So I have to do a bibliography?What exactly is that?And where do I start?
What is a bibliography?An organised list of resourcesSet out in a strict style HarvardSorted in alphabetical order
Your entries may includeBook with 1 authorBook with 2 or more authorsAnthologyMonthly or quarterly magazine articleNewspaper articleFilm, filmstrip, videotapeAnonymous work or articleTV or radio broadcast
Or these:Multivolume workWeekly magazine articleWebsiteCD Rom or electronic journalScholarly journalTranslated articleGovernment documentinterview
When doing research and creating a bibliography the following are really important considerations:
AUTHORITY- Who wrote it? What are their credentials? (i.e. PhD, Professor, unqualified writer)
AUDIENCE - Who are the intended audience eg. Researchers? Students? Consumers?
More important considerations
USEFULNESS - How useful is it to your paper? eg. Is it a research article? Is it too scientific for your needs? Is it too general?
CONCLUSIONS - Have the author(s) made any conclusions? What methods were used for evaluation?
LIMITATIONS - Are there any limitations in the work/methods/conclusions?
Your work cited page, or bibliography, should look like this:
The basic entry: A book by a single authorPattern:[Author last name] [Author first name initial] [Year], [Title of Work], [Publisher], [Location].
Fukuyama, Francis. Our Post human Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York: Farrar.
Online Book Example:Nugent, P, & Vitale, B 2008, 'Chapter 11: Practice Questions with Answers and Rationales', Test Success: Test-Taking Techniques for Beginning Nursing Students (5th Edition) pp. 159-294 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: F.A. Davis Company CINAHL Plus with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 December 2010.
But for each source: There is a specific way to cite it ------- and there are examples of each in your diary p107-109
A Book by Two or More Authors:Eggins, Suzanne, and Diane Slade. 1997. Analysing Casual Conversation. London: Cassell.
Marquart, James W., Sheldon Ekland Olson, and Jonathan R. Sorensen. 1994. The Rope, the Chair, and the Needle: Capital Punishment in Texas. Austin: U of Texas P.
If there are more than 3 authors, you may name only the first and add et al. (and others) Quirk, Randolph, et al. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.
Journal or Magazine Article
Pattern:[Author last name], [Author first initial] [Year], [Title of article], [Journal Name], [Volume number], [issue number], pp. [page number start]-[end], [URL or Database Name], [EBSCOhost], viewed [day month year].
Example:Maynard, W 1999 'Thoreau's House at Walden', Art Bulletin, 81, 2, pp. 303, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viiewed 6 December 2010
Journal or Magazine Article w/No Author
Pattern:[Title of article] [Year], [Journal Name], [Volume number], [issue number], pp. [page number start]-end], [URL or Database Name], [EBSCOhost], viewed [day month year].Example:'Royal Dogfight' 2004, People, 61, 1, p. 28, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 December 2010.
Online Newspaper ArticlePattern:[Author last name], [Author first initial] [Year], [Title of article] [Newspaper Name], [Day month of publication], [URL or Database Name], [EBSCOhost], viewed [day month year].Example:Lacey, M 2007, 'A Communist He Was, but Today, Che Sells', New York Times, 9 October, Newspaper Source Select, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 December 2010.Online Newspaper Article w/No AuthorPattern:[Title of article] [Year], [Newspaper Name], [Day month of publication], [URL or Database Name], [EBSCOhost], viewed [day month year].Example:'Metro Briefing | Connecticut: Hartford: Domestic Violence Proposal', 2005, New York Times, 10 January, Newspaper Source Select, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 December 2010.
Electronic Information:Follow the recommendations for citing information from booksIf there is no author, begin with the title of the documentThe title of the site is in italics and follows the title of the article.Follow with: date of electronic publication, date of print publication, name of sponsoring institution, URLWhen the site was accessed (accessed August 5, 2012)
Website example:Pattern:[Website Page Name] [Year]. [Website Organization], [Website Organization Location], viewed [Date Month Year], . Example:Tommy Bolin Archives 2010. The Official Tommy Bolin Archives, USA, viewed 9 December 2010, http://www.tbolin.com/index.html.
First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.
How to get going
Create Notes on each.
Where to searchYou have 3 minutes to quickly search for information on the topic
Gotu Kola improves memory
After 3 minutes we will discuss what information was found, what sites, what type of article etc.
Finding good sourcesUsing Google is not the best way to go about searching for good quality articles by qualified and respected academics.
The best sources are hidden in databases so you have to know where to find the databases for your subject.Some freely available database searches are :Google Scholar and Microsofts Academic Search
Subscription databases have a wider selection and often the full text of the source rather than just the citation or abstract.
Boolean TermsThe following table illustrates the operation of Boolean terms:If there are nested parentheses, the search engine processes the innermost parenthetical expression first, then the next, and so on until the entire query has been interpreted. For example, ((mouse OR rat) AND trap) OR mousetrap
AndOrNotEach result contains all search terms.Each result contains at least one search term.Results do not contain the specified terms.The search heart and lung finds items that contain both heart and lung.The search heart or lung finds items that contain either heart or items that contain lung.The search heart not lung finds items that contain heart but do not contain lung.
What to recordFor books, record:The authors or editors name (or names) The year the book was published The title of the book If it is an edition other than the first The city the book was published in The name of the publisher
What to recordFor journal articles record: The authors name or names The year in which the journal was published The title of the article The title of the journal The page number/s of the article in the journal As much other information as you can find about the journal, for example the volume and issue numbers
What to recordFor electronic resources, try to collect the information on the left if it is available, but also record:The date you accessed the source The electronic address or email The type of electronic resource (email, discussion forum, WWW page, etc)
In addition to these details, when you are taking notes, if you copy direct quotations or if you put the authors ideas in your own words, write down the page numbers you got the information from.
When to CiteQuote directly: use another persons ideas in their wordsParaphrase: present another persons ideas in your wordsSummarise: express another persons ideas in fewer wordsUse ideas, theories, facts, experiments, case studies, from a sourceAdopt another persons research method, survey or experiment designUse statistics, tables, diagrams etc. not just words!
How to cite examplesWhen using quotations in your text observe the following examples:
He stated, The relative importance of the systems may nevertheless remain in approximately the same proportion (Gardner, 1973, p. 41)
Smith (1991) found that ... there is no evidence that chimpanzees can produce a drawing and discern the object represented in it ... (p. 84)
Citing when there is no authorWhen a source has no author, cite the first two or three words of the title followed by the year. For example:
... in the recent book (Encyclopaedia of psychology, 1991, p. 62)...
... in this article (Individual differences, 1993, p. 12) ...
Web pages where no author is given:Alcohol Concern (Call to stop, 2007) have proposed various policies to
The key point is that your in-text reference matches the start of the reference in your reference list/bibliography.
Locate 3-5 sources on your topic. Write Harvard Cited style entry for each source.Look for any biographical info./credentials you can find about the author and note them. Scan the source and note the content. Look at a few specific passages that catch your eyesummarize them. Do you detect any bias? Is the source written for a particular audience (scholars, professionals in the field, general adult audience, educators, social workers, parents, teenagers, the poor, religious etc)? Write your bibliography from your notes.Your Mission Today:
Facts on Filehttp://online.infobaselearning.com/Direct.aspx?aid=107722&pid=WE00Access Credentials: - In school auto login link
One Search, the library catalogueSearch all of State Library's collections plus millions of journal articles and ebooks at the same time. Just enter your words in the search box.Not all eresources are available in One Search. http://onesearch.slq.qld.gov.au/
Top Referencing TipsYour reference should help your reader to recover your source easily. If it cannot be found again, dont reference it.Be consistent with layout and punctuation.Only list references you have read yourself.Do not list sources that are mentioned in the works you have seen when compiling your reference list.There will not be guidance for every type or variation of a source.Use the nearest style you can find to fit the source.If in doubt, do what your teacher says, not what the library says or what the referencing system says. Only teachers give and take away marks.