Project Topic : Types of Crime: Smuggling Michalis Loule & George DeliyiannisENG Class
What is Smuggling ?SMUGGLING is the illegal transportation of objects or people, such as out of a building, into a prison or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.There are various motivations to smuggle. These include:- the participation in illegal trade, such as in the drug trade, - in illegal immigration or illegal emigration, - tax evasion, - the theft of items being smuggled.
Examples of non-financial motivations include bringing banned items past a security checkpoint (such as airline security) or the removal of classified documents from a government or corporate office.
Types of Smuggling !Goods:
Much smuggling occurs when enterprising merchants attempt to supply demand for a good or service that is illegal or heavily taxed. As a result, illegal drug trafficking, and the smuggling of weapons (illegal arms trade), as well as the smuggling of alcohol and tobacco, are widespread . As the smuggler faces significant risk of civil and criminal penalties if caught smugglers are able to impose a significant price premium on smuggled goods. The profits involved in smuggling goods appear to be extensive. The Iron Law of Prohibition dictates that greater enforcement results in more potent alcohol and drugs being smuggled.Profits also derive from avoiding taxes on imported goods. For example, a smuggler might purchase a large quantity of cigarettes in a place with low taxes and smuggle them into a place with higher taxes, where they can be sold at a far higher price than would otherwise be possible. It has been reported that smuggling one truckload of cigarettes within the United States can lead to a profit of US $2 million.
With regard to people smuggling, a distinction can be made between people smuggling as a service to those wanting to illegally migrate and the involuntary trafficking of people. An estimated 90% of people who illegally crossed the border between Mexico and the United States are believed to have paid a smuggler to lead them across.
People smuggling can be used to rescue a person from oppressive circumstances. For example, when the Southern United States allowed slavery, many slaves moved north. Similarly, during the Holocaust, Jewish people were smuggled out of Germany by people.
Wildlife smuggling results from the demand for exotic species. The CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) regulates the movement of endangered wildlife across political borders.
Smugglers usually avoid border checks, such as by small ships, private airplanes, through overland smuggling routes and smuggling tunnels. This also applies for illegally passing a border, for illegal immigration/emigration. In many parts of the world, particularly Mexico, the smuggling choice is the go-fast boat. A large number of suspected smugglers are caught each year by custom worldwide. Goods and people are also smuggled across seas hidden in containers, and overland hidden in cars, trucks, and trains. The high level of duty levied on alcohol and tobacco in Britain has led to large-scale smuggling from France to the UK through the Channel Tunnel.
Another method is with a false passport (completely fake, or illegally changed).
Whoever, with the intent to evade a currency reporting requirement, knowingly conceals more than $10,000 in currency and transports or transfers or attempts to transport such currency from a place within the United States to a place outside of or from a place outside the United States to a place within , shall be guilty of a currency smuggling offence