Sotirovic KOSOVO and the CAUCASUS Serbian Political Thought

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    03CPIICKAfIorwTtttrAMWCAO

    ISSN0354-5989 UDK32 rosuHaXX vol.4l.

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    CPICKA rIOII WTWqKA MI4CAOSE,RBIAN POLITICAL THOUGHTISSN 03s4-s9ti9

    UDK 32folrna XX vol. 4l

    Iipoj 3/30 I 3.

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    Vladislov B. SotiroviiKOSOVO ANDTHE CAUCASUS: ADOMINO EFFECT

    The goal of this research is toinvestigate and conrpare the inter-ethnic and interstate clashes andwars in the Balkan micro regionof Kosovo-Metohiia with tho-se fronr the macro region of theCaucasus. After February 200gwhen l(osovo Albanian-domina-ted Parliament proclaimed Koso-vo independence (rvithout orga-nizing a referenda) with obvionsUS diplomatic support (unilateralrecognition) with explanation thatthe Kosovo case is unique in theWorld (i.e., it will be not repeatedagain) one can ask the question: isthe problern of the southern Ser-bian province of Kosovo-Metoc-hia really unique and surely unre-peatable in some other parts of theWorld as the US adnrinistrationwas trying to convince the rest ofthe international comnrunity?

    Dontino effectThe consequences of recogni-tion of l(osovo independence byone (smaller) part of the internati-onal community are already (andgoing to be in the future) visibleprirnarily in the Caucasus becauseof the very similar problenrs andsituation in these fwo regions.r)At the Caucasus region (wheresome 50 different ethnolingui-stic groups are living together) a

    self-proclailned state independen-ce is already done by Abkhaziaand South Ossetia only severalmonths after the self-proclairnedindependence oltlre "Republic ofKosova",2) following the patternof both the Nagorno-Karabakhr) "[Oz

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    3/201 3, eoduua XX, ceectca 4 I . 23t-24t.(forrnally a province in Azerbai-jan) in l99l and Kosovo in 2008.The experts fi'orn the German Mi-nistry of Foreign Affairs expres-sed in 2007 tl'teir real fear that inthe case of the USA and the EUunilateral recognition of Kosovoindependence the same unilate-ral diplomatic act could be irl-plied by Moscorv by recognitionof Abkhazia and South Ossetia asa rnatter of diplomatic compen-flpaoocnarne cuerhlbeua l(ocoey r,l Meroxujr

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    sation and as a result of dominoeffect in international relations.It is also known and from offi-cial OSCE sources that Russiandelegates in this pan-Europeansecurity organization have beenconstantly warning before 2008the West that such scenario is qu-ite possible, but with one peculi-arity: from 2007 they stopped tomention possibility of the Russianrecognition of the Nagorno-Kara-

    ANSAHHJA MA'(EAOHNJA

    A map of Kosovo (and Metochia) with main serbian mediaevarchurches and monasteries (source: www.kosovo.net)232

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    bakh's self-proclaimed indepen-dence (on September 2",1, lggl).It is rnost probably for the reasonthat Moscor.v does not want (up tonow) to deteriorate good relationswith Azerbaijan - a country withhuge reserues of natural gas andoil.Why the South Ossetiacould be dffirent?

    On the first glance it can besaid that the Orthodox South Os-setians are equally separatist asthe Muslim Kosovo Albanians.However, the Soutlr Ossetians arehaving sympathies towards theSerbs (not fbr the reason that bothof theur are the Ortlrodox Christi-ans). but not towards, as we co-uld expect, separatist l(osovo Al-banians. The real reason of suchsyrnpathies is similar legal staterights applied by both the Serbs inKosovo and the South Ossetians.r)Historically, the South Ossetiawas never really integral and aut-hentic part of sovereign Georgianstate, in contrast to Kosovo-Me-tochia lvhich was not only inte-gral, but culturally and politicallythe most irnportant region of themedieval Serbian state (called asthe Ancient Serbia or Serbia pro-per) till 1455 when Kosovo-Me-tochia became occupied by theOttourans. The present-day terri-

    tory of Georgia was never beforeit entered Russia a firmly unitedstate territory in contrast to Serbiawhich before it lost independencein 1459 was having a long periodof experience of the unified stateterritory with Kosovo-Metochiaas its center'. When Serbia de.fac-lo regained its independence frorlthe Ottoman Enrpire at the begin-ning of the l9,r' century Qle iureconfirnred by the European GreatPowers at the Berlirr Congress inI 878) it was known for her rulersand politicians which historicalterritories belonged to her withKosovo-Metochia on the first pla-ce. The present day territory ofGeorgia entered the Russian Em-pire in pafts - segment by seg-ntent. Ossetia as united territory(i.e., not divided into the Northernand the Southern Ossetia as todaysituation is) became (according tothe Russian historiography) vo-luntarily part of the Russian Em-pire in 1774. In the other words,the Russian Ernpress Catherinethe Great (1762-1796), in orderto be surely convinced that theOssetians are really independerrt,befbre incorporation of this pro-vince into the Russian Empiresent a special commission whichinfornred St. Petersburg that "theOssetians are free people subordi-nated to no one".3) There is a clairn that the Ossetians are onlyEuropcan nation in thc Caucasus. hut thiiclaint is up to now not scientificallv pro-vcd. Thc Ossetians thcmsclvcs bclicve tr:originate iiom the Sarnratian tribe of AI-arrs. The Ossetiarrs speak a language thatis remotcly rclatcd to the Persian. -

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    CNM 3/201 3, eoduHq XX, clecKa 41.of the Caucasus

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    A geopotiticat map of the d;;, of the Caucasusin 2008 (sou rce: wlyw.wikipedia.org)Georgia itself became paft of ossetia (the Northern and the so-the Russian Empire in 1804 (27 uthern) never existed before 1994.years later then ossetia). This Regarding the Kosovo AI-fact is the most important argu- banian case, it is known that thement used by the South Ossetians Albanians started to settle them-in their dispute with the Georgian selves in the region of Kosovo-authorities, The Southe.n na,i of Metochia from the present_dayOssetia was given to be admini- Northern Albania only after thestered by Georgia only in ,n. us- Ftrst -Serbian Great MigrationSR bv decision of ,,i.,c1.s11 i:r,rff 8fi:"J"'X lf.t?ili;;r:;Communists - J. V. Stalin, Sergei S..liu therd were no Albanians inOrdzonikidze and Avelj Enukind- Kosovo_Metochia in any signifi_ze. It has to be also stressed that cant number (only 2%o icco-rdingthe border between two parts of to the ottoman census in 1455). It

    234

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    should be also said that, accordingto several Byzantine and Arab so-urces, the Balkan Albanians areoriginating from the CaucasusAlbania - in the 9th century theyleft the Caucasus and have beensettled by the Arabs in the WestSicily (and rhe South ltaly) whichthey left in 1043 and carne to theBalkans. Tlre borders of Kosovo-Metochia were established for thefirst time by the Yugoslav Com-murrist authorities in 1945, r,vhoin fact separated this provincefiom the rest of Serbia togetherwith the Province of Vojvodina.In addition, the Yugoslav Com-nrunist People's Assembly issuedthe decree accordirrg to wlrich itwas forbidden for about 100.000expelled Serbs fi-om Kosovo-Me-tochia during the Second WorldWar by the Albanian authoritiesto return back to the province.That rvas the begirrning of a greatcharrge of the popr.rlation structu-re of the province in the Albanianfavour in the Socialist Yugoslavia.The people of the South Os-setia on the referendum aboutthe future of the USSR on March

    I 7'r'. l99l voted for existence ofthe Soviet Union (like the Serbsupon Yugoslavia, but and KosovoAlbanians on referelrdunr to be-come an independent from Serbialike Ceorgians from the USSR).ar-1) 'l'he South Ossetian rel'erendutn is calledbv Geolgia as illegal like Kosovo Alba-nian rclcrendum is also callcd hv Scrbianauthorities as not legally based. At tlrerrotitent ol thc Kosovo Albanian rcl'cren-dunr this South Serbian province did nothave any political autonorny. Kosovo-Me-tochia cn joycd vcry widc political auto-

    The referendum on March 17,r,,l99l was organized two monthsafter Georgian arnry started thewar against the South Ossetia inwhich till Septenrber of the sanreyear 86 Ossetian villages havebeen burrred. It is calculated thatmore than 1.000 Ossetians losttheir lives and around 12.000 Os-setians er-nigrated fronr the Southto the North (Russia's) Ossetia.This is the point of similariry withexpelled around 250.000 Serbsfrorn Kosovo by the Albanianthe so-called Kosovo LiberationArmy after the NATO peace-ke-eping troops entered and de ./'ac-/o occupied this province in June1999.A state independence of theRepublic of South Ossetia wasproclainred on May 29,r,, lgg2.Howeveq this legal act has notbeen understood as a "separatist"one for tlre reason that at that ti-nre Georgia was not recognizedby no one state in the world asan independent one and Georgiawas ltot a mernber of the UnitedNations. However, in contrast tothe case of the South Ossetia, tlreunilateral proclamation of the sta-te independence of Kosovo byAlbanians on February 18,h, 2008

    nonry urrtil 1989 when it lvas cancelledby Bclgradc in ordcr to prcvcnt scparationofthe province lronr the rest oltlle coun-try. It was lcl't to Kosovo-Mc(rchia aftcr1989 the cultural and school autonontyfbr the local Albarrians - the risht whichthcy enjol,e( in lv{ontcncgro onj th. FyRof Macedonia. The South Ossetia rvasncvcr cnjoying such rvidc political auto-nomy lsemi-independence) in the USSRas it rvas the case of Kosovo-Metochia inYugoslavia till I 989235

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    CII M 6poj 3/20 I 3, eoduua XX, ceecra 4 Lcannot be treated by the interna-tional conrnrunity as a legitinrateact (without pernrission by Bel-grade) as Kosovo by the internati-onal law and agreernents is an in-tegral part of Serbia (the same le-gal reason was applied by the in-ternational community to the caseof self-proclaimed the Republicof Serbian l(rayina in l99l fronrCroatia)5). Differently from thecase of Georgia, when the SouthOssetia proclairned the state in-dependence in May 1992, Serbiain 2008, when the Albanian domi-nated Parliament of Kosovo proc-laimed the state independence,was arl irrternationally recognizedindependent state and a nrentberof the United Nations. This is acolrrnon point of similarity befween the Ossetians and the Serbsas the nations: both of them arefighting against separation of onepart of their national body and theland fi'om the rnotherland. Howe-ver, Tbilisi is doing the same likeBelgrade, fronr this point of view.i.e. clairning that the South Os-setia (and Abkhazia) is historicaland state part of Georgia.6t In this

    i\bout the case ol'the Republic ol'SerbianKrayina see: typrrli. Benro M.. Pery'6tu-xa Cpncxa Kpcjuna. fletent toduua no-cn1je, ,,)\o6pa oo.iua" Ecorpar, Eeoryar,2005. t{egarding the case of destructionof ex-Yugoslavia in the 1990s. see: Cu-skova, Jelena. lstoriia jugoslovenske kri-:e (1990-2000). I-lT, HIAM, Beograd,2003.According to 1 989 data, ethnic bleakdownof'Georgia was: tlrc Ceorgians 69%. Ar-menians 97o. Ilussians 5%, Azerbaijanis3%. Ossctians 3%. it 1993 it rvas 1.16.000retugees in Georgia. At the sarre time abo-ut one million persons left Georgia, live inbrcak-alvay regions or rvcre cxpellud alicr

    cmp.23l-241point, there is a similarity betwe-en political claims of both stares- Serbia and Georgia with onesignificant difference: historicalrights of Serbia over Kosovo-Me-tochia are much rnore stronger incomparison with the same rightsof Georgia over the South Osse-tia (and Abkhazia). In the otherlvords, Kosovo-Metochia was allthe tinre. from historical, cultural.state and identity point of views, acentral/proper part of Serbia, wh i-le both the South Ossetia and Ab-khazia have been just borderlandprovinces of Georgia.

    Internat io nalsys tent ofgovern in g 1ncl sep0r0 tionThe rnain argument for the we-stern politicians upon Kosovo in-dependence, as "unique case" ofKosovo situation. is the fact thataccording to "Kurnanovo Agre-

    enlent" between Miloshevi6'sSerbia and the NATO signed onJune l0'r', 1999, and the UN Re-solutiorr of 1244 (following thisagreement), Kosovo is put underthe UN protectorate with ilnpo-sed international systenr of gover-ning and security. However, such"argument" does not work in thecase of the South Ossetia as theOssetians are governilrg their landby themselves and much nroresuccessfully in comparison with"internationally" (i.e., the NATO)protected Kosovo. It was quite vi-sible in March 2004 when inter-

    1989 (lvek6vic. lvan, lirlmic, artd llegio-nal ConJticts in Yugoslavia and Tran,scau-casio: ,1 Political Econonry ofClontentpo-rary Ethnonalional lvlobilizatior, [.,ongoEditorc Ravcnna, Ravcnna, 2000, p. I 8).

    s)

    6)

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    national organizations and mili-tary troops could not (i.e., did notwant to)7) protect the ethnic Serbsin Kosovo-Metochia fi.om vio-lent attacks organized by the Io-cal Albanians wlten during threedays (Marclt ll-19,r') 4.000 Serbsexiled. more than 800 Serbianhouses are set on fire and 35 Ser-bian Orthodox churches and cul-tural monurreltts were destroyedor being severely damaged. The"March Pogrom" of 2004 revea-led the real situation in the regionof Kosovo-Metochia. The posi-tion of tlre South Ossetians in anindependent Georgia fiom I99lto August 2008 could be compa-red with position of the Serbs inKosovo-Metochia after June 1999under the total Albanian dorni-nation. The fact is that tlre SouthOssetia, Abkhazia and Pridnestro-vjes) showed rnuch more politi-71 Neue Ziircher Zeitung. 14. 05. 2004.8) An unrccognizcd thc Republic of pridnc-strov.ie. the break-away region of the lle-public of Moldova is very good cxamplcof transitional. or uncornpleted statehood.It is de focto not under Moldovan control,possessing all ftrrmal aU.r'ihutcs o['a sove-reign state, like the "Republic ofKosova".Pridncstrovjc. or Tralrsdniestria. lirrrnspart ofthe world-rvide belt of"pseudo sta-tes" (Kolossov, Vladirnir, "A Srnall Statevs a Scll'-Proclaimed Rcpublic: Nation-13uilding. 'l'erritorial Identities and pro-spccts ol'Conllict Rcsolurion (Thc Casc of'IVol dova-'l'ransdniestria)", Il ianch in i, Ste-

    fano, (ed.), From the Atlriutic lo the Cau-ca,sus: The D7'nonics ol (De)Stabili:otion,l-ongo liditore Ravenna, Ravenna, 2001.p. 87). Ahkhuia. the South Ossetia andPridnestrov.je are the only "states" in theworld rvho recognized the self-proclaimedindcpcndcncc ol'thc Repuhl ic ot'Nagorno-Karahakh in 1991. I.Iowever, it is not doneuntil today by an,v ol the UN Member Sta-tes.

    cal-legal bases and capabilities tobe recognized as an independentfor the reason tl:at they sl:owedreal ability to govern themselvesalone and not by the internatio-nal organizations as in the case ofthe Albanian-governed Kosovo(the "Republic of Kosova" fromFebruary 2008) after June I 999.They also proved much ntore de-nlocracy and respect for humanand minority rights in comparisonwith the Albanian-mled Kosovo.e)There are several similarities.but also and dissirnilarities betwe-en conflicts in the Nagorno-Kara-bakh and Kosovo. In both casesthe international conrntunify isdealing with autonorny of a con'l-pact national minority who is ma-king a majority on the land in qu-estion and having its own nationalindependent state out of this terri-tory. Both the Nagorno-KarabakhArmenians and the Kosovo Alba-nians do not want to accept anyother solution except separationand internationally recognized in-dependence. Both conflicts are infact continuations of old historic

    9) On the issue of vrolatiorr of mirroriq, rightsin Albanian-governed Kosovo-Metochia.including and the policl, of ethnic cleans-ing, sce. lirr instancc: The l4orch Pogrontirt Kosoyo and lr4etohija (lv,larclt l7-19,2004) vith d sum'et) of destrt4ted und en-dange rcd C hr ist ia n cu I tura I her i to ge. Belrgrade, 20041 Hofbauer. Hannes. Experi-mett Kosot'o. Die Riickker des Koloniolis-rlls, Wien: 2008: 9ynlrlt, Mupxo, Onrcmo3eulbtt. Kocoao u l,lenoxuja (t;rouuuu.npo.,oHu, gmnopu). LIo,rrrr. Eeorpan.200(r. pp. 387--388. Such policy olviola-tion o['minority rights including and cth-nic cleansing, at least at such extent, is notrecorded in the cases ot'the South Ossetia,Abkhazia and Pridncstrovje.

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    CTIM 3/20I 3, loiuuo XX. clectia I I

    struggles between two ditl'erentcivilizations: the Muslim Tur-kish and the Christian Byzantine.ln both conflicts the internationalorganizations are included as themediators. Sonre of them are thesanre - France, the USA and Rus-sia as the menrbers of both Con-tact Groups tbr ex-Yugoslavia andthe Minsl< Group under the OSCEumbrella for Azerbaijan. Serbiaand Azerbaijan were against thattheir cases (Kosovo and the Na-gorno-Karabakh) will be procla-inred as the "urrique" cases as inthis case it would be a green lightto both Albanian aud Armenianseparatists to secede tlreir terri-tories frorn Serbia and Azerbai-.ian without perrnissions given byBelgrade and Bakr.r (what in rea-Iity already happened).

    238

    serbian orthodox church in Kosovo tlestroyed in 199912001by Muslim Albanians (source: www.kosovo.net)

    231-24t

    The Nagorno-Kurabakhancl Kosovo

    Howeveq there are significantdiff'erences between Kosovo-Me-tochia and the Nagorno-Karabakhcases. Firstly, Kosovo-Metochiawas internal conflict within Ser-bia ( internationalized after June1999), but in the case of the Na-gorno-Karabakh there is externalmilitary aggression (by Armerria).Secondly, in diflbrence to Arrne-nia in relation to the Nagorno-Ka-rabakh, Albania fornrally neveraccepted any legal act in u,hichKosovo was called as integralpart of a state territory of Alba-nia (rvith historical exceprion du-ring the Second World War whenKosovo-Metochia, the EasternMontenegro and the Western Ma-

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    Cau casia n.,.ee.or)les" ,.Ab!ha!

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    Groups in the Caucasus

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    C'11 M 6noi 3/20t3.,,oduttaXX. c.ae

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    2006: http:/iwrvw.kotnnrersant.ru/,Jocl72l626.Kosovo - 'l'he l,and o1'the l.iving past,

    h ttp ://rvrvrv. kosovo. n etKolsto, Pdl. "'l'he Sustainability and F'u-ture of Unrecognized euasi-States,',Jounrul o/' Peace Research, vol. 43.no. 6. 2006, pp. 723-740.Thc .,Crucified Kosovo" - IndepcndcntRcsearch Projcct. http:i/crucified-ko-sovo.lvebs.conrEaraxoenli, !1,Luau T., Kococo u ll,femo-xuja. I,lcnroS;uja u udeoto;:ttjct, r{trru-

    ja ulavrra, Beorp;ur. 2007.Iiararosrrh, f[vuraH 'I'., Koc.oeo u lllemo-xtlja y cpncxo-up6uuauxwt oduocu-"vra. tlaroja rrrraMrra, Beorpa,r. 2006.lvekovic, lvan, F"thtic tutd Regional Ct>n-.flicts in l'ugoslat,ia and Transc'auc.a-sia:,1 Potitical Lcononn, o/' ()ontem-porary, Etlmonationol 14ctbilization,Longo Editorc Ravcnna, Ravcnna,2000.

    Bianchini. Stefirno. \ed.), From the Adri-atic to tlxe Oauca.sus: The Dv'nanic.to/ ( De).Stabi lizat ion. Longi EdirrrrcIlavenna, Ilavenna. 200 L'l'typuh. Ilenxo lVL, lreny6.,ruxtr CpncxuKpajurtu. /lecem zrtr)utta noc:tuje,.,/lo6pa no;r,a" 6eorpa,r. lieorpan,2005.Ciuskova, Jelena, Istorija .iugosIovenskekrize (1990-2000).1-lI, HIAM. Be-ograd. 2003. r

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