Sociolinguistics Chapter 6 Regional and Social Dialects

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Sociolinguistics Chapter 6 Regional and Social Dialects. Regional variation. International varieties Pronunciation Example 2 Vocabulary Australia – sole parent Britain – single parent New Zealand – solo parent Grammar Example 3. Regional variation. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Sociolinguistics Chapter 6 Regional and Social Dialects

  • Sociolinguistics

    Chapter 6Regional and Social Dialects

  • Regional variationInternational varieties

    PronunciationExample 2

    VocabularyAustralia sole parentBritain single parentNew Zealand solo parent

    GrammarExample 3

  • Regional variationIntranational or intra-continental variationBritainExample 4United StatesNorthern, Midland, SouthernAustralia and New ZealandLess variation in English than in Maori

  • Regional variationIsoglossesThe boundary lines that mark regional variation

    Dialect chainsExample 5

  • Language vs. Dialect

    What is a language?

    What is a dialect?

  • Activity 6.1Look at the use of the word language in the four sentences. Try to work out the sense of the word in each sentence.

  • What is a language?

    1Chinese is his native language.2When the teacher spoke to the class, the language she used was very informal.3If you want to know the rules of the language, you should get a good grammar book.4In England the language they speak is called English; in China the language they speak is called Chinese.

  • What is a language?1.The word language is used in different ways by different people, e.g., writers, journalists, educationalists, teachers and linguists.2.The meaning of the term language is often very vague.3.The meanings of language often overlap.

  • DialectA regionally or socially distinctive variety of a language, identified by a particular set of words and grammatical structures. [] Any language with a reasonably large number of speakers will develop dialects. (Crystal, 1980)

  • More on dialectThe term dialect has generally been used to refer to a subordinate variety of a language. For example, we are accustomed to saying that the English language has many dialects. (Romaine, 1994)

  • West Germanic Dialect Continuum

    NetherlandsGermanyGerman dialectsDutch dialectsGermanDutch

  • What makes a language?Linguistic factors?PronunciationVocabularyGrammatical system

    Mutual intelligibility?

  • What makes a language?A language is a dialect with an army and navy. (Weinreich)

    Language has a political dimension

    Language is political, not a linguistic categorisation

  • What makes a language?The Dutch dialects are heteronomous with respect to standard Dutch, and the German dialects to standard German. (Chambers and Trudgill, 1980: 10-11)

  • Influence of political factors on languagesYugoslavia

    Under communism,Serbian and Croatian Serbo-Croatian

    After civil war,Serbo-Croatian Serbian and Croatian

  • Languages in Hong Kong

  • Languages in Hong Kong

  • Activity 6.2Do languages develop from dialects or do dialects develop from languages? Answer this question from the perspective of Crystal, then Weinreich.

  • Variety/CodeSociolinguists use the term variety (or sometimes code) to refer to any set of linguistic forms which patterns according to social factors.

  • Social dialectsSocial dialects are varieties which reflect peoples social backgrounds: social prestige, wealth, education, occupation, income level, residential area.

  • Received Pronunciation (RP)A prestigious social accent used by less than 5% of the population in Britain

    Figure 6.2Figure 6.3

  • Social dialectsVocabularyU vs. Non-U in 1950s EnglandPronunciation[h]-droppingExample 12Figure 6.4[in] Table 6.2Grammatical patterns

  • Department Store StudySociolinguistic study by William Labov in 1960sThe phrase fourth floor was elicited from sales people at three department stores

  • Rise and fall of rNew York City was r-pronouncing in 18th centuryr-less in 19th century until World War IIr-pronouncing again after World War IIThe prestigious New York dialect (and Standard American English) is now rhotic

  • The BattlegroundHigh prestige: Saks Fifth Avenue

    Middle prestige: Macys

    Low prestige: S. Klein

  • Percentage of r-use

  • R-resultsSocial variationSaks > Macys > S. Kleinfloorwalkers > salesclerks > stockboysGenderwomen > menAgeyounger > olderLevel of formalitymore rs in careful pronunciation

  • ArbitrarinessThere is nothing inherently bad or good about the pronunciation of any sound.The different status of [r]-pronunciation in different cities illustrates this point.

    Figure 6.5

  • Social dialectsGrammatical patterns

    Vernacular present tense verb formsFigure 6.6Figure 6.7

  • ReferencesChambers, J.K. and P. Trudgill. (1980). Dialectology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Crystal, D. (1980). A first dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. London: Andr Deutsch.Labov, W. (1972b), Sociolinguistic patterns, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Romaine, S. (1994). Language in society: An introduction to sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.