Sociolinguistics Chapter 3 Language Maintenance and Shift. Lesson 2 Language variation. Different styles Different pronunciation Different vocabulary Different grammar Different dialects Different languages. Lesson 2 Language variation. Participants Setting Topic Function. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Chapter 3Language Maintenance and Shift1Lesson 2 Language variationDifferent stylesDifferent pronunciationDifferent vocabularyDifferent grammarDifferent dialectsDifferent languages2Lesson 2 Language variationParticipantsSettingTopicFunction3Lesson 3 Language Choice in Multilingual CommunitiesCommunicative repertoireDiglossiaCode-switching and code-mixing
4Learning ObjectivesLanguage shiftLanguage death and language lossFactors contributing to language shiftLanguage maintenanceLanguage revival
5Language shiftThe process by which one language displaces another in the linguistic repertoire of a community.6Language shiftMigrant minoritiesNon-migrant communitiesMigrant majorities7Chinese dialects in Hong Kong98% of Hong Kong people are ethnically Chinese.Most people in Hong Kong speak Cantonese.What about the numbers of people speaking other Chinese dialects?Usual languages in Hong Kong
Usual Language1996200120062011No.%No.%No.%No.%Cantonese5 196 240 88.75 726 972 89.26 030 960 90.86 095 21389.5Putonghua 65 892 1.1 55 410 0.960 859 0.994 3991.4Other Chinese Dialects 340 222 5.8 352 562 5.5289 027 4.4273 745 4.0English 184 308 3.1 203 598 3.2187 281 2.8238 2883.5Others 73 879 1.3 79 197 1.272 217 1.1106 7881.6Total5 860 541 100.06 417 739 100.06 640 344 100.06 808 433100Language ShiftCase of Hakka in Hong Kong
1911Largest linguistic minority
15.1%of total population in Hong Kong47%of total population in NT54%of total population in northern district of NT
Example of language shiftIn a Hakka family:
1Grandparents speak Hakka2Parents speak Hakka to grandparents, speak Cantonese to children3Children speak Cantonese12Social changes1960spoor refugee community
1960s to 1990sprovision of housing, health care, and education by the late colonial government
Demographic changesIncrease in population:
1945600,00019613.1 million19713.9 million19815.1 million19916.2 million20016.8 million20117.0 million
Demographic changes1)Before 1980, there were a lot of illegal immigrants because of the touchbase policy.
2)From late 1970s onward, legal immigrants arrived in Hong Kong at a rate of 75-150 per day.Linguistic consequencesMore children than ever before were able to get an education
Differences in dialect backgrounds of children were removed through the effects of schoolingDialect levelling or accent levellingActivityMake short notes on your own family, or describe a family you know that has three generations living in Hong Kong. Cover the following points:the place of birth of the grandparents, the varieties they usually use when communicating with each other, and other varieties they use to speak to other family members;the place of birth of the parents and the varieties they use when communicating with the grandparents, with each other and with the children; andthe place of birth of the children and the varieties they use when communicating with the grandparents, with the parents, and with each other.
Language deathLanguage death occurs when a language is no longer spoken naturally anywhere in the world.
Exercise 318Factor contributing to language shiftEconomic, social and political factorsDemographic factorsExercise 4Attitudes and valuesExercise 519Language maintenanceSymbol of a minority groups identityFamilies from the minority group live near each otherDegree and frequency of contact with the homeland
20Language maintenanceSteps minority groups take to maintain a language:
Extended familiesUse of the minority language in schoolsInstitutional support (e.g. education, law and administration, the media)Exercise 6
21Language revivalWelsh in WalesMaori in New ZealandHebrew in Israel