cokLl,jl rrsi(ecrjqrrnrc Bn\!ra,rrjr\.xu ]D. : Kaox .o iknnn B l r r r

lhc arri\al .l lhc Rorn.r Iroops al rh!b.gimnrg ol the l. ceDlury .nlscd rortonants..io poliricll aDd so.ial chang.\ $hich rcr. roldllLLcnce 1ll sermcns oftublic rnrl Driratc lifc.UnrorizllioD aDd .onrid \rth dcv.lopcd $cie l i cs s ign i l l . xnr lv rn rpDred t Ic q raL i \ o f ln i r r !!l the rnodnhoDous p.ttrlr(n)o Ther. \'.r.grcal xdncvdncrs ,o thc lieLds of !i.!ari/hcahh car. dd r.DnrnrL h!ei.tr.. \hich \rsn !1 . \chAr \e ly ies t r i c lcd ro R.d1e h t r1 \ ! rs p rc -sen ' n a l l rhc ph \ i ' r c .s oLrhe FnrD i f . lhc r . l lprved $rc.6 silh rell dc\elopcd lvar.r rLf0lr-�and s.$cago \!\lems d drc crfl.ncc ot ftrbLlcbxrls x.c t(x,1 rf lhe Ii!h s.ndrds.l rh. ]ihab-i rxo( .1 \ rnn inxc ium ' , \ \ p rd .1 l l re ncr Natol rle. public barlL t\.irc{l or imponaDr illlu

Page 154: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

qnarnra 3HalajHo !fxly sa apturDeH!KBorrpabana. nocehxMrx c! nx My'!KapuuuxeHe, a Brxou croxeH clApxat. ca MHacf{quM lBopasa a.(ynarxrnMa, npyxio le MorynrerHe a{iervarc rera acaxy. ftMHacrn(y

flpBr npodecsoHairr rc(ap! t B.MmauujyMr ce vo.y nperrooauurt lou tpaHoj +arr ocHnuarla DojHor ioropr. cpenx{oM I Be(a. v ca.raBy cDa(e peuoBH€ tnoMohnc jelnHflre .nyxrr! cr ! BoiHune{apr. v neprouy o! (pija I III u.Ka, mEaBuMrHa'(ujyM nspacra y MyHB\{n4!v, a3amM MoHrjyi B'xoBo oPrcycrBo ie (cB!v

Csaxna rcHqeHrprlul. Boj.Re. n).oBaqa r pxMc{nx.PataHa, doBorn no trdpeBa

ence on the social liles ol rhc popnlation. Theywcrc frcquented by nen lnd wonen. and thcirvadcd ancnnies, such 0s gymnasiutos and hotand cold bads oilcrcd full bodysage. plrysical workoul and bathing.

Wc can expect thar the li(r proltssionalphylicilns w.i. prcscnt in Vnnin.cium duringihe early phile .l mililary canp foundation, inrhcmid-lncentury. Mil,rary thrsi.ians wcrc panol clcry rcgular and auxiliary unir. Dunng lhcperiod liom thc latc l'-li cenluies, whenViminlcium becane a nMicipiun. and lhen acolony, their pEsence rvas canumcd rvnh tull

A stiong .oncenlmtion of lroops, merchanls and Ronan cni2cns brought about ancxpansioD ofthe cull ofAsclepius and xn afirnation of Crcck physicians lnd surgeons, whasc

Page 155: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

( ! r ra LcKtnx0a n a+nt aqnt . r f \KnrneRrr r ' \ " ryP,x r r j t r k 0 r rL r rd 'Br Hxfla]eHoi Dr;rxqrir. BcPc(! r MrD,ic(] !e!lqrr! ca !.orf.6oM a ajnrF. ijatarrqa..nM..r, tr H.t)xrlNnirax\ 'li.t\!q,. n.oeoel.nortrc(xr Nclorre npooecroHriHrx. u(ono

ra nPahcJLc Pa3Borr vcqrunnc rar.P-rmrij,, Br\ntr,,r',jrM! r,jD.b.r .rax.(o.Hrcefu I rophoj NIcnij,L. !r( ,Hr"rjr crnocpcunr ! ncno.pcqnr r ruopn Kxo,krcperd xnnrt) (.I)ncrr.. rHairr(r r.a.fno.prqnrtn x on' ftrHrnH',(oln carPxc r!n!,{xEr o xH.roNrtr.+mr.rdrr',. Mrord0l,,. +arNaucjr.k.j 0xsnypr ' r1 i ! c t ) ro rL t i r t l r l ) ra r .xe r .ao l ) loryrdrrte cy trorHxrtr rrklro' K'!" rr{tso nB.ynr ry oP. I01r .u r iy r ; rp rN l !eHc c i ! ^6e .xyxnocrir o6aD-. ncKrpr ! Roinoj r qrufH.r vnprBr :l,R.H (.ir t i.irco r\Rf!.rnPonrcyte Jr. cDx(r rer rj. !oF. rolnrr Ier. r(o\oPrc rcrno. rc(xPa rrJior 0r BPcMeIr, \n rorn ja I l x t , 1 ! lS l6 l . r ) . !o rBosaDa

\.rl \ras bascd or s.ictrtiti. radnior Rcligiotrsrnd ousicrl olrdici,lr \ilh tlrd usc .f chrmt.mxsic.l nrells. syinLrols a0d incoirpichensibLclbnnulac \.s srrdMLlr.| drir.n oul br r1r. ncrlrod\ ol cdtr.xt.d t \\nJn!L thynlirn\

The.. nr. iftlrrect aod diiec' sources whichaf. silnificin 1nr coDrpLclitrs our pidurc .f r.d.vclopnictrt of mcdiriDc ir vini'rxriurl rhcLxrgc{ u rbrd s . r l c c r r ,o t ln0er N{ , ,cs rCLrr\ica hr{orrcSnphy rfd origii L medic.l\runes cotrtanDe nolcs or aDlronry. fhlnoLoSy. trlhok)gt. fhMnrccrticnl xod surg,crl therln' r.e ur.Ll rs nlni.i $r.es. lr\!s rnich$icrLy rcguL.tcd Ibc or!.iriz.rlon ol tIc h.alhta ,c s !ncDr add rh . d t r t i cs . l x thysrLh in mi l itin inJ.irih!n \enicc n.c knlnyn li.nr Ron Dbr{o,r,g |rh}, A lx\v nrlsed b} Au!o$ prr-sc r lbed 'hderch les ionhrdroempLor i vcphr . �s i -c i .ns . r ! [ cms. . .hor1 \ ! .s ob ] igcd ro 111. .Dcth)nrLM ] \ l r \ ! lnn{her ime lnAnk io ru \Prus(\ca.s llrl lirl) stlpulfie! lh.r thcrt s[alL b. DoDrorc r][D fi\. phr.isiciaDs in sn.Ll rotrds. doro,c llrD sc\$ -r iiiid siz.d or.s xid no nrrc

Page 156: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

HalBrlre ncr rcmpa t MairM .PauoBr a,ceaaM y cpen6nM. a sajBuuc ac.cr y naBHlMrpanounNa nPoBnHurji- (d(au je 6uo n

HijeBamHrrs nonaqn !o6{jeEn cyryrei! aPxeoiou(ux ncfpaxxBaBa or(prheM opr.nraiHrx NealqnHcnx nHcrpyMerara, nerara x re{oBa. ia(ua orxPlha HaBrMrHaqljyMy Hrq ter{! n !o cana jc nyii-nrrcMHo e,ue nojernkrd,r x 3lrBopeHux(r?o6Hrt qcnma I'r MesurrrHcK! rHcrpy

.yhaBaJy cerex.

lhan ten in povincial catnals, such as was

Thc ro$ accuratc dala was oblained durlng archleolo gi ca! exca v arions, lhmuCh lhc fi.dsof ori8inal nedical inslruments, stamps ,nd nedicincs. Such discolcrics serc nol unconrnron invinri.aciun and a numb$ of indilidual andclosed (sF!e) unns havebeen rvnrcn abour rhusfarLrr Mcdical instr0ments, $amps and nredicines allow sclc.tivc aDalysG of indi!idualbranches offredicine. thamacy and ph.macol

! !^tr @cr

o!P!ir ' ! l rc!,

3 i ! E d i { e L 5 r . v } f { . ! n . r n { i r ! \ v d u i . i !d '|ryai' No :]r: IBsqau, isr 3A snPABrLL. B rrtuot! orole

r r f i n L n \ t t . N t r N r l r r r \ B r E , . u P n j !

ry !3itNx) 1rr 3qo,rrnnr: l u$u{

, ! ! N ! ' ! o ( ' r u

, iil' <m*. "rt*

Brsftqql,, 3^ 3IPABSE

Page 157: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Jrrtr!$ 4rttr i\ ' ^1 t,l t ! '

rrunt aHa,rrry tuje;uHrx .paqa Me$uFHe

$atMaurlc n QapNakororxjeCa aet0roprjc BuMuHnrrr|'ni noyr.

aano je orpelrLetu 5 rc(apcKnx .po{:ioBr.Urdfa cc !c Moxe *'.,parx (.racnoN. jePjou yBe( Hnjc raBpueHr KotsrerBaurjaucroxyrHo ' ,o ( lc rxo .Narepr ju . . r , l xco_rorMx rc rPaxeBrra . r npBoN. ko l r JcnorouaH y lll BeK. c.xllH,crr lc renorH.rr,rn.tlirut thtrtsu! 'z C/,"/drd.. rajcqno caxnpypDor HHcfyMcnraP{eM. IlprM .po6je (.pes mtreprBMa .tcosan r nrHlrera.canpxlo r rr.rpy\leHr 3n rpenaHrlrujv rLr vrpchev ieKapc(oM rpo6y uabeM je (vr'!a rane{ .8c . rPoaenHe KoHcrpy(q ' !e ca noK,onueM kojn cc yBra,olo ! xnc6otrc. cBa(.oayHyrpa,IBrxKacerar acts.l n.uonaqcaxrsaHoM !pn,Ro'! 4q(clPaHov ra xrrnjyrrapmMa Ila ocfloB! Iocanaurepnroprje uapoBa, onPexeceHajc y lrlll B.

tire phlsicia.'s gralcs havc been ELiablydlted in Vinnracnm This nu'nber ca.nol bcconsidered obc inal. aslheconsenarion oldefact finds unco!€red drring cxcavations is srill.neoing.Ihcn6t grave, drled 10 thc 3!r ccnnLry.belonged t, an uknown ',/cdr6 .hn1tr sus t'Ita7,d/dr" rnll conraincd $lreic.l insrunenrs Asccond aruve. npan li.d a caL(criunr, o$oundsdnd pnrccr, aho conrar.ed a tcpanation nNl[-inenr. j A third $trgeons grare coihin.d arhrce.pan mediuine b.\ with a lid thal fitled rntosealing eroovcs. EFch ofrhe inner compnnmcnhhld irs orvn lid Nilh a $iF ha.dle hinged ro thcbox B.sed on rheFcvionsinrds from the leriklryofthc lmpne, rhebor rvds datcdla thc:dL3icenrunes (nsure 126) I A founh gr,!c also coD-rained hedical instnmens .nd a medi.ine box.yhich nrosi lirel! consistcd oflro lerels. Themcdical iNrrument\ lbund in drc srave nrcluded:

162

Page 158: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

(d. 126). Lr v ccrBProri rru1l! .t .c rxKotrcDaraM! e,rrurnc0 nHcDlNeHrrr I (!arF

3aneroBc.{otr.d tsqucpoBarlrrlc.cncroirntrF aBa HnBoa or xHc,PyM.nrra c! nalcrc

lBe coHre. nncrpyMeHr cr prilirr\i n.roM Io6rnq !eKth t , narc ra o ! x .NeHr . i lBenonye. (ao r BehB (.Rccxnh. v (oBlcx h!je 6{0 crenlrc! lnr{ts nHcLlir_\r.trrrfxlM n

rymja a rtoMNa Ih ooHoB! rnnrdbd{npuno.s ! .po6Be +opMc. qaroBaH ie r xPrjI I r npBt nonoF!H! l l J o txa . r '

J,l3Fcrro 3Ha,,ntrH H,nar 0f .ncraora.po6 rexapi cncu'llrncre rr 6oiecrr okr

lhtetlkts.t rhiflrE!\ d1ldi,,r. fpo6 ie. HrocnoBy HoBua. ra]oB.ts ! 'efnon ofc I arcna(12+199. , ), Kpaj.N I x norelxoN lr BekrIexat jc caxp.$eH .a KoMnrcrnnM nHcrPtMdraprjeM r rexodrr. H.trryveHraprl ccdooFo on: lerrpr ckrner., nBe 0, ne Klke3a +nrcuplH,€ iunl'amrlpa(r{.,e x nory.c. fn'crpy\relrrr cy celara3dn na noK,orrl! (i_rrj.. a t npc'.laaaNa Klfxjc ct 6!nr c\eureHB Ncxr(,NeHrr (oMnrKl He .rfrnypc y tbopM nrcrrna (rrny!a). r l ,)nnixy npau(a ucnor(yrrje ca nercBrva. H.nrlr. .e NePMeprrananera(cn .128. L : ! . l l 0 .131) Bpcn nHcrprMeHra ,lo(a3yje !r .e p!;u . ociron \rptpry(oF je raxro Bpro cioxeHe onera,r',jc ,6oq. (ao triro cy KaraPaKlr n rFlxr\I H, aoynyhyjc ! x+nj.xn.acraB rcKoBa. (oiu cy e(oprcrnnn ra ne,reH,c rtnancHc(tx npouccau nocrnnbe lrara r . MxcoBHe ,roi! !e ilonec moxa norBpltlje r nciar .qnor r.kpa ((,rd/lliitd luri.rur. {.tB Je ntaBti. rcKoBc rarlaxor {, 6a3n ua{irpaH..ir Prr lesocrrpaxoila. aonc.rn (oja lc nocrejrrrrmFFrc. muHi xnRora. pa3yNrrBa je y

1$. sounds.x h.i rerslr.ne{llnprl.tc. No L.\cs and a conrpar"bly Lrrae crseThc $re c.nlr,ncd m cnrn. scl of rsiru.rcrs.nd . niedicine box Rr!e,l on .rher objecl\ ]nundatrd otr ns sh.pc. lhh smve Bas daled lo rlre endo l rh . : ia t rd th . l i s l lD l lo f thc l . . cn t t r l . r r '

The grnve.l r speculin lnr oyc Ji:casrs\.,trlit:.1 .hnrdlrs o.rlarns) is ofenooidinary signili.anrc. Bascd on lhc .oiN n con-rrine!, the grrve rns drltd b rhc p.rnJJ pri.rtlCa lL lenu! (yd !^ L19 199 ) . x r the end r l rho L iatrd bceinning ofthe 2', century The pb)slclanrvx\ buricd xlonesidc a tullscl ofnNtumcnlsandine{!lcr.es The sd ol ,nsrune.1\ .on{din.d: llursalpcls. lno hooked needles, used ror l!$enin!mL\cle\ bd lisrcs, pnr.c$. calamct-nccdlcs .ndLe!ers. The irsrrunenn Lreretl"ccdon rip ollhob!\. wlrilc thc.omparrments niside Ihe box contrined nrodicincs in lbc lorn .l paslillcs (pills)r.d porder Bel{N rhe ned,.in. b.\ lay a marb le pa lene ( f igures 128. 129. l l0dnd l l l l Theson of instnmens found proves lhat the sravebrl.ng.d to an c!. surgcon who pcrfoucdrathcrcomple\ ey€ surgery, su.h a re'noving carrrcNard t.choma. The chemicll conrposnion ofthencdirincs l..ds lo nrc samc su8ec$ion. .s nrcsererc lsed lnr htdling nrllaJnJ.aror] tr.ccs.sand lor drcsnrs wounds. i Thar ele diseases\!oc a masnc occurcnce h .ho proved by nreranip .r'a0 oplrlhalnolo-!lsr lCti,\ hliiu:/rrridrrr){ho trcduced \aiion bas.d trachonrmcd ic i l cs r ' lha ! r rFchoma. a d iseasd lyp ic r l l ]nccompantnrg thc mililar)" way of lifc, was wide-spre.d r. Virninnlum was unde6bnddblc, dr. r.viminacnm s high concent tninofmilihryndF

Thd lidd ol r lrqrana!.n lnslrumcnt o rhcafoEmenrturedg yc oJ n \urgeon, a\rvcllas theunique find oia skull berrl.g ifuce\.llrenrna

r I c r u d A ' r q ( ! ! , t r f f i l 1 3 r r u r r i \ . ' { .

,^ c ood Lr l . I . r N d 1 1 1 1 6 . r N i . , ! r { i . . 3 : r j f A n L L , -

t6 : l

Page 159: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

BwmaurjyMy (ojr je rMao cEarey {o!qer-

3sasajaE nara3 npeA.raMa n mcrpyMeHr 3a rpcnanaunlyj y Beh noMeHyroMre(apc(oM rpo6y. (ao i Fa,HcrreEoorqfte no6aBe ci rparoBrira rpenasaqnje.Pann e o rrnrcloj NcarqrHc(oj rpenaiarrnjn (oja je mBeaeHa jou 3a Mora pnMcKolBolHoka, a pauor oBo..,xrpyPu(or 3axBara'ce uoxe caMo nperrooaBnm. TpenaHa(rjae noMnbejor y xnnoKparonajDax"jn aeo 'scrryMeHiapnjyMa 3a 6eso{3BoteBe cy Hox crpyrac n na3y6.Getsa6ypruF.rn Pa3DujeEocr McanqnHe ' dapMaq,jc y BnNn,aq,jyMy qorlpbyjy ! 6poj!!nojelutsacHr, oy!.JHn nr fpo6nr 3da3!coHlr. cnaTyia, narera, .ncqrjcxarnciaj areraj nutsqera ' ap. (m. 127).ocrM rou, oHn noKa3yjy !a ce !a rcpnrcprjrBnM,Haq,jyMa, HajBepoBarnrjc y BojsoMioropy. Hda3ua borHrqa (yate tud ka riun).aQo{beooHantsrM tr Dp,o qPycHnM rekPr-Ma. Mror! {tsdpyMeErr cy nMar" npqMeE! yMeunq@'. {FapMaq't' ' (o3Melqn,jep je yPrMy trpooecrja ,ekpa noupa3yMeBara x3Ha6a B QapMarcnomje n 6ma oojearuesay jenHoj nrvrodr.lr, noper Bojsrx rekpa,Moxe ce rpernooaEtrfu npncycrBo n qnBrn-Hn re@pa RoJ. cy, npeMa norpe6n, reerrtnaqtleHre no xynaMa n sa rrqy Mecra

tion, are signincmt.Ilhad been a q/pical nedicalLrepanation, pedomed pnib lhe Ronan soldierwas stiU alivc. wnib lhe reasons for this "surpical

inlcruc.lion can only be suessed. Trcpanationwas nenrioned as early as Hypocrite\ sntings,and the nost imponant inslrunents ror pe.fom-ins il ivcrc a grating knire lnd a senaled drill.r 3Nuneous individral nhcellancous or gralennds of sounds, spatulas, palenes, speci ul tnives.scalpeh, cbisch, pincd erc. lesdry to the devel-opmcnt of nedicine and phmacy in Viniha-ciun (neure 12t). Aparr fiom this, thcy snoq $attbere was a hospiral (valetudinariun) inViminaciun, nos likely wjibin lhe militarycanp. which enployed prof€$ioml ahd leryknowledgeable physicians. Many instrumenlswere uscd in medicre. phamacy lnd cosmetics,3s lhe nedical profession h Romc cnrailed pharneological expenisc, so thal fie s,ne pe6onwas bolb a physician a.d a phaftacist. L, Apartfron military physicids, ! pEsence ofcivilimthysicians cd be asumed loo, who, whenEquired, cred tne palient in rheir own bome andnade nedicines on the spol.

! \ x M r { r B r u ! E c s i F

, . ' + i l i * i { l a " " * s - " " e l w u i l { { | ' e '

Page 160: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Pe,nutuja u Kynru

RcUgi,on and. c"u.lt

Page 161: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

:2.***' p-,""", ,i lerlrop,j nBtr!nHaurryw .e .rBapaty floB'! Kliryptsr Ipenr.rornr olHoci (ojn c! cBoiqBeHxcpedr trBuM seroB,!i Ulpcr8a.lla BrxoBo

0opMrpi6o J_rrqain cy. xrR. r.xarrr. ra{o! lp lu rseHo, , . r r ruc( ! l cnoBx r l l r l .LRy.(oj! .y cc cH.xRr Norc(roBarr r Hr

creq4rFian r Bpro cioxeH g'$r,(o

mo!R crapoe{d'r,(of cranournurBr. BojF nocrr(, 13 l,lrarrje | |pra 1,1 nt.usnurja.ysoonn! .y n.lrDv 6polHrx 6o^nHc'rtst nqnroua. H'r\.ron unpcrl_v no.oloBrrtr c! rolpebcrr ncruprj.xn rt.!!u! y (otx\. reIorno r1o urqrrrrpnrrrre r..en,.r0ra rPa!.Ko. ! rp r ro x . rcnncrn ! (o . r lope(nr n lDn

or oorx 06rxcM r r6crexeHj . n Bp.Ne Xo l t r j rHx ( l l r ' 13s . . . ) .

aHapolrru N1,fra Atperrin (lol lrio r.) ilolPyro. oPtrteH rriro \.rcnrcnoraitr ia BFdren0Hr.r,F ( cD.fa. msr ce !mjMri F^0triuNm H.rio ,(,Bclirtt 6l)oj cr_pnjcrux pe.t$a llx repmopojr Rnwirrq0jydr je no lBrbesx ra jcqnrua .ayux o6ndr0 Aonrxe r d,pfj.koj KoMa..Hu.IPcayrrr errr!rrx u pcrr.no

Je noJaBa c rH( le fn rMa. ro ln re no l r rHocxmrnJu l te;rHoN3ar(y (rxa8 c rjro Br!trHrrutyM. o+n-

unFrHo ce rnorcrnFano Hr PrNctnn rRsolqHlv 6oxxHcitstrN, (ota cy cryxxx. r. irrrrl!lpxaBe. ru.r!. Bri.kc n nopornue

Epojra ooxrHc Bx x Krnr.ur Koj,, cr_craHoBHrKa BtrMrHrunjtMa

/ / rh Lhc r r rL JLr I (hc Ro 'n ins io (h r(cifnorr of Viminociunr. ncrv .LhunL and rlign,u\ r.lations rcrc crealed. rvhich rvcre rypicxlof rhe .ental parls ol the Enrpire. l.cal xddrider $cn, t.lil,.xl ..iditions iD the EinDne.\rhi.h srongly reflecred ufon vnDinxcium. infl!-

The \ffcili. and !crr"f compler ethn,.compositioD ofthe irnlige.otrs t.ptrlatioD aDd nrennliurl garis.n from li.ly and lhrD orh.lpnlinces rndlnl rhe trcscn.c of larious derid\and crlE Certiir hisroric n.h.n6. at whrch,nlld ofThraci.n aDd C'ec. Hellensli. sctLcsoccutud, {crc lsvorrabLe b lhen strd ing Tb.l'jrn{areoJ setrlc liomthcsc rcAionsrEi!ed inthc rimes oi lladnln (ycrr\ ll? lr8). aDd espe.rlllt olNlarN Aurelirr lycr^ L6 lS0) ,^sc.-orrl O.cn txlrH.llcnnric N.!e rri!ed during rhcrcieD oflhe Sc!erusdyna{!. NhcD th. DUrbe.tl's l r ianrccnL i ts in lhernn lun i l \ ros .n i tup ly lhe

nresenre ol r c.nnnunily tiom the D.lichn.egorol SyrlN CoougJrc nr Vininlciro hrs bemconi.ned.Lr The rcsult ol cllDic .ird pollri.aluoh.av.lwas syncrerism, Nhich sas comDL$ellundeRr ddbl. ir a cosmopohun d.sdic DlVimiDacium rvr\ olli.ial Ro.ran deitles rvcrdinsisr.d on pubLicLy. Thetr lun.rio. was lo prorectthB nrlq (hc cily. rhe mililnry rnd the llmil!

Ihe nuncrors dcities.nd cults utheld blthc vimnraclu'. totuli.. w3s documented rnctier.phic monumenr!rrr nnd stuLpturcs ol sodsLI, rs wcll as by Flieficons I Ihus lar.lhcfc

Page 162: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

4 f r { ! ! r 01 i , r r t r L \ r rn | r J l r x , ! . noN3r , ' ( |

, 3 r r r r ) . d l , r i r , ( t r r l r : : l r . r n i . . r J

tD .K r0 .L iD \ . , ) r , , r , nd r f t i cH , 1 ) r , rq ,u r i . r r ) . i n I r i 1 rp ,1 .

( , ' " r , x r , x . nNb . r0 f ( \ ra r l l f . a rc roMI iYn I tR i n r B t r rnH , , t r l l rr x . rL , l . r f 0 i r l , r . I r r .

a , ' n rn . r f

t J r i t s l J r r r i i \ c . r i r I i r . c i d r0 . . p \ i .

t ) ! ! r ( . l l x i r r . . i L r .

hx. b!Jo n. rr.l,xJo o!icrl c.nlnnltiLn ol rrnrr r i l s r ' r l nn .5 . i s l h rn tun : r . ! . . i l im I i n o f1 l r . l o l L ! ! r ! o l c . r . lD cuLG. l h . D ) l .D r . rLGrr vinrrxrrtrnr hri br.o lcrlr r rrh if nnxL,lotrilbr Lj rorol f. \'hD r r$ ri.{l ,r n.1i.s li tufb.si. -!rorDr d.il.r ol rlr' orli.ix] ltD.mtrfrnlLir.o .rl'u R.trrn Jrni.. o,i.o1f d.,!r.

Page 163: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

o.raia pnMc(. 0oxrHclDr. oprleHluHN I

BepoBxB,c y n.c\itJrrocr r oocr. rtLc6o.oBa ro|rc\Ho, ur r rx kijrNr .e x!'xeldprrr norcroBehljt. 6nno je BeoNr cHr^Hov Br rraunjyMr nr Kora norrlc r naj8ch!6l)oj eurp4rKtr\ rrBerr !ifheHnr xyrlrvano{o jn rk . c rNo Hr ie rHo\ dNeHrky3a6erex.nr c npcrcrnBa iiorcBern. nr! orx I ncltc+or..

The bcliel ,n Lnnnonrlily xod in thc ox,srcn.c ofeods ofnrc u0denrorld. rirh rhich thes.uls.flrc dcad $c!!id.ntiti.d. \!!s vcrl slroner Vrdinrciu( li.ni $h.rc thc la'gcn rumboofepigrnphic {ledicafons drdded r. rhe {ul\ ollhedcad comc. Onll'! a siDel. monuine0l depicted lheg.ds.l rhc und.Roru. Plul. and P.s.thonc.

ludgrng b' dre nurnher .l monurncnls.lupilcrlv.s rhe mon popuLai Itonrao deny, rvho\eculr. as rhal ofthc $Lprtnic Roman eod. \'xs rcg-trldcd hy $c rrre by tridd\ .l .llicial r.guLriofs. In rl nroLrrbilii! therc \r! r rdnrpLe dedic.icd lo rIis sod cnher on nre leirilor] ofthe mllilary cxDrp or ni thc cniliaD sfilcnicnt. .hrnonrRcgina rdd Nlln.i\a Arllni nlrhorglr pxrs ofrhc ofiicLrl Ronrr tr,rd. brre nol hden dorrDrcnlcd xs scpamtc dcnics in vnninicnm.

Thc Dililr_v lrotuLrhi ol Vi,.nia.runi.e\encd rheir grellBs nrdr.D.c liir H.tuuLcs

Page 164: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

clrrernr no 6pojv cn.Llc r(,. Hnj,onvnnPHrje prircKo iioxaHcaBo atro je Jrnnreprxjn J3 (yrr, Kr. tspxoBHor prrlc(o. iior..pc.vlncrfu |rNaB. rBaHnqllv nf.ntrcrNnHrjrdpoBrmnje na cc ra rqnrbirrx BriHolIorcP. nrr rrnDnrr.. daceiLd H.nuro xpnMoFor 6ora. JtnoHr Pe'nHr ( NllHepB! Ar.ycrai !a(o jreo rB.HrrHe pn ckc rfnj,ne. yBnMrHNurjlMy nncv norDtbeHc (!o caMo

Boi c(o crlHoBHrurBo Blwnraqrr !Ma jc H j jBehe

pnnsril! N, war deity Ihc qtralir), ol rhe mon-!nen( dcdicared to llcrcrlcs sugSerrs rhat dicrc.uy have bccn x rcnpLe dcdicated ro lhis grd.sho Saincd the greliesr popularilr during rherc lsn . l the sererus dynxn! (hsure t8 l .Hcrculei heruic deeds wcrc.li.i dcpiclel on rhc$orks of applicd an a.d on mirri.rurc bronzd

TLro!1r.6 dedicalcd ro Netrune. priinari-ly ihe eod ofilo\ying*rle^, "nd subsequcnlly,.l'tre sea !trd sailds, rerc reeistcrcd inVmDacrnr. The possibilily drat nrcrc $rs a rhnd

l 7 !

Page 165: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t.u1.t DeNhh' tp^onn lt .rtr 4dtl

npeMa xepqry (.d.,t!lerl. !ro npBeHcrDctsoso 6ory Para. Ksannrcr cnoveHxmrocebexn xep(yrt y(a3r'je Ha mcrojaFexpaMa oBor 6ora xojrje najDeby nonyrapHocrGKao y BpeMe EnHacrsje ccBepa G, 913)XepryroBa lyHlcxa uena cy cccro npeAdaEeHa Ha nPeuMernMa nPnMeEelrc yi'er

iod! u Y c,moj 6PoHJaHoj macruu'.Y BrMndaqcjyNy cy l]ertdPoDaHa nBa

omapa nocBetren! HcnrtHy, nlBo6nrno 6ofvdqdnx !oaa, a 3a1uM, MoPa u roMopaqa. HaMorldEocr nocrojaba rpcher, y(a3yje cltr

6o'{c(o $yn$rloHanHa aHa,na A

JoBaroBtrha Gn. l37a) Lrj BepoBarHo e !

aher h suggesle! by thc tunctional synbolicanalysh of A lov,.ovic (6syre llTa). rr

vinnraci!fr probably had a renple of Neptune*hosc donato^ serc Dosily n€nbcs of ihesociety ol ttc Dmube sailos.

The Templc of Neprune aho conblned asan c oflhe Ma$a Marer (Ore/es), who, juds

ing by this. had no separate temple dedicatcd loher A h,rblc slatue orrhis godde$ with ! danascd face. The danase rvas nostprobably innjcr€d in lhe Chrisrian Pcnod

Ihe lact rhat monumenrs dedicalcd toMercury lhc sod oftade, wcre scarce in t largccomnercial cenlrc as Mni.acium h suDrisrng.

A i t u s s r L t r \ o ' o l l p r B r ,

' L ! \ N I t 0

1 7 1

Page 166: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

BlvrraunjyMr no.oi.o Hd'irHoB xp.v o,jn.l lcqx(arrn najccufic 6!nn cranou!y|t!xeBa ir!Hascxrx 6l]onaf a.

Y Henr rHoBo\ xpnnt ie a rn lc rar la Ber rKe MaiKe

(Kr6cra). (ota. .rnchr oo rovc. rrj. hkracBor cano.ainHr rt.v. xr BnvrtsaurjyMarorle eDvepHr craLla oBe fi'r,Be. c!nrpasrpaunN rnrreM. FIajBePoBarHnie qro.rrehe6e xarsaa r3 .cpnona x|ruharcrDa

XrHeHatrle rouar.( nr. r RenrkonrprcBacxov rreHrpy kKaB je 6no BnMnH.rrajyv. croMcnlqr nocuchur 6o.t rp.oBrre !

Decontne depictlons of Nlercury reF muchmoN common. cspccially diosc on rIc hatrdlcs of

The cuh of icnilny ras pan of nrc ofi cial$arc Panrhcon. aDd ns cxponcnh wcfc thc dirinc.ouplc Libcrand Libcra only a snrglc.pigraphi. drdicdrb. dedi.ared t, rhis c.utle hds beenregisrcred. Phallus shaped pendants rre rnuchnrofe common, whic[ su4.sts that $e cult ofLib$ \eas n.ft potula. .^side ll-on rhis, tvoIarge stone monurne.ls depicling phalluses sugse$lhatdrcre may have been a remple dedicated

171

Page 167: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

ncuxotroNrt. Nl.pKIp!. tsr.\ 6f. nr' 3HrrHocy 6fojnrie ,Lr.ncra8c iek,nr uM kpirrcpa. t r rpo ! r1o t r ! x fuK i \ . kc l i !0 !x rx

: " c ,c raBt rBrHr , ,u f npx lB i ro . F rHreoHa bxo jc n (ynr inorlH.crr' x ILc.o8Hocrnr(. 6oxnHcRo 0at. .lr6eF tr .nrra.I[P{n-p! mi, lc crlo rcrx ts .n,,fra{lrckr ,. Bg'nocdeicfl uBon oapl. .lHrlr(r .\ iifoilnr Inpruecw y oantrk! 4rrnlcr. ̂ olir vkx rrJt ̂ a l.rynr 6.m .!tracfr an. nonlrrPHtrir' () !r!.a. rur 3.na (xreHr cr.\.rrk cr oFc;LfaBo\! grrn!.r vnyrlrl Hr Nlr!E8.cr nocro

t l ,K . Bpno n ' , r !n . txn ! l l rPcr i ! .(]rr 6oft Orruanr. r_ Brrrrornq0jylr lc Pc.rc rposan *N, i ! I j .n t rnun ! . ' !Nc(n \!nyCro,! xojc q ueci.l u.n c L N Hnu/ to j re r o fn ln BrN0HU0' rv ! . cy i jFo nxKrnlM xrBot)r .r jor ltcK tsPn. xnBrNna.aH.oN t t r , t r r ru rM oape; r t rNx . r . l0Hauoue ia opcrnoc fts(! nrj. Klrr urNtklrH6 ' {bn ( i r0 n .k r .ox r rL .a8 . .xu !H i r \

4vH(rulial. lrr(, r,,rn. nonyrrFtrtr 0..orrro rp{..rouKn tsrnr i0 ro norBPhlll

A f r . . rouKr ; rok !N. raoBi r Brcor

! nrpcxrrol l3 trd.|xrNcpn.a ncr r . rPoBrHr ! 610.M cnoNeHrr (xrocBelieHlr ijoxxHckoN ntl.v rc(nDc(r\Berrrnfl{ E.xr1.l r X' ftrlr ()qlB.!. c!

!Be \!cF\epHe ijxrc. r rr ocHoB! Br;rrrr0..rc la d r la . \o . I cc , t t inxcarn osoM ( ln 'v

Eo* isc rua roxer fBn, . l .un j r . c r

BrN! ts l r l r lMr 0oLf ry r1 ] l iBe l r ( ) j r -o)rnoce Hn rLrx. lejrH riD.r l. no.BencHfedn jy i ro rnBc l0 \c . t ; rp ! r r rBHr l r \ cc rnKo je je I ro ropJ_ n in . np . lBxheoo i .nMoPn oKyrn ,arLc lh l rehcN j . o l lDrHr 0 r !o f t !C6 ?a). O3.t .Plnonpn(L l ! ( ln | .P . rc r r t r . r BB . fP6.Btrr!flxqll]rNr_ k.t!.lnp)Kr cloien! R.rcxy

+n.yp!.r flrrMr Hrrl nrR.v I 6rKoN. c,tr16on{va nposrr|lxicxc Boic(t Prrr .. o repcoHu4lKaunj" trNsnirqrre nntr tx!.f f|ana

]\lrhotrgh rcry lrtptrl.' !r rh. Lnrlnrr.llr.dh o lS lL \aD Nxs on l \ r cg i \ t . r cd u \ imrDr . r0min conj,ndrr r brcsi nynfh\. \rbLrh trcitrLoscLv fel.ted r) h,m Tlrc'c xf. nrmcrni\ ctrlt!iu,..s in lhe \!nlcr lBrid-v.l \mrirtrornNhich nill k.cp Dxg0n ritual\ \rr! rtrL.h rlrc.which sl\trLld \ ,dro {Lgecsl lhrtthc cult ol lLncn r rD rphs (o ro l r dd , t y \ ! nh snn iLa f l unc l rons )\r\ llr dr.'. popuLo rlun r.chrJoLo!icaL tnrds

Thc x.chr.oLo-!l.ilLy lo.urncnted h,!h!c\.Ls ol medrcxl dr.Lr Dcil .E dirc$l! ,lr\pnipodiixrc lo rhe relr{!rud rtunb.r !1 nionu-ircfrsd i$(r!L1o dic divine counLe ol prhrs olrlr. m.dlcrl sIrlL.: ,\stL.piLu xDd ll-v!i] T\ronn rb l . bxs .s h r \e nn i ! cd NbL .h c i r beascribe(l k) th(.dLt liascd on rhc \Niblc bodlcs ol

L.$..rankiirs dcihes. rh. ccDii. hrd .pde.lne tuncrion. lhree deJ,!1tntrrs r.lxr.d ronrenr come lio.r Vnrinxcnm Ond rl llic dcdi'.d.d $cnt dedrmhon\ {.nr 1o th. Ccnnr. llrJgorLd.rs T!ch. o lhe \erond on. to rhc Centr'sof rlic olrc. in r .onD dcd,cntdd kr r{ and

earhcriirls The onl! sufliliri! lvo ol thc th;don. is 61\/L) Th. nrtril ion rhc !o clllc(i_Virnr n,cnm .oxloia.ni. dqri.t-r! a nard'nie tnmr e holding |o hxDds ove. ! li,n rod rbtrll.lhc iytrrb!l\ ol rh. f.o\r...\ mrlrrl. crnh! !onsidcfcd ro bc trn ol tlts gi.up. ll is x tersonifiurtrd olt|. prcvnrce or tho.U nscLl dlhc.omposir.n $xs.opicd frlrn coirN oolo llasr i c rn iD . l oc . l l o r k \hop ( l l g c l l 2 ) .

Thrr nNflmenrs deJrrxtcd 1o rhc -!od-dc* of rlghteruvr.ss. NcDresis. tr\tl)- .c\pc.tcdbj soLdicr, &rcs Lioni thc l' ccnlLrr'!. x feri{id oLrhcrdl 0itdoinnrling \yo!r.!nr

ae.c\.lhc.ncierl Ronun g.dJcss ol t.Flllit! o the rodc,\lorLd his been tonlim,.d nr\n.ilrciu0r Nilh rlrc rttbur.s Jlglvd dn'l

lLLdgidg br- rh. dr!ct\e$ ol rn.lrxf !vhLch{.s pad of I terntl. Dian..rhe Ron n goJd.*rl li,r.!s and hunrnrg. t,igh( hxvc treeD \u

nriDred rLorgsidc rnorlre. dr(! ,\ lia-!Drcnr ot r

lll

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a (ovnorunjr lc cr Hosrr I nere r I rnncrr(IIroknHoj prrrtrotsrqn {cr ljl).

l1r ncpnoca lll Bc(r x D.li qouinnpx-jyhc. ctrHKfeMvr. norxly rfr .nov.irr(rl o c u e h e H r 6 0 f B , 5 r o l i t s e ; 1 3 , ) c r o H 3 ! e ,(ojy .t naJB!ne nouloDnx0 DotHxur

Cral1opnN.(a 6orurLa nr.nro.rr nroBe. cBela. Ildler)r. v BnntrtrrqrjrNr jenorBftcra cn

PBNc(a ijo.rrla ry\a n no8a. Jlr db..ynchnnoor ( t t rh r . r t ro .oJ l ,N( . j rFc ' rjao I ncKo\ xprN!. \ornr te 6y 3aje,lHnuu ca ncrlv rpy.iM 6oxancrBoNCa roKr r . {a . r l x r t - n . r0q . n n . . Net idefnc crarre kdr .e BBt1,Br1ro. Hrf,nr rr ycBernnnurv rnr xr_hrot krn.nr

(!r1oRn Bcncf. o ]\qrf.^o1e Hrcyerr.pa+c(u rc'tsrrtetso EnojHc cy qrkoDrenpen.raBe rc(n,!rtrBo rreKoprfrrBHor (apar.repa. lapolxro r'!,fu Prrn? ll.orrchcn.crarreotseiiofln6. yKar! \ rxcyj.. K!. ilcarxe t rcKe nerore ' t ) , , \BL , , t r , , \ t ,n r l in ro r .

Dpotno.r onrpr+dr,\ r n(oro.pr+. t r l . ra r ts . !

6oxaHgrBt. ili'.ptr. r(r,vtc trr rentr(! ru,rnanHocr oBo. ooru. ir.polxro Mcby nprnr!.nrulNrrcrrtc rz ald!,/r, Hx o.to8rriut..lcc y BrNnHxr ' r j tNr r r l no . nu No, re r r l i rrcjlx e jer'.s rx Bc,,n(r, utrrrrHo,0hr \o^eno(rpar! Hn 6pjr Conor V,rtr'jrrrpn.!(oHe .nor 6oxxrcr0a cy cnjxr. r_ klhHr\i{ancrrrr r (.jo rnoDrrouarL. puqr!01rN aoxrrcrBnva vMtrrf{H. Nrcrcprl. c} Mo.nr 6nrr ynllrcxxca o Nyro( r l0 .6eHnr re rbe foBe Bepe.6e3 0nrBn; rn 6y !ynocBehcnc. crofr .y xcHe. rrKo cNarpa lL.3or!Brb. nocrxrarc BcFruc corafrof nrl[.Con. r.rIU.. n.r8f;rx ra ro cy 6f.lH. r(otseBB. .noryH.B.k r rH0M n ncnpoNeH6rDr! Mecro\i 6oruiLcmyebl (.Bann(r. Hrrxooa 6totr..r, Klo nccpnjck I'lr!trr8'iirl! v kr cHv. a Hn,. IHrpollro. onoF!. !rarltc Hr MrcoBHocr

mrr c sr.tuc. Nhicb \!as trobabl! l.fl in xshinc or r hotr\. chxtcL. co ,ne\ iom rhe l,i

The cuLts of vcDus .nd ]\phroln. bav.Dor b.en conlnDcd cFlg'rplri.lLlJ Viiuxl r.trrscDlatods.l {bde g.dde\ses purelv decoturr\e in!lufucter are nurnerous. cspcciaLly lhc r!,!lIr.ll.d lhe fad lhat rhcfc arc slrvrrig undrmag.ds . t r r .s . l rh isgodJe\s rugge{ ! r ln ts l reNrJrL\o,ccB]rteJ bv Chri{irn! as an idcxlollcmaLc

The nrmhef ofcpi-lraphi. an,l i.o.os.rohr. dcd[.11!rs dcdicrl.d !] rhe oridnrrl !od\lilhris r\ tnnn .l rhis lod s irle populafity.cspecially r0nm! rhc nr.mbcs ol lcgion i,//ahtrli,/ ViDnra.nn d6r FJbrbly hxd 6!luntlt\ ol lvjtlmr..ne olwh,ch crn be locfier]on ihe hill ol Sopor rnh sfcat ccn.i.t!. Homcchapcls. o \!lr.h urnrus Jcites \'.ru qo.rhipn.d. l.xttrcd minixtrtre ic.os .l lhN dcrtyOdly frro cotrld he iniiured r.ro rhe nrl,$eries otN{irhn\ *hile vom.D w.rc aLlow.d lo b. lnl-loncr i o fhk rc l ie ion qn l [

x r iLhr o bJ ,or ix r.d.^c(trding ti Ll 7o[,!ic. thr5 ( \!hy \omenb!crne r!ornrinDeis ofrhe so ar .oupl.. Sol andLuD.. I[]r i coDfirncd byntrni.rotrs i&nN.l1l,.so'.alL.d Daitrbc h.acrnrn rvirh r NnRxnrnnr trnchanscnblc poslrio0 of nic goddcsbcnleen t[e hoEcDrcD lhc ruDb.'r of thcscicoDs, xs wcll as lh.n m.s n,!dtr.t.i tri iooc.b fon2cd id .s t rc ix lLyLn lBx t lp . i rnsn , l i !enumhc6 orbehe!e6 otdlffcriirs socirl i.tra (tie!Fsl l , land lh ) .1 r , f th is$hy lhcr .was. rgmjz .dtroJucrioi ol ion: ii VroriruciLnr. \rh,ch isfo r td by the lnn l . f r {one 'nou ld i f i l uE l16)

Anorherorien(aL deiq shosc pfcscnc. h.sbccn icoDograph i raLL! co i l im.d od h \oVi'ninmitrd, d$furncn[ ( dre Syri]n.h'pirerDolLlhcnr\ The c.olinned Felence ofr Syrianc.nrnrunitv iion tlre regior ofDolicha, as rcLl rsepisrxphic dedicarions afc a rcaLisll. bash lnr{h.nrpt.si{iotr rhrl th.r. \yrs x lcn,tle deJicrled to

175

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Bepnr(a Pa3rrc,ror co'ularno. craryca (d134- 135), :. 360r rora je y BnNrHarrrjyvyoprarrcoBada x npo!3Doa6. t{oM, rro FnorBpteEo Hana3oM (aMeEor (aitna (o136).

Illyre opnjerra,Ho 6oxaHaBo rcje jenxolo.Paqc{u norBp9ctro Ha{3 BrNrHauojyMa, je c{prjcs Jynrrep

lo,rxes. norDpreHa cup'jc(a 3ajeaHluauoceDeHnQ m o6,acr! loirpa+cKr Jalern. ryeEcraBDaj! peainyocHout 3a nocrojabe xpava oBorbox.rcruaocnM rora. rymrep loinxets je xNao BenuKynoapu(y nMneparopa !3 unH.crnje ccucpa.(ojn ct y Bnde sauPara 6oPa!!nt Y

Il3 nepnoaa lll Be(a aaruPa x qircrapo. opujeHrarHor boxaEcrBa BncnFa x

rara. TypNac.aqa, Rojr jc too,!3je^Hacauau .a JynnrepoM t 6no norroBaH

IIa jeaHoM M€pMepnoN onraPY Pe.{crpouas jc. 3a caaa, lcaMceH 3aBer /4e".letena (ca. 117). Clacin no ari,eF jaMa,orrap je. D€PoBaruo. oajao y HercM xpaMynojeAntsn ayropn cMarpaly Aa .c Paat o6ox.Hc1uy opltcsrarHor nopekra B (ptra

Y nepnouy III Be(a t nrpaxeHo.crH{pcrrcMa cPehyce n nole!oupebesuM 6oxalcrBuua- ctle {Me n

+yH(urja Hncy ac4oHlcaHn. Ty cnalajyDontnts et DDhha (ao t Da ,.1,gcltJ. l'IHrepecaHrHo r np{aBarBnlo MnnlccrLc Jb.3oroe,h-na ce l)aax o arernMa (ao BorrcnMa

ayua. yMecro paHujrx nafaHcKrx 6oroua(BerpoBa n opnoBa), uro Je y cmauy caxpuuhaf c(oL! rnrepnPeraqujoM o onuolc6y

thh deity in vininacium. Apan fiom lhis, JupnerDolicnenus sas stongly snppoied by emperoGliom th. dynasly of Seveius, who slayed inVimi naci un on o .nnber of occ as,ons.

The cull ol thc old orientdl denyThumasgad. who was ollen sccnas anequrvalfltof Jupner and wotsb ipped by soldies, also dales

whal h as yet ! single dcdicalion contlin-ine the Notds D.a Aeltno was tbund on andble aha. Judgins by ils difrensions drc .ltarwas probablyplaced in a lcnple. Cei.ain luthosbelicvc lhat nwas an ondnhl dcity belonging todre cncle ofsolar lheolosy. rr

In the thid ccntury a penod ol nonomccd syncrctism- cenain dcdicalions to ceFlain deni€s whose names and functions havc nolas yet been delined. Dar,,s,r Do,,a as well asD,i,1ng?ri belong to this group. Lj Zotovic hasan inrcicstins and eceptable opinion thal thedeities in qncstion seE aneels, in $e tunction ofsoul slides, i.stead of lhe older paean gods(winds and easles), which is in accord sith lheCMstian postulatc oflhe souls of the dead bcing

OfThncian culls, rwo dcitics have beenFcorded in lh c tcftitory of Vi ninaci !n. S abaziusa.d tbe Thracian Honenan. The ThrlcianHo6cnan appears in lombstoncs and has lhe roleola psychopomp. phereas in cpigraphic monu-ments he is ttc cquilalenl ofAscletlus.,{pollo.Dionysus a.d Sylv.n. The cult of Sabtius, aThra.ian and Phrygian god wilh ils nysticaldances and .nlnlin8. Nss sprcading dunng $c2d dd 3i cenhrrics. $hicb rvere .ufted bynumcrous edtem cuhs. Tnct ofcrcd lhenbelieve$ lhc hopc tlmt a connecrion enh gods ca. beestablnhed and nofialiry overcome by nriicalituals and ntud Nrificadon. A slone icon or this

4 r { , t r , i ' ! r r { ' r r n

Page 171: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

O! DarKrr KrnroBa, Ha reprropujrBuMnraurjy a q ra6enexeHa n8r 6ox,H.rB4 Ca6a3!je n TpaqK xcpoc (Tpaq(r (o6asux). TpNm (oBdHk e jdEa m Had-.po6HrM ctroNeHruriMa y +rHKrrjn noJxonoMna, aHa en!.Pa+cuMjc rsje^saceH caAcoennjeM, AnoroHoM, lxoHflcoM r crr-Bo{oM. Kyir c!6ar!ja. rpalxo-+pr.qj.xor6ora ca MrcrllHrM nrpava r utalaseMiurpro cc { roxoir U n lll Be{a, (ojeo6erexaBajy 6pojm rcrocnB {ynroBn. onncy BepndruMa nllxaxr Hasy. na cc nyreMMrcrepnjcrux ooPesa n prrlarHrr olnuhe6a. Moxc uoir y Bcay ca rio'.M ! npeBra.Aarr cMprHocr. l,tr BrrihHaqrjyMa norxcej€ana xaMeHa 'KoHa oBo.6ora ! lRe y(pacHen e ca rccyyD'ny ca6a3ljeBe u.(e (s 81).

nocana Eu Hanar nr BrM{naqrjyMaJoryBe(Hrcy npyxrnn nosar(drc& n aPy.nN pnNcoM u opxjeHraiHnN6oxaromNa Hcrcrtaxesoca lojHor norc-pa r rruBrrHo. Hacerb.i oqaB$a unpo(eMofybnoon 3r ynorntEaBarLc ca3HaB! opdn.rl' n 4rroBrva. (ojr cy 6,nr npnx.BabeHr on.raHouH{e B!!rHaq,jyMa.

god and No dccoralve hairpins shaped likcSabaziua hand have been urcovdcd in

To date, nnds in vim,nac,u'n hare notyielded any data ollocdl, Celtic and other Roma.and oncmal deirjes The lact drat rhe nillrarycafrp and lhe civilian s.rtlenenr have not beenfully examincd lcales broad oppotunitics lor amorc thorough knowledAe of thc religion andcnls accepted bythepopnlalion ol Mminacium.

J';BT

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Jy,xrue ruexpolole B u.mtuu\ujynau Eotp&t u o6peqt

Th.e swlhem nearopolises ofVinbwchnn anil intemwtfi ri.fuals

Page 174: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

,i/(,." -u", * . ."*,.u,,r....,He( fono lNr ra6 . rcxuo ie ru iex . l8s2.ondrc M. Rrrrrr.Bnh. (o r ie oFr rh'. t).rrmpoB,o n,.reuK. r,Ixl!rLa- oBo. noKunr.ra. HrF{ ro cy Hr !nrp! iiorn .po6oBr ir

,JliarorreHo.Dr" ! ILn\r. I Hr qeHr t. ittrn !BPlo nraxdh pBN.xx oncKr. (oir je ,'fojr!BaHa no (.\axy. ] o,LHo.! rr R. nn rotup !Hlccre. M BarrpoB0h je 'f!n. nrnuojroreprr.pnle cetserJtrr\. ly).nrx. x0rurHr\ I3an rtstrx ucKponoir

l,l.'ltnn! .urrrI DonBr\ oitun(a caet rMnf l ru r r ! ! . ( i \ n . rpo0onn r r r r ] lun . j c

npo4r . N . B .c r l i L9( r7 . . '

nocrcp . lHr o . ' t J ,x0RaILa 3rnore ln1973 | n cnwr i f l r Hr i r r r r l ]o6oD! .norupsnnr !J_ 1r(r'J_!K. nPBux 0crFrxtru!!r'3andnHo o ! noropr o rmmra. no(o ts ,eHeKpoDoro lc pc.rcrpotsrHl) Hr..3oBy rPa.oBr Ha reBd .6.rr NhrBe. I c K..r.nuy.nptrnrKo rprhdurrc(0\ faroBa. irx0n!tr'rocc Ha r|narc .poljHe k.8.1FyKrnj. r Mcp

fp.heB,ei rcf\ocie(rprHe ..Kocrolau E. r .poxeHr t . rc tn rop t la tyxHt r \He{pororx ()6r\iItrr rcrprxnBtcKi FaqoBn3arrrrrHor krfjKrcfa rprjair cy or L97r1992 r. v roN rernor]! jc lcrprxeHo nnor!13.000 rF6oBa. y (oirlr re c FILcno Brueo[ ]0 000 :B!iln. Octv He(Doro'e nr 6pon'3aro.. rareHck.f r .pcxILoBeKoBHor nel)no

na. rrauotcHo je ccniN nc(Fonorr y xpoH')

. - / " . f i * r , . . . "1 . . l v in i . i c i r t r .nelilpoli\c\ rcr. Dadc by \'l V0llrovlc in thcdisrant )err of 1382 On rliis occaslon he notl!el"[.avy desrnrcrion ol this n(.. Thc erales .ndthe "va!!abLcs lhey !onrrr.ed rtr. px{i.!larLyxnnel !1, rnd R. an lllcr. sold by rlrd t,ecc rorein grcar den)n(l NI VrLrfoli. foughll di! edthJ i.rropolGcs iiro nonhed. s.ulhc'n, .a$cfn

lnili\or ili. \'asc conducred ndetxilld aDalysis of the g vc lndN lburd rnVlmimrium .c.ropolhcs in th. yenr 1907 il

Fxcrurbns nrnirrcd iD l9rl rn! rxod.

era!c finds ha\e c.nlin..d lhc conclusions ofrlreearly fscarher. Based on tr c.s (li. .rslcncc ofr oecn i to l i s \ ! . sdc tcded to rhc Ne{ o l lhc . r taDdthesed l .nenr onrhc lc f t bankof rheN{ l ] r r .in rc \ilLage ol K.dohc. built -lravc .onnocrrn: nid nrrblc nrconh4i \rerB ftu.d d in-!

'lh. enirory ol rlr. softhcni nccropohscs{a.idangcicd duiing rhe bu,lding ollhc $camporcr nlxnr ,,Kosol.c B . Fxte.snc prol.cti!ccrc.!rlioos itik plx.. lictwcen the yerA 1977rnd 1991. DuriDg rbN p-iod ncaflt 1100!gravd\ $.rc cx.mined. i. \rhi.h ,.o'c dixn10.000 people hrd bccr bu .d. Apai fr.n rherccropolh fon dt Bro.zc aec. L. Tene r.dmed i r . !aLpc f iods .serennBctu tohscsNcrcrdcn-tified nng,dg .[Lonologicrlly fen the drd Liccnrury 1o dre did 6i, ccnrury l

a r , , , L i , , i f

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t4 nau BLkuktlajtsa n nkpaaoja,rLP', thtbw,ial drd tu n!!a.dn.

nou{oM padoHy o! cpelriHe I nocperlre VI

OI cpelrHe I Ao cpeAHHe III BeM.napaienHoce rpiMeBIy ktevrpaBe u rHryNnpa6e no(ojsKa. o! cpeluHe lll ao cpearHe v ucm. o6lcat QcMalrrlc cc !co{n!-rrBHo ry6u, ra(o ,ra ce 4ofM{pajy Hexpo

From the nrid ln to the mid 3d century,crcmation and inlumalion of thc dcad wcrc bothused. Fron the nid:l! lorhefrid5d century Lhecusronr of cremarion lvas rlefinitely abandoned,shich Esulted in the fomalion ofnecropolhcsNitn varicd gralc conslru.lions.

lnhunarion and femarion *ere characterised by nearly idenlical burial rltuals.InhuDations {erc done in odinary gmve holes,lcss oficn in woodcn c.skcts. Thc body wassonelimes wrapned in a linen shroud, and occasionally i vas covercd by! bodd. Childrcnwercbuicd exclusilcly, mosl oftcn in woodcn caskch(Irgurcs ll9 and 140). Crcmatcd dcad p.ople

o6iqn rrNr\.\{ r!M i:3PHM.noxaD!slq !eN6 lir i.

B(sa eree!'{ Bsqrqrj!. ? r: s 3o@u,i !

182

Page 176: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

nore cn 0arnooPcunM .Po6Hx\ KoHcrp!(ror

l.lnxIMrprBr | (tevotaiL. xafa(-repxrL! roroDo rlcHrorH" tro're.,Hn t)nayMr. tltsr!N,Luj. c! DpueHe! oaolHrN fF,,nlrM patuNr. f.bc r xpucrnr' (oBqcrsra.

no( . tn rqn c ! t se(x | yMolanr y ran .nrno{poF. r rcMr ct no(PrDe r ;rac(oN ,1e'\ic ! ! . (Er_1r tso . i \ la rL iDara . na ceu l i c y

apBeHHN KoBre3t rMx ( . r l l 9 . 1 .10) . Kpc-MupatsH no(ojr uI cy crxP.BtrBrHr y fN6HrM p.(rNr (oj. cy 6rnc aaneleHe Brrpo\Iltlm(oM Kpe ,unlc. rcro no(olltrrKa re H.Hocnrqn !nn ! koB{e.! .nirorcno nonoare . m Ko io i ce tsp 'o r io .n ,n i ,DaIL .mFqHo .a ntcrv.rrNa (oie re ' 'iR.tHn(yD.rpe6ElBlo :lsarl. cy pclc crxPaHe rypHad.. y (ote cy nor.'rHe r.ot)rrrc x.crino(ojH,{4. nocic nor..a6a roxoisBK! 0nrxpcvrpnHxr ocraraKa ! rpo6Hl prk!. norr

Lv.r. br.icd in fiFbum -sm!e holes. At cEmli ior. rhc boJ] \!!s cri.L.d 1o tb. b.ntif. oD i

srclchcr or in a c.skcr. wherB ilrvn\bunnaldres idcrh .FcsonaLbc loDg ingso l rhedecersed lJmbu.irLs rcrc llrlcs commoD lhe w.shed Lrore\olihe deld peFon $e'c lriJ nr rlc um Aicr lor'.fii! drcrni ir lhe gra!e. gills rvcrd lxid imo lh.grare \rhich soc d.cmcd ro be of use ,n thedeceased l]eNns oerv Lilc: rcwcllcr). dishcs,lamps. ironey erc The hmts Lretu nLoposcd to

trovidc drc dc.cxsed wnh lighr d tlre modeyrervcd u ta! lo. .Losnrs rhc irer Acheront,gurrded hy b.r[ndn chrron.

Libario burul ler(\ md prctaralor ofmcah look pLrce on rop ol ll,e grr\c ol th.inhuncd orcrcniatd pcNon, to which srrilicirlsurtuces ie{ily BurlaL ard pon-burial ceFmoni.s iDdicated a uDified rrer o1 lh. xlicnitc.Ih. gravc was llic ncr dNelliira ofrhe decersedper*,n. !vhosc cor.c.tioD wilh the $orkl of tbe

Page 177: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

ktsr rv niNDn ra Kole .c dlrJrino na hcno ro jHnkv ( "PL . l r rn r roBoM x ' B . r l lf uKnr . .oc !1 . . ^ r ' ' t r 1 s .Rxu n qp .1 l \ re . !on . r6 .b rud . cDer ro . , ' t r iKo ro r ( y . r Ho rue !ce rnrtrx. nf.nnr npcNo fer. .\\.four Koirr. ! \ ! r n , r ! r t r i . . x a f . r

l l l l r pon l ) , r ! ! r r \ ! \ !P rHox r

KpeULl,rr0\ n.(. xx(r Bn,tr.r. c! r0I{yl,c

r rh r . N r l i t r , t 0n fcn . . npo t3 . . ! .N r.uc:ro!c ,iprBcH. ,u3l!0rn. noiPeaHtr rL, ( i c ' . r t . nnn ooPc{ t r , 1 ) - r D rn ! c r \P rHrno ( r r ! t r - t o { i 0 t r . cno c \Dr r rL t i ! f f . 6uo .xo r3 .1x . rP l )a . nF . I . r rB r ' n l , r . 3 .aotaolur. r-vFf,,) r.,jn irr.r n,r t.! tr

Ko I ' t . n ro c r \pxoeH , ( lr f , t r , , c t rM ! . r0 t . nMro l pn tH l ) a , . f rD ru r ! . nr l c .oDr l ! ! r j 3 n r ra . cvbcHr Hn 3 .e i k r

r c o lH l ) r 0op . r1 l eo . r rd , ro r i r xyNnPr ro . r r r l ) , L r r r nPn

.lnd c.rt.rcd Ihoic lvh. \.r. n.1 buricdxrcording N tnd(iod had no Dcrirafcit re{rog

tlr.c, lnd rhc, { s rcr. conl.Drn'd ro clc.rll

l\i.drb.F olrh. .r!.n il.\rcndcd p.t0la-(ion r.r. rl]!,yi i,Llntrn.d. so I l rhc,. NUld bri.narion rnd rnhrn td rlN burials irking

n r! iI llr. rdrc -!n cn D.rulLnnirl \'.1|s \r.r x lcss common rrt ol

b t r , i aL l hcs . r c rc . l k i l 0d r . t csdccp rnd rcEdtrg rs r ,.nLl1ol1he d.r rllt rJniri,tr dr!!ld b.xr uL,)se x\ N$lbl. ro Ilolhe. Finh acdrdxurlior biliclo thxl rlr.s. \rcr. x Cc rLc sep0Lh.nlmtrdilc!d of. ..ig-rrri,rg ,d (li. b.Licl in sprirg\rr!L\'.lh as.nrmn.e noirn\ !, th. urd.r*orLd

Page 178: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

scrosPe\ .n rM c . \pa t r rNa perx . r lo0anrocmqn (peMnfaror n rH\!\orfano. not'ijHn

Pebr unr c.rrxH, npcxcraa6ijl rpo6_Hx 6yrapr . ;1 !6 rnc o ! ,1no L( r \ r . tponcreun!3 rlctc Jn ce ,enccun ocmq' nrro unue rp3firlxe Niajqr 3eNni! llolcnlHf r!r.P cM!rriajy ;rj orn rper.raorajy (crr.x!

cer l r (Pr r tsv NaruQeqr ( r l l . ! rc ru ! r rDeposarlr I xrs.!. n olHrle. no Me.lrMr

Achatrg. iD funeraland post funrftl rituaLs,and nrercby rc advenr .l d.\t cschrdogi.aLvic$s. took plt. in dre mid :l' ccnlxry Thegruvc \,as no longer the dw.lLing olrbe dNcascd.The soul hrd b.come pnnrrt. \t[ich dernindcdns tulLliberahon lom bodily rehrins lhe srrverva\ thc Dcce$a.y tlacc ofrhis lihtr,lioD ofthesoul Inburmrion. lhe.elnrc. bccaDrellre onll prc_scfibe{l tutu.ftuneFL. The cdsolrhe body rvr\ DxDd.rory, q,th rc hcid lac,ngthccas tandrher is ingnu, i i raccordanccwr lh l l reb!licf ni . ncw bnrh rlr.r dcxrh. FunenL li.ssdid noi tnke pla.c on loD ol gravcs. People \.rcbrricd in vrnlu! gnrc.onsln,dxtr most! rn

sru\c hoLcs. rooden.rsk.s of sconlugi d.pcnding on (hc linanciaL rne!n\ .l lhc. n , n F ! " i r L , - , 1

Page 179: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Ao npoMerc norle6qtx d trocrtroryc6_

lrx pnryda, a caMnM rtM n nnounx !!ccm, Ioia3n cpeunHoM III Be{a

Ipo6 Mre st]c 6opaDrure lMpior' [vua je

nocrana nPuMapna, dr. le 3nornyHo ocro6.baBe o,1 rerrpo6 npeacratrsa Heonxon{o Mecro ra ouo

6abaEe Ayr€. l4nxYMaqtla J€jeErHr BrE nponrcaHorualtHa caxpaue

o6anclHa je oPnjeHraq'jariaeoM ynepeHoM $ ncro(v u Bna3ehetCyEqy, cxolno BcpoBaBy t noHoDEo potc6e

nocne $!prn. HaE .Po6oBuMa sncv

onpxaBaHe uahe caxpaHe ce BPue vpa3HoDpcHxM rPo6x!t! xoncrPv(qnlaMa.o6rc{xv +o6nnM PakMai apBeEnM

tnx onoBsxN caprc_

da3fta, sauncEo o,r e(oHoMcnx MoryhHootno(oiHn(a. IyrcFHrje rpo6se xoHopvxqnje

dcceased. Luxury aBle consltuclions had a

calone-shapcd ceili.g and wcr€ usdd ro t'ury

norc tnan onc menbcr oi a fanilt Mcmonals

were lhe nost expensive foo of familv tomb.

Apan from this. they e€rc a kind of gralevard

church. as tney eerc used foi nainlaini4 the cult

of$cdead (ilguF 133. and 144.1No separatio. of Pagms dd Cltristians h

k.oM ro nave rakcn place dunng thc Chnstlanpenod, whicn speaks of a high level of rclisioust.lerance and ol the belicf in inmorraht of lhe

soul, which Pagans md cMstilns had rn com_

non. Burials Nith ctuistian symbo\ wcE nE' I rr

Mod€sl or nore or less luxunous g8ve constuc

tions with christian synboG confim thal

s 3 ! ' $ h P d u \ r { l i r r f m \ 9 ' : ! L B i N n $ r p E

Page 180: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

Najy nonyo6ulactu cuou ! (opxtrhcrc cy3a cdPtde Btre !,aHoBa jeuHe noponlqc.HajcKtrEn Dnn noPolt!{e rpo6alqe npencraD6ajy MeMopxjarne ryabeunHc ocrMrora otre nPen4aBEaJy cBoleBpcHn D!!rpo6laEc(e qpxBe, JePle y rrNa onpxauaH

ryrr BesaE 3a no(ojrrk (cn.143, 144)Y rcpnoay xpnulraHcrBa Hnlc aa_

6dexero oABaJaB€ ra.aHa q aPruhaHa !osryy rc{ponoiq uro foBop! o Bnco(oMdeneDy MepaHunje ! Bepr y 6ccvPrHocr

atde Kola Je raje)rHxq(aiptrnbaE Ma. CaxPatse ca xPlrhanckxrro6erexjnMa cy FrKe.LI c{FMHc nr! MaEe'Mre nyrcrHe .po6He (oHclpyRlnjc caxprunlaHckrM o6e,exjrMa. norBPbyjy ra je

xp&rharmBo 6nro npnxBaieHo os oaHoBH!Ra pa3rrcrr{x co'rnjarnnx cranexa. BeoNac(yn B!! caxPaHe npcucraBDajy paHorpnriasc(e odrKatse .po6n!qe i! v nc$PrjcrcM r cnrnpc(o yrierHnq(oM c\'!cny.qajBpa{mja je rpo6Hllra Q XprcrounMMororPaMoM Ha 3annnHoM. npok3nN. noua{, 6ownu x npclcraBoM Paj.{m!tsoM rny Gr' l'15. 116. 116 a, 146 6)CrrM6on{ 6ccMprHocrr. nayooBt, (aHrdpoc.

npBo xtBoiai ccda c! ieMa uq nHauliyM(M cDMPa (cr. 1,1?) B€uro nraiipaHn@Kapcu n cN6oircK eneMeHu xsrlualaJyBuMrHaqtjyMcrc cnrxapc mo n3rerHe

ryMace n tollaDaoqe xpnrlhar.{c lHrePlpefauoje cMPru. lo norBPb}Je Morru cn!_pu€ {a nmcHod 3rny rpo6nrqe (ora Ho.ndrrarypy f5464 Gn. la8) AuosciFa cnnpda omKaHa qpBoIoM ! oi.BoM 6ojoM cnN6ornue cBcy(ynHocr xnDora,r ermry n NnP oHo. cBera. [croBpeMeHo je

! cnM6or 0yroDaBa ayire nocic cMPrx.AM6nareHrHy .uM6or!(y c.alxe ufBcna IuaBa 6ojanYrco6Hnun ca XP

' n r ! 3 o M n i . P o D \ p u h i 0 B 1 1 { u j $ L r u !

Chrlstianny was accepted by people ofdifcrinssocial stlndins. Eany Chistian painted lonbswere an cxceptionally expe.sivc fom of buFial.L} Mosl notable in the hisrrtrical 3nd anislicsense is the lonb wnn Chrhfs nronognn on itswcstcrn fall. wirh depicrionsofa hunr on the latenl salG and wirh thd detiction of a paradGed$elling on thc eastem *all (ligures 145. 146,146 a and 146 b). The synbols or innonality,pcacocks, a kantharos 3nd lhe tree oflife lvere,

187

Page 181: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t,t] ^latartiuHt lrttBtHt, |ra.k

rpa oM (repeHc{a cnrnarypa r-5s17)BnNn8aqnjydc(u cnn{aps cy. Rpo3 BerrodMruBere (onsrulie yPaBHorexeflo,purMa n ncuxonourc orlaocnpaGc rn(oBa

yMerHrr(r ^oMer (cr. 34.35). n

OHn cc nrpajy scrrurro\' r 6ojai'a,!3Bnalehnn"rrF curypHoi a o6pucc rccorc.

coroqc. l,lnremnrer nnHnjeHo o,r Morrua: lcnE Je ro cHaxHa irHnla,

frcquent theme for Viminaciun paimeF (nsure1,17). Skiltullychoscn pictorial and synbolic cle-nents make vim,naclun lraimen ouhtandinginrerlireres and howes of the Chrislim undeFsbnding oldcath. Tnis is confirmcd by thc molifof!spnrlon the easrem rall oftheronbnarkcdas C-546,1 (figlre 1,18). The two plnspirdlpainicd in nd and bluc symbolhes the entnely oflife,rhebrilliance olthis liti ond thc purity and pcacc-fulness ofthe other world Il is snullaneoDsly aslmbol of tbe soul\ after dealh loydge. The redand bluc colous in another tonb bedins tbemonogran ofchn$ (ncld numbcr C-5517) alsohave a twofold meaning. Through the,r skilfullyconccivcd, rhlthnicauy unined composnions aswc 11 as by fi.c psycto losica I portraya I of charac-

Page 182: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

trr IL vr\rt ru r\trluHt I|r!.

(Hrri. oaeh. ro{.lHnqr, a lecro crNo 6rrl

apxraj pyxc npr ncrlpJ!Ra6y ro.y nalHoBn.

lp3cra xH6ora r BPexa cn cpr(oroKnM nnc'roDrMan.poxbcv( 1 . r9 . 150) . I lon( tsBr !

tyha rnela npenar. ,r scMa.ac(o. l-� oHoreje (orofrcrnc(r

norenrinPrHi. Halccdr (oHrprcl nNd'lDBcr.

O.D.neqHo,uje ! n.pnony lv Bexn yBlMtrHa,ujyMy noqoj , rqna on H.i3HaqalHutnx drMpc(rx ukora. xoJa lcu!(,pcoM eneNeHrnMa. tcneB!,rn ;r{ f rlt3nmoxets. QrrosoAcKo reoina.aHcrBr r xluBhalrcrBn. nre cue.a ocpy I6e.iiprHocr n udcKf ccBe.

ts. vnnin.cnln painreA d.hicacd hieh anhricquah(t (ligucs 1,1 and l5).rrj

They rl,y \rirlr lhc bmh rnd colour\,drawins delennined linrs. \thilc lhcn outlinesnnd shadows de achieved thruLgh soli.nd dcli-$tebrush slrokcs. Thc inlensity ofrhe linc rants.dependingon rhemorit ar dncs itisa strons hre(c.s nrc cLolhes or rhe deccrs.d $oman) and .tolhcr limcs mcrcL,v a ttr1rch ol rhe hand, as $hcnpainring d pcacockt legs, rhe rce.l hli or r \in.vnh head shated lcavcs aDd srapes (rigu.er lt9

Page 183: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

EPojH/ orKlnBeHtr ryoooBn cr

seir0M xPoHorou(x\r p..noHoM. oMo

rrhauajy ̂ onoueBe 3t(ry!a(a o lcrolr-jcxo ercHoMcrcM. ao r yMcrnt!(.MparBolvB{ rHaqtjlMa. ko I o co'l'laiHoM -arlcv

Ha ocHoBv 6rr cc

nparc o0uru pnLlcKn s paHoxlnuhaHc{n

nponr.n, Kojq cy cc nPnneHuBanr NrPoN

uapdua. a {ol! cy 6nr notrIroBaHn n oE

craHoBHrk BiMxnauFjyMa

and 150). The doninant ider is thai.l tan$nonbcNeenthcca ih ly l i l cand iheaf te r l i fe I thcon

sisrcnlly extrcsed in .olour, ho$ olten rslng

Obviously, viminaciun was thd .cntE of

onc of the dost rnlponant schooh of painting

duringlhe 4rh ccntury. which manrgcd to extR$the cotuplcx philosophical and theological !rewsol PaAanien 3Dd Chrislianiry, nostlv regardingfrrh, resufteclioi and nDmonal,rt, bv medns ol

NuncDus discolered grales *1lti a vrde

chroDologi.rl scope cnable us tsions rcear(t,.g lhe historical, econonricll, bul

aho anistic dereloprnent ofvinriMciun, as sellas rcgarding the socialstanding olits inhabnanB

Ba\ed on rhos.. we havc eained an insight inlogene'rl RoDran and e.rly Chistian nandardr'*hich $erc applied lhrcughour rhe Enrptc andu which inhabnanrs ofvinriMcnm aho rdhcrcd

Page 184: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

iyTntt n|!lr\! 141(, tf i i t-) t)

l 9 l

Page 185: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

hr trrlqLnu| rtn'. a\)i'utn e l,

Page 186: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t nu anL 4\rrnur .r 4t\' \6(' t f: j 11) ttH e r i \ \ ! r : . 1 , 4 r b t r ( ; i i t n . ! 1 t 4 t r l

Page 187: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

cllHn tu

tptjHurt tt +pdtula tr 5r t 7) tf aeKtratk! t<rc. lt!! tan[ tcss ]7) /lt dinr)

Page 188: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t|- ,Ntn,,u rrtu ?P.1BtnHn , , \ t + i l b t t r r t

Page 189: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t^ r!\,rnhn !1.q4*r.\h tr il,) ti: N;

Page 190: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

t4 tj,qi,uu,!,4)r4{r,t 'r:!4) n 4t

191

Page 191: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum
Page 192: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

uLa. t r q ! r r r .

tcneuLHu nP\.oiottkrr K..\n|tu\ tet*r u \ B o C i o a c o e 4 ' l u u c l l a l o a l u k .BuurautDm, tutraB. a6u\a1e ! ..?o.rbu.Heqano .! hat l\udue npeno"34anbu6ujt u tttrlt Eu! utnnal|jr$kaz4ooem, henBo .rr6ap atuinqa I anlu.Fttu repnittt, .iiidkl!, , !.P:1.2f u|( !(a"aaJ. y Htl.dna Cauru jatu roe| ocniat!eprceu: aoj4u laaop, fp6otn ucltt!?ndaojarpo, paltroHtrnr LeHrupa u tu ua4aEuod&eu, 1iPt.edt|utn.,.nt.tanufu , dfko'uo4a An e6d, tr.3ut)cH\ujul u otji.xutu t

Hnrar ttu r..t) utnrt u k;rnar6n v.buutp.nuna I ttlt , q rl rtpn\rdn6n M.M. Bacuho. .H! 3t nt. joru lock np.qcuoabalt utatH\. vrarn 1r rtrrtlt) nrtd^rBpeceuo cL\o tn a.H..l tuqp6 rctropt-jcrur 4,tata, ii.ltuuKa nJr-ankcd4n unpoB ucwpn4uqult, ennrpobckux u adal

Lt)/.ftet bns and diflicutt, but akasucces.'/ul archdeolasical canpdigrt, vehare paftiall! shed light Dn the inhabitanE oJ rihihacibt, then. .ustons ahdbelieJit. The aecropalises hdre htuughtnnnM.iun a, tlosel b us and rer.leretl hin rc.oghi.dhle. 6 ve as hiscrcative \|ark, his traces in ceranics. inglass, narble and netal. Ih the liel.ls ofStigremain coft.eale.l: the nilitary canp,the lrbdn dhd s\burhan .ores, the nahufactutihg ceatres dtul artists ateliets, thela/t, the bishopi paldce, ihtligeDout tet-tle ents, rcstdetlces .1c.

t20 r.a/t alier the fret diss hr M.Wllt/Dric urd IAA lears aliet M. Mhrsi.i eroyatiors, thesc arc still asecretto us. Mahf hfpathetes hare beet natlenet?lf hasel an the spa6e histoi.alsoures, vritntgs oJ tlavel viters dnJf rst explorers, epigtdphi. krnbstones

199

Page 193: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

,Po64@ cnake4t@ 4 qplau aPreaiou(dHa"Na. Itu he npaoePu.ru BPEME.Blqrha oprcatuakn uciapMuoaba h4 HacAeaLPatuu ML Mwepgutuu.

Ea ohupa M ao, uaa Hac acuajejegtu Hero6urlaa eltheHtua: t apetea! kagace Uapcu.o o.utaao L BaakaH o6kaobao, t6pe^eH! eoHahcxe u gftoqHe u.niPoaeHacuu u rtpa3kaHe, ! Bwukaejlq ce lkdruaHuu 4lohe L cnrqopoaa\Ka c6eiaaacit

lneuHrta, roiu c, o@rcoe,tmu HeBuqbu.!,paRuu! koja gear nPoid3ko og 6ecnpuHo,

ahd ather archaeologicdl fink. They areyet to be confrmed b, tine. Futurearchaeoloeical ex.avations fill eithetprcve us iaht of Mong

Resa/dless of this, M indisputablefact sta$ behintlus: in the tines when theEnpte \|as on a decline an.l the Balkanswerc undetgoing a rcnaissdnce, in timesof spilitudl buttout and enpliness,nmindciun botted a thread of pletlitu.leand light oJ 6ttisli. crcanot, ||hich etel-nalized the iNisible bouhdary separatingthe ephenemL aid the innlodal afld sub-

200

Page 194: Spasic-Djuric, D. - Viminacijum

155163

BrMrnaq4I HaBHr .pax pr\rc(c npoBnnuuj. r.pBd Merrje ...........Ilfd8teqrtr tr !ro oN!xtr ].r.Br3aHarcKo yHdrHr!rr nloruK'lntaIo{anHa (oBHrur HoBur ..Mentrqnra .....P e n d r " r ' r 'l J ^ r e { e k o ' . ' n . B r " r | | r i \ v | " o / i v . r r

C O N T E N T S

ro ' sord . .l . ' od ' . oo . . . . . .Viminacium 'hecapnaloflhc RoDan prolin.o orUpper Moesiaf .o u1 . ' i ' . . . . . . .

l 5 i

1 7 9

An\ JnLlC.dn\ |tunuiioo

V.di 'Rclirior atrd cuh . .... .... .Ihe soulhem necfopoLncs ol vimnr.iun,nd intennent rit0.h

.10 |