of 32 /32
Sounds that “move” Sounds that “move” Diphthongs, glides and Diphthongs, glides and liquids liquids

Sounds that “move” Diphthongs, glides and liquids

Embed Size (px)

Text of Sounds that “move” Diphthongs, glides and liquids

  • Slide 1

Slide 2 Sounds that move Diphthongs, glides and liquids Slide 3 The important role of movement Articulatory movement = spectral change Articulatory movement = spectral change Spectral change occurs as speakers transition within and between sound sequences Spectral change occurs as speakers transition within and between sound sequences Spectral change plays a significant role in Spectral change plays a significant role in Perception of certain speech sounds Perception of certain speech sounds Overall speech intelligibility Overall speech intelligibility Slide 4 Diphthongs Slow gliding (~ 350 msec) between two vowel qualities Slow gliding (~ 350 msec) between two vowel qualitiesComponents Onglide- starting point of articulation Onglide- starting point of articulation Offglide- end point of articulation Offglide- end point of articulation Articulatory Transition = formant transition Articulatory Transition = formant transition Diphthongization: articulatory movement within the vowel Diphthongization: articulatory movement within the vowel Varies by geographic region Varies by geographic region Slide 5 American English Diphthongs / / - bye / / - bye / / - bough / / - bough / / - boy / / - boy / / - bay / / - bay / / - bow / / - bow Slide 6 / / Slide 7 / / Slide 8 What cues listeners? (Nblek et al., 1993) Question: What spectral temporal variables contribute to distinction of / / vs. / /? What spectral temporal variables contribute to distinction of / / vs. / /? Does the quality of listening environment or hearing ability of the listener influence those factors? Does the quality of listening environment or hearing ability of the listener influence those factors? Control variables Rate (Hz/msec) and Duration (msec) of formant transition Rate (Hz/msec) and Duration (msec) of formant transitionResults / / is perceived for / / is perceived for transition rates of duration transition rates of duration transition rate of duration transition rate of duration Slide 9 What cues listeners? (Nblek et al., 1993) Results continued, Ambient noise had a larger effect on Ambient noise had a larger effect on transition rate, duration condition transition rate, duration condition Hearing Impairment differentially affected Hearing Impairment differentially affected transition rate, duration condition transition rate, duration conditionConclusion Fast, short transitions and slow long transitions can both serve to cue listeners to diphthongs Fast, short transitions and slow long transitions can both serve to cue listeners to diphthongs Slow, long transitions are more resistant to Slow, long transitions are more resistant to Poor listening environments Poor listening environments HI listeners HI listeners Slide 10 From Tasko & Greilick (2010) diphthong duration vs. speech clarity rating Slide 11 Glides (/w/, /j/) & Liquids (/l/, /r/) Degree of Constriction Greater than vowels Greater than vowels P oral slightly greater than P atmos P oral slightly greater than P atmos Less than fricatives Less than fricatives P oral for glides/liquids < P oral for fricatives P oral for glides/liquids < P oral for fricatives Constriction lasts ~ 100 msec Constriction lasts ~ 100 msec Constriction results in a loss in energy Constriction results in a loss in energy weaker formants weaker formants Transition rate faster than the diphthongs faster than the diphthongs slower than the stops slower than the stops lasts ~ 75-250 msec lasts ~ 75-250 msec Associated with 1. high degree of vocal tract constriction 2. articulatory transition Slide 12 /w/ Place: labial Place: labial Acoustics Acoustics /u/-like formant frequencies /u/-like formant frequencies Constriction formant values Constriction formant values F1 ~ 330 Hz F1 ~ 330 Hz F2 ~ 730 Hz F2 ~ 730 Hz weak F3 weak F3 (~ 2300 Hz) V w V F1 F2 F3 1000 2000 3000 Freq (Hz) Slide 13 /j/ Place: palatal Place: palatal Acoustics Acoustics /i/-like formant frequencies /i/-like formant frequencies F1 ~ 300 Hz F1 ~ 300 Hz F2 ~ 2200 Hz F2 ~ 2200 Hz F3 ~ 3000 Hz F3 ~ 3000 Hz VjV F1 F2 F3 1000 2000 3000 Freq (Hz) Slide 14 /j/ VjV Slide 15 Liquids (/l/, /r/) lateral /l/ lateral /l/ Rhotic /r/ Rhotic /r/ Pickett (1999) considers these consonants glides as well Pickett (1999) considers these consonants glides as well Slide 16 /r/ Place: palatal Place: palatal Articulatory phonetics Articulatory phonetics Variable tongue positions Variable tongue positions bunched bunched retroflexed retroflexed Allophonic Variations Some suggest dark (CV) very low F3 dark (CV) very low F3 light (VC) F3 not as low light (VC) F3 not as low Acoustics Acoustics Hallmark of /r/ is a low F3 F1 ~ 350 Hz F2 ~ 1050 Hz F3 ~ 1550 Hz F3 ~ 1550 Hz Vowels have F3 above 2200 Hz colored Vowels around /r/ are colored or F3 values lower than usual Slide 17 /r/ VrV F1 F2 F3 1000 2000 3000 Freq (Hz) Slide 18 Role of F3 transition in /w/ vs. /r/ perception Slide 19 /r/ coloring of vowels / / / / Slide 20 Articulatory Variability and /r/ Slide 21 Point parameterized representation Bunched Slide 22 Retroflexed Slide 23 Between-speaker variation row JW39 tp004 row JW45 tp004 Very common Slide 24 Within-speaker variation: different context row JW37 tp009 dorm JW37 tp099 Common Slide 25 Within-speaker variation: same context right JW37 tp009 right JW37 tp099 Not common, but possible! Slide 26 N=53 normal speakers N=53 normal speakers Not just two different configurations, but a whole family of possible configuration Not just two different configurations, but a whole family of possible configuration From Westbury et al. (1998) Slide 27 How can these vastly different tongue configurations lead to similar acoustic/perceptual consequences? Slide 28 Slide 29 Summary There is a wide distribution of articulatory configurations for /r/ There is a wide distribution of articulatory configurations for /r/ Different articulatory configurations of /r/ are indistinguishable acoustically and perceptually Different articulatory configurations of /r/ are indistinguishable acoustically and perceptually Different tongue configurations can produce equivalent area functions Different tongue configurations can produce equivalent area functions Some parts of the area function are more critical than others for determining key acoustic/perceptual effects Some parts of the area function are more critical than others for determining key acoustic/perceptual effects Slide 30 Clinical Digression Clinically, /r/ is a difficult sound for children to learn. Clinically, /r/ is a difficult sound for children to learn. Is there anything from our discussion that might suggest why this might be the case? Is there anything from our discussion that might suggest why this might be the case? Slide 31 /l/ Place: alveolar Place: alveolar Articulatory phonetics: Articulatory phonetics: tongue tip contacts alveolar ridge, splitting the vocal tract tongue tip contacts alveolar ridge, splitting the vocal tract Introduces antiformants Introduces antiformants Acoustics Acoustics F1 ~ 360 Hz F2 ~ 1300 Hz F3 ~ 2700 Hz F2 is variable and affected by vowel environment Transition often looks more abrupt than other sounds discussed Allophonic variations Light /l/: CV environment Dark /l/: VC environment Slide 32 /l/ VlV F1 F2 F3 1000 2000 3000 Freq (Hz) Slide 33 /l/ VlV