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  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    University of Cincinnati


    Department of Mechanical Engineering

    440B Baldwin Hall, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0072

    August 22, 2002

    (Mark Schulz, Ph. 513-556-4132)

    Smart Materials, Actuator and Sensor Concepts

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    Smart Materials, Actuator and Sensor Concepts (Active materials with higher strain are needed to make these concepts easier to build and to improve performance)

    •Linear Actuators, Wireless Motor

    •Vibration Attenuation, Flutter Suppression

    •Micro-power Generation

    •Semi-active Vibration Isolation

    •Sensor Development


    •Nanotube Actuators

    •Structural Health Monitoring Techniques

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    A Camless Valve System for IC Engines (M. Schulz, D. Klett, M. Sundaresan, J. Sankar )

    OBJECTIVE: Develop a valve actuator using smart materials

    Active Fiber Composite Actuator design and performance

    0 0.005 0.01 0.015 -0.2








    0.2 Valve Displacement, actual (red) and exact (black)


    D is

    pl ac

    em en

    t (In

    ch es


    0 0.005 0.01 0.015 -400








    400 Position (red), Damping (black), Acceleration (green), and Total (--) Force


    A ct

    ua to

    r F

    ee db

    ac k

    C on

    tr ol

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    (L b)

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab


    OBJECTIVE: Develop high power density actuators using smart materials

    An AFC strut actuator

    AFC harmonic drive motor with no wires A hybrid AFC-hydraulic actuator

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    Comparison of Electromagnetic, Solid State, and Harmonic Drive Motors

    Notes: Table data from MIT, last row data based on estimates at NCA&TSU, EM=electromagnetic, SW=standing wave, SS=solid state, TW=traveling wave, D=disk, R=ring,

    ET=extension/twist, HD=harmonic Drive

    Type Description Manufacturer Stall Torque (Ncm)

    No-load Speed (RPM)

    Power Density (W/kg)

    Torque Density (Nm/kg)

    Peak Efficiency

    EM DC, brushless Aeroflex 0.33 13,500 106 0.29 71% EM DC, brushless Micro Mo 0.99 4,000 - 0.04 ~20% EM DC, brushless Maxon 1.27 5,200 - 1.13 70% EM DC, brushless Mabuchi 1.60 14,500 - 0.42 53% USS SW, ET Kumada 133 120 80 8.8 80% USS TW, D Shinsei 60 100 18 2.6 27% USS TW, D MIT 170 40 12 5.2 15% USS TW, R MIT 0.54 1750 108 2.1 -

    EMHD FHA-17A-6006 HD Inc. 1,400 80 21.4 11.7 56% SSHD TW, HD NCA&T ~2,635 ~12 ~234 ~186 ~29%

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    VIBRATION SUPPRESSION RESEARCH (A. Ghoshal, M. Sundaresan, M. Schulz)

    OBJECTIVE: Develop a vibration suppression technique using smart materials

    Vibration suppression using a laser vibrometer and piezoceramic patches

    Beam without control

    Beam with hybrid control

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    FLUTTER SUPPRESSION RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Develop a flutter suppression technique using PZT’s and a laser

    sensor (Ed Shackleford, Anindya Ghoshal, Mannur Sundaresan, M. Schulz)

    View of the wing tip in the low speed wind tunnel controlled using a laser vibrometer

    sensor and piezoceramic patches Experimental Setup for flutter suppression

    using PZT patches & laser vibrometer sensor

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    MICRO-POWER GENERATION (M. Schulz, M. Sundaresan)

    OBJECTIVE: Generate power for autonomous structural health monitoring

    Approach: Power generation devices; (a) the Strain Power Pack; (b) two Series Power Mounts; (c) the parallel power mount with frequency spreader

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    Vibration Attenuation of Base and Mass Excited Automotive Components using Semi-Active Magnetorheologic Damping

    by Greg Stelzer, Jay Kim, Mark Schulz

    Objective: A semi-active magnetorheologic damper is used to attenuate vibration and noise of operating automotive components. An enhanced sky-hook control algorithm is used. Two factors are to be optimized: relative displacement and transmitted force from the component.

    Figure 1. Semi-active control system for vibration attenuation of automotive components.



    kpassive cpassiveMR


    y(t) Skyhook Control Butterworth Low Pass Filter (2nd order, 20 Hz) Integrator

    Processor With Control Law

    Amplifier For MR Coil


  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    ACTIVE FIBER COMPOSITE SENSOR DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE: Develop an AFC sensor for structural health monitoring

    (Saurabh Datta, Mark Schulz, Mannur Sundaresan)

    Piezoceramic fiber preforms (figure from CeraNova Corp.)

    Piezoceramic fiber sensor built at the UC

    Problem: AFC’s are designed primarily for actuation

    Approach: Develop new electrode for sensing

    Teaming: UC, NCA&T & CeraNova Corporation





    Parallel connectivity for actuation

    Series connectivity for sensing



  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    ARRAY PROCESSING FOR SMART STRUCTURES OBJECTIVE: Develop a smart sensor array and new sensor materials

    A Continuous Sensor Array

    (Mannur Sundaresan, William N. Martin, Mark Schulz)

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    WAVELETS AND PIEZOCERAMIC SENSORS (D. Hughes, A. Ghoshal, M. Sundaresan, M. Schulz)

    OBJECTIVE: Develop wavelet analysis techniques for smart sensors

    • The Wavelet Transmittance Function (WTF) of piezoceramic sensor data is used for crack detection in structures



    )( t

    ti eet o −

    = ωψ∫ ∞


    = dtttfuaW ua )()(),( *

    ,ψψ 1

    2 12 WT

    WTWTF =

    No crack: WTF~1.0 With crack: WTF~0.75

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    The Wavelet Transfom indicating damage in a helicopter flexbeam, (a) input, (b) response of healthy leg, (c) response of damaged leg.




    0.00000 0.00005 0.00010 0.00015 0.00020

    Time, Seconds

    PZ T

    Vo lta


    Input Pulse

    Response at healthy location

    Sensor at delamination

    Results from 50 KHz, 10V Peak to Peak Excitation at Collocated Sensors


    Flexbeam Component with Offal Intact

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    A CONTINUOUS PIEZOCERAMIC SENSOR OBJECTIVE: Develop neural composite materials for SHM, BHM

    (with Mannur Sundaresan at NCA&TSU)

    Voltage response for the single PZT sensor and the continuous sensor with nine PZT nodes

    Comparison of the energy of the continuous sensor (DS) and a single PZT sensor (SS)









    0 0.01 0.02 Time, Seconds

    A m

    pl itu

    de , V

    ol ts



    L1 L2 L3 SS






    A E

    en er


    Simulated AE Location S en

    so r

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab




  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    •The Biological Neural System

    The generalized neuron. The visual cortex. Levels of information

    processing in man.

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    Skin is a multifunctional and Skin is a multifunctional and layered material that can layered material that can

    inspire the design of inspire the design of structuresstructures

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    FORMS OF CARBON (figures from General Chemistry, 3rd Edition, Hill and Petrucci, Prentice Hall )

    DiamondDiamond Each carbon atom is bonded to four

    others in a tetrahedral fashion.

    Carbon Carbon NanotubeNanotube The molecules vary in length from a few nanometers to a micrometThe molecules vary in length from a few nanometers to a micrometer or more. er or more.

    GraphiteGraphite The ball and stick model (a) of graphite indicates the closelyThe ball and stick model (a) of graphite indicates the closely--packed nature of packed nature of

    the carbon atoms. The layers of carbon in graphite are 335pm apathe carbon atoms. The layers of carbon in graphite are 335pm apart, rt, approximately twice as long as the Capproximately twice as long as the C--C bond distance of 142pm (b). C bond distance of 142pm (b).

    C60 C60 BuckyballBuckyball

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    Developing Piezoelectric Nanotube Actuators and Sensors (Mark Schulz)

    Top electrode

    Field direction

    BNT fibers in a flexible matrix

    Bottom Electrode

    Boron nitride nanotubes for piezoelectric actuation

  • Smart Structures Bio-Nano Lab

    Developing Carbon Nanotube Electro-chemical Actuators (Mark Schul