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Smart meters smartgrids-smartcircuitbreaker-v1.3

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  • 1. Power Cut Vs Power Consumption cutil. c omma ly @g circuit breakersA discussion about Smart Energy metersland smart par va hna. [email protected] Ver 1.3+91-99010 79268 [email protected]

2. Power Generation by power plantsPower Generation is almost constant (an exception to this are renewableGreen Power generation like wind/tidal/wave/solar/osmotic/biomass/geothermal power generation, whose output varies with time. c omHydroelectric/gas/Coal/Petroleum/bio-fuel/Bloom/Nuclear power stationsoutput will be constant unless modified intentionally). il.. g maal [email protected] apa. arvrishn x MW ha KSupply Rad [email protected] 3. Power consumption by consumersPower consumption is very fluctuatingil. c om g maal [email protected] apx MWa. arvSupply hn DemandK risad ha RTime [email protected] 4. Problem faced by Distribution companiesProblem area is shown belowil. c om g maal [email protected] apx MWa. arvSupply hn DemandK risad ha RTime [email protected] 5. SolutionsWhat does the distribution companies do during this period? com as their1) purchase from other statesl. What if the other state is also unable to supply duringithat periodma peak hours also [email protected]) Power CUT to some regions .ar vana some areas using allKr ish This has a serious problem ofha lights/fans/AC/heater/amusement and other regions living in dark without power forad (mobile charging) and critical equipment like operation R basictheatres in hospitals. [email protected] 6. Power CutHow Power cut works?Divide AP in to power zones and assign priorities. c omHospitals area, Industrial area, schools area, domestic area will be givendifferent priorities. il.Cut the power to non priority power zones during g mahours.lly @ peakpa r va hna. aris aKdh [email protected] 7. Connects to National Power GridHow Power Grid looks like State wide Distribution il. c omg ma al [email protected] apa. arv rishn haK Radhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_power_transmission [email protected] 8. When Power Cut to a power-cut zone il. c om Some zonesg mabecomes dark al [email protected] a. arv rishnha [email protected] 9. What the power cut leads toWhen the power is cut, all high priority works (like operation theatre, s/wcompanies, lifts in 100storied buildings) need alternatives.This leads to market for UPS, Invertors, Generators il. c om g maal [email protected] apa. arv rishn haK [email protected] 10. ImpactsThese solutions are very expensive.One time costs: c om An Inverter for a household costs 10K Rs/-l. A backup generator for lift in a small apartment costs iaround 250K A diesel generator for a small shop costs 150K gma [email protected] staff) costs 20Map arv A diesel generator for IT organization (ofRunning Cost:na. Kr More than 15 Rs/KWHishad [email protected] 11. Alternatives???During power-cut: households, shops, IT organizations, hospitals dont run allelectrical equipment on Inverters/generators. They only run priority itemsdue to high running cost. c omIf every one in all regions uses only priority items and turn-OFF non-priority il.maitems during peak hours (problematic hours), we dont need to cut power tosome regions. g al [email protected] priority items? apBut how do we make every one turn off their nonHow do we make a house wife user va washing machine in non peak hours? na. their electric cars during non-peak hours? Kr ishHow do we make people recharge ad haHow do we make corporates turn off some lights during peak hours? RAll of them are being followed when they are running backup generators. Whydont they follow same when power is supplied without [email protected] 12. Alternatives????Reason that drives people is money. When the regular power is 3 Rs/Unit, weuse more. When the backup generator costs 15 Rs/Unit, we tend to conserve.il. c omWhy cant we make people pay more during peak hours? So that people willbecome conservative? ma lly @g par va hn a. aris aKdh Ra [email protected] 13. Technology limitationsCurrent mechanical electric meters does not bill depending on time of use.comshould beWe need new technology for doing this.We need smart electric meter to do this for us. This smart.ail meter gmable to record the power consumption during each point of time.So that we can bill as per the usage time al [email protected] too. r vahna. arisaKdhRa [email protected] 14. ResultPower consumption now will be scaled down depending on price at peakhours mcoprice)il.I will scale the graph with x (scaling factor x is proportional to mally @gpar va hna. a ris aK dh Ra Time [email protected] 15. Result x MWPower consumption now will be scaled depending on price at peak hoursI will scale the graph with x il. c ommaPrice [email protected] pa Timea. ar rishnx MWha KRadTime [email protected] 16. Repeated CorrectionStill have Demand-Supply Gap?Let me change the price again to further scale down the consumption Priceil. c om 2.0 * Base Price g ma [email protected] 1.5 * Base Priceal 1 * Base Price ap arv Time hn a.K ris hax MW Rad Time [email protected] 17. TechnologyHow do we achieve this?We need a smart energy meter (will be called SEM from now onwards in thisdocument) to do this. This meter should be able to record power consumption c omagainst time (instead of recording cumulative energy consumption). il.maThis energy meter need to be communicated from the central station, [email protected] this dynamic stats analysis and price determination. alaparvThis can be easily achieved if we use a GSM/CDMA modem in each meter. a.Central station can send control (either in control channel or SMS) to smarthn rismeter and get ack back for confirmation. haK [email protected] 18. TechnologyDo we have such smart meters?Yes. mcoto centralil.ma against time.ICSA does have a smart energy meter which can [email protected], but not sure if it can record energy consumption lly pahttp://www.icsa-india.com/Solutions/sem.htmlr vahn a. a risGoogle powerdhaKcan record energy consumption against time.R a meterhttp://www.google.com/powermeter/about/about.htmlBut not sure if it can communicate to central [email protected] 19. Advantages?We dont need to buy power from other states.No Power Cut It is only power consumption cut. il. c ommaDisadvantages?gWont it be costly to use such meter? al [email protected] They are costly compared to regular mechanical meter. But a house hold a.will prefer to buy this instead of buying an Inverter. So it is inexpensivehn riscompared to an inverter. haKAn apartment prefers this instead of Lift backup generator. It is cheaper Radcompared to back up generator for lift.A corporate company will buy this for 4K to save his 20M diesel generator. [email protected] 20. Death of old productsThis solution leads to death of many products now.Inverter fan (Fan with built in inverter) http://www.clickindia.com/detail.php?id=4785198Emergency Lightsil. c [email protected] LED Light (LED bulb with built in 4 hours backup)llyUPSpar vaDiesel generators hna. arisaKdhRa [email protected] 21. Implementation practical problemsThis will be good to install these meters in every house, say in new powerdistribution installations to a village.But what about the existing installations? What if every one is not ready forreplacement, which may cost 4K to replace conventional meter? il. c omg maSo cant we work out this? al [email protected] a. arv rishnNop. We can still work out this.ha [email protected] 22. Backward compatibility & Migration feasibilityLet me take a power-cut zone. This may have max of 10 distributiontransformers? (correct me if I am wrong) il. comCircuitLet me make a new type of circuit breaker, let us call it as SmartBreaker (let use SCB to represent this).g maThis circuit breaker will have a GSM modem ly [email protected] meter does have.al asap the central station instruction ofarv price.This circuit breaker cuts off the power whenbilling is more than 1.0 timesa. basen ofKrish adha circuit breaker: one is household capacity. Another R transformer capacity.Two variants of thisdistributionRadhakr[email protected] 23. Backward solution & Migration feasibility Let me first place these smart circuit breakers with each distribution transformer of a power-cut zone.SCBSCBic om l. SCB g maal [email protected] a. arv rishn haK RadX If an individual x requested for smart meter for no power [email protected] 24. Backward solution & Migration feasibility Now I will remove main circuit breaker to that distribution transformer, and place small circuit breaker to other houses in that distribution transformer. So in that power cut zone, there will be houses with power cut, and will be c om houses without power cut. il.g ma al [email protected] dont need SCB hereap a. arv rishnWe dont need SCB Kfor a house with SEMad ha RSCBSCBSEM [email protected] 25. OptimizationTill now we discussed about transformer circuit breaker and house circuitbreaker.How to make this solution little less cost?. com one pole,iluse a single poleThis is by using Pole circuit breaker. If 10 houses are connected tomathen instead of using 10 household circuit breakers, I willcircuit [email protected] va hna. a ris aK dh Ra [email protected] 26. Backward compatibility Cost optimizationil. c omg ma al [email protected] a. arv rishn haKad For smart meters RFor old metersX [email protected] 27. OptimizationSending SMS to each SEM every time price changes is expensive. How toaddress this?We can have data communication over power lines. But we miss an advantageof different tariff change for each customer type.il. c om maEg: during peak hours, house hold tariff can become 1.5 times and gcommercial tariff can become 1.8 times.al [email protected]