Social Psychology II: Justifying our Actions Lecture 17 4/12/04

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Social Psychology II: Justifying our Actions Lecture 17 4/12/04 Slide 2 Movie clips Raising Arizona Raising Arizona Friends Friends Slide 3 Slide 4 Why? Those who signed the poster AND were made conscious of how long they showered Those who signed the poster AND were made conscious of how long they showered Took the shortest showers Took the shortest showers Hypocrisy: Their attitudes and actions dont coincide Hypocrisy: Their attitudes and actions dont coincide TENSION TENSION Slide 5 Enter theory Cognitive Dissonance ( Memory aid: Thoughts out of tune) State of tension when an individual holds 2 cognitions (attitudes, beliefs, opinions) that are inconsistent. confusion, upset, nervous/anxious confusion, upset, nervous/anxious physiology of our bodies changes: HR, BP, sweaty hands physiology of our bodies changes: HR, BP, sweaty hands Slide 6 Cognitive Dissonance E.g. Smoking with the Surgeon General E.g. Smoking with the Surgeon General Cognition A: I smoke cigarettes Cognition A: I smoke cigarettes Cognition B: Smoking causes Cancer Cognition B: Smoking causes Cancer Slide 7 Does this apply to you? Have you ever made a difficult decision? Have you ever made a difficult decision? Have you ever had to say something contrary to your attitudes or opinions? Have you ever had to say something contrary to your attitudes or opinions? Have you ever been persuaded to change an attitude you thought was near & dear to you? Have you ever been persuaded to change an attitude you thought was near & dear to you? Slide 8 What to do with an unpleasant feeling Anyone hungry? Cognitive discomfort // Physiological discomfort Cognitive discomfort // Physiological discomfort Tension Reduction Tension Reduction Give up smoking? Not so fastman is not so rational Not so fastman is not so rational Motivated to BELIEVE were right rather than BE right Motivated to BELIEVE were right rather than BE right Slide 9 A Method To Our Madness Nonsensical behavior justify our actions, beliefs and feelings 1. Make thought Consonant I do not smoke I do not smoke 2. Make light of evidence Inconclusive evidence Inconclusive evidence 3. Add consonant Cognitions May lead a shorter life, but more enjoyable one May lead a shorter life, but more enjoyable one Slide 10 Reducing Dissonance after binging Slide 11 The End of the World On a particular date redemption On a particular date redemption What happens upon failure of prophecy? What happens upon failure of prophecy? Disbanding in disillusion? Disbanding in disillusion? Strengthening of conviction Strengthening of conviction Slide 12 Mrs. Keech & Seekers of Truth Spiritual messages from the Guardians Spiritual messages from the Guardians automatic writing = belief system automatic writing = belief system Great impending disaster! Great impending disaster! A flood would engulf the world A flood would engulf the world But, all who believed But, all who believed Spacemen would arrive Spacemen would arrive Remove all metal, memorize passwords: Remove all metal, memorize passwords: I left my hat at home; I am my own porter I left my hat at home; I am my own porter Rid personal belongings, quit jobs Rid personal belongings, quit jobs Slide 13 Note: 2 significant observations 1. HIGH Commitment Despite opposition of friends, family 2. Inaction No recruitment efforts No recruitment efforts Media turned away Media turned away Proceedings burned Proceedings burned Passwords & secret signs Passwords & secret signs Slide 14 The eve of the flood Spaceship to arrive at midnight Spaceship to arrive at midnight The last 10 minutes The last 10 minutes Slide 15 Proselytizing the Future 1. The little group, sitting alone all night long, had spread so much light that God had saved the world from destruction 2. Contact the press! Secrecy and publicity policies gone awry Secrecy and publicity policies gone awry Slide 16 When prophecy fails When truth is undercut by physical proof, theres only one way out: When truth is undercut by physical proof, theres only one way out: SOCIAL PROOF SOCIAL PROOF The greater the number of people who find an idea correct, the more an individual will perceive the idea to be correct. The greater the number of people who find an idea correct, the more an individual will perceive the idea to be correct. Slide 17 Lab Evidence Experiment on performance 1 Wooden board w/ 48 square pegs Wooden board w/ 48 square pegs Turn each: Turn each: 1/4 in to L 1/4 in to L 1/4 in to R 1/4 in to R 1/4 in to L 1/4 in to L 1/4 in to R 1/4 in to R2 30 minutes later a new board 30 minutes later a new board 12 spools of thread 12 spools of thread Take all 12 off Put them back on Take them off Put back on Slide 18 More than meets the eye You were in control group! You were in control group! Others being told experiment is fun and exciting Others being told experiment is fun and exciting HELP! confederate is not here!!! HELP! confederate is not here!!! Could you do it, please? Could you do it, please? 1$ vs. 20$ 1$ vs. 20$ Know experiment was dull, but will you rave about it? Know experiment was dull, but will you rave about it? How do you feel about the task? How do you feel about the task? Slide 19 Attitude Change Do Big rewards produce Big change? Ps in no lie admitted task was boring Ps in no lie admitted task was boring For $20, Ps justified lie- said it was pretty boring too For $20, Ps justified lie- said it was pretty boring too But, for $1, Ps change attitude to reduce dissonance But, for $1, Ps change attitude to reduce dissonance Slide 20 Shocking Results Common sense on its head Common sense on its head Motivated to reduce tension, we alter our attitudes to justify our suffering Motivated to reduce tension, we alter our attitudes to justify our suffering Wasted effort, difficult decisions, attitude discrepant behavior Wasted effort, difficult decisions, attitude discrepant behavior How much do you like school now? How much do you like school now? Slide 21 Condom Study (Aronson, 1994) Young people should wear condoms during sex A. Compose arguments B. AND recite in front of video camera Audience = high school students Audience = high school students each condition made mindful each condition made mindful List conditions: difficult, awkward, or impossible List conditions: difficult, awkward, or impossible Hypocrisy condition: hi commitment & mindful report increase in usage & buy more condoms report increase in usage & buy more condoms Slide 22 Justifying Effort: Coming to Like What We Suffer For Aronson & Mills (1959) group discussions on sex embarrassment test Aronson & Mills (1959) group discussions on sex embarrassment test Severe initiation rated the boring discussion more favorable than mild & no initiation groups Severe initiation rated the boring discussion more favorable than mild & no initiation groups The more we *** for something, the more we will come to like it. The more we *** for something, the more we will come to like it. Slide 23 Post-decision change: to reduce dissonance Brehm, 1956: Female Subjects Brehm, 1956: Female Subjects Rate appliances: toaster, coffee maker, radio, stopwatch, etc. on desirability Rate appliances: toaster, coffee maker, radio, stopwatch, etc. on desirability Choose one (btw.): Choose one (btw.): a. equally rated products Re-rate: Chosen product Re-rate: Chosen product previously equal! previously equal! Helps convince what did was right Helps convince what did was right Slide 24 Changing behavior: changes thoughts and feelings Slide 25 How else are attitudes changed? Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Persuasion Persuasion Slide 26 Cialdinis 6 Principles of Persuasion Reciprocation Reciprocation Commitment/Consistency Commitment/Consistency Authority Authority Social validation Social validation Scarcity Scarcity Liking/Friendship Liking/Friendship Slide 27 Reciprocation Regan, 1971: Art appreciation Regan, 1971: Art appreciation Joe Joe 2 minute break 2 minute break Experiment Done Experiment Done $.25 Raffle tickets $.25 Raffle tickets Slide 28 Implications: not so free samples Mints lead to higher tips Mints lead to higher tips Flowers, books, pens lead to higher donations Flowers, books, pens lead to higher donations Supermarket trials Supermarket trials Slide 29 Door in the Face Real request preceded by rejection of larger one Concession to reciprocate Concession to reciprocate BUT, 1 st set of demands BUT, 1 st set of demands Boy Scout Boy Scout $5 raffle ticket $5 raffle ticket $1 candy bar $1 candy bar Spend 2 hrs/wk w/ juvenile delinquents? Spend 2 hrs/wk w/ juvenile delinquents? Chaperone a 1-day trip Chaperone a 1-day trip triple compliance triple compliance Slide 30 Cialdinis 6 Principles of influence Reciprocation Reciprocation Commitment/Consistency Commitment/Consistency Authority Authority Social validation Social validation Scarcity Scarcity Liking/Friendship Liking/Friendship Slide 31 Commitment & Consistency: Foot in the door Real request prefaced by getting compliance on smaller request Drive Carefully Billboard Drive Carefully Billboard 17% naturally 17% naturally If 2 weeks prior 76% If 2 weeks prior 76% Committing to a petition: new view of self as publicly spirited Committing to a petition: new view of self as publicly spirited CONSISTENCY CONSISTENCY Slide 32 Low-balling Car salesman Car salesman Allows time to get feel for car & show it around Allows time to get feel for car & show it around Reports errors in calculation Reports errors in calculation Personal commitment lasts w/ range of new reasons Personal commitment lasts w/ range of new reasons Get agreement on original request w/ advantage Get agreement on original request w/ advantage remove inducement, let decision stand on newly created legs remove inducement, let decision stand on newly created legs Iowa energy conservation Iowa energy conservation