Sociolinguistics an Introduction

  • View
    223

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Sociolinguistics an Introduction

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    1/44

    Sociolinguistics1. An IntroductionHainan University Bai Lifang

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    2/44

    Outline

    1. Objectives of the course . !eaching "ethod

    #. $efinition of sociolinguistics %. Language and conte&t '. $ifferent for"s of linguistic variation

    (. Social factors in linguistic variation

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    3/44

    1. Objectives of the course

    !hrough this course) you*ll 1+ get to ,no- about the i" ortant

    conce ts and "ain areas ofsociolinguistics. + be able to find out the i" act of

    e&tralinguistic factors on language ) suchas age) gender) rofession) social status)ethnicity) olitics) etc.

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    4/44

    #+ thin, about language and observe theusage around you. /ind interest in thin,ingabout and listening to the s eech of

    eo le around you. %+ Learn to use language a ro riately in

    different conte&ts.

    Objectives of the course

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    5/44

    . !eaching "ethod

    !he course -ill "ainly be given in the for"of lecture) but the students are highlyencouraged to be actively involved in theclassroo" activities) including

    1+ 0uestions and ans-ers + discussions #+ oral resentations

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    6/44

    2ou are su osed to attend the lecture read relevant "aterials

    observe the articular use of language inarticular situations

    do the analysis -or, by using the theories

    learned in the lecture or read in thereference boo,s

    resent the result to the class.

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    7/44

    #. $efinition of sociolinguistics

    3ardhaugh4 53ardhaugh 1 + Sociolingistics investigates the

    relationshi s bet-een language andsociety -ith the goal being a betterunderstanding of the structure of language and of ho- languages function inco""unication.

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    8/44

    3hat are included in the 6society78 9eo le

    lace Social syste"

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    9/44

    Language and eo le Age) gender) race) nationality) class

    Language and lace :egion) occasionLanguage and social syste"

    9o-er) ideology) olicy) oliteness

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    10/44

    language

    eo le

    lace Socialsyste"

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    11/44

    Sociolinguists are interested in e& laining -hy -e s ea, differently in different social

    conte&ts) -hat are the social functions of language ho- language is used to convey social

    "eaning.

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    12/44

    :ay

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    13/44

    Example 1 :ay4 Hi "u". ;u"4 Hi. 2ou*re late. :ay4 2eah) that bastard Sootbuc,et ,e t us in

    again. ;u"4

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    14/44

    Example 2: :ay4 Good afternoon, sir . 9rinci le4 What are you doing here at this

    time 8 :ay4 Mr Sutton kept us in, sir .

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    15/44

    Example 1: :ay4 Hi mum . ;u"4 Hi, youre late . :ay4 Yeah, that bastard Sootbucket kept us in again. ;u"4 Nanas here . :ay4 h sorry. Where is she 8 Example 2:

    :ay4 Good afternoon, sir . 9rinci le4 What are you doing here at this time 8 :ay4 Mr Sutton kept us in, sir .

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    16/44

    =reeting4 Hi vs. =ood afternoon

    Address4 ;u" vs . Sir :eferring to the teacher 4

    that bastard Sootbuc,et vs. ;r Sutton:eferring to the event >e t us in again vs. ,e t us in

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    17/44

    :ay*s utterance tells his "other

    -hy he is late) his choice of -ordsho- he feels about the teacher concerned )

    tells us

    so"ething about his relationshi -ith his "other.

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    18/44

    !he clues -e can get fro" the s eech4 !he relationshi -ith "other4

    Inti"ate and friendly !he relationshi -ith the rinci al4/or"al) distant) res ectful

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    19/44

    3e use language to as, for and giveeo le infor"ation .

    3e use it to e& ress indignation andannoyance ) as -ell as ad"iration andres ect.

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    20/44

    ;argaret 3al,er

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    21/44

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    22/44

    As she arrives ho"e she is greeted by 6 Hi mum % fro"her daughter.

    @enny) 6hello dear ) ha-e a good day % fro" her "other. And si" ly 6 youre late again /% fro" her husband.Later in the evening the resident of local flo-er club calls

    to as, if she -ould li,e to join. ' Good e-ening, is that Mrs. +illington 87 She as,s. ' No, its Margaret Walker, but my husbands name is

    0a-id +illington % ) she ans-er. 'What can 1 do for you 87 /inally calls 6 Hello Meg, sut )yt ti 87

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    23/44

    Languages rovide a variety of -ays ofsaying the sa"e thing.

    !he choice of linguistic for" is a usefulclue to non linguistic infor"ation.

    Language variation can rovide socialinfor"ation.

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    24/44

    9ractice4 ;a,e a list of all the na"es you are called

    by eo le -ho ,no- you. 3ho uses it to you and -hen and -here 8 $o so"e eo le call you by "ore than

    one na"e 8

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    25/44

    3e use different e& ressions in differentconte&ts.

    Linguistic variation can rovide socialinfor"ation.

    ' $iff t f " f li i ti

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    26/44

    '. $ifferent for"s of linguisticvariation

    !he different -ays -e say things 9ronunciation 3ords =ra""ar

    $ialect language

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    27/44

    ?&a" le % Sa" 4 2ou seen our enry*s ne- ouse yet8 It*s in

    alton you ,no-. @i" 4 I have indeed. I could hardly "iss it Sa".

    2our Henry no- o-ns the biggest house in

    Halton.Sa" a coal "iner Henry Sa"*s son

    @i" Henry*s old friend$ifferent ronunciations

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    28/44

    !"ample 2 5a+ :efuse should be de osited in the rece tacle

    rovided. 5b+ 9ut your rubbish in the bin) @ill.

    :efuse vs. rubbish$e osit vs. ut:ece tacle vs . bin

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    29/44

    He"nesberget)

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    30/44

    ?&a" le ( All the villagers ,no- and use t-o distinct ,inds

    of

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    31/44

    !he t-o dialects differ in ronunciation)and -ord for"s.

    !he social considerations for the choiceof language4 the artici ant)

    social setting)the to ic

    ur ose of the interaction.

    $ifferent dialects

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    32/44

    Sauris) Italy

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    33/44

    ?&a" le E !he adults -ere all trilingual4 =er"an) /riulian) Italian Before 1F(( the village had been art of the Austrian

    e" ire) and its villagers all s o,en =er"an.=er"an dialect at the ho"e) and to neighbours andfello- villagers.!he regional language /riulian -ith eo le fro" thesurrounding area outside the village) and in the ub. It isa language of friendshi and solidarity.

    Italian tal,ing to those fro" beyond the region) andreading and -riting)at the church and the school. 5@anetHol"es) DD14 (+

    $ifferent languages

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    34/44

    Sociolinguists use the ter" variety 5orso"eti"es code+ to refer to language in conte&t.

    A variety is a set of linguistic for"s used unders ecific social circu"stances) i.e. -ith adistinctive social distribution.

    !herefore) variety is a broad ter" -hich includesdifferent accents) different linguistic style)different dialects and even different languages

    -hich contrast -ith each other for socialreasons.

    ( Social factors in linguistic

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    35/44

    (. Social factors in linguisticvariation

    Social factors accounting for the articularvariety used4

    1. !he artici ants 4 3ho is s ea,ing and 3ho are they s ea,ing to 8 . !he setting or social conte&ts of the

    interaction 4 3hereare they s ea,ing 8 #. !he to ic 4 -hat is being tal,ed about 8 %. !he function 4 -hy are they s ea,ing 8

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    36/44

    Social di"ensions 9artici ants4

    solidarity social distance scalestatus scale

    Setting for"ality scale

    !o ic /unction

    :eferential and affective function scales

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Introduction

    37/44

    !he solidarity C social distancescale

    Inti"ate $istant

    High solidarity Lo- solidarity

    !he scale is useful in e" hasiGing that ho- -ell

    -e ,no- so"eone is a relevant factor inlinguistic choice.e.g. ;eg vs. ;rs. Belington

  • 8/11/2019 Sociolinguistics an Intr