Smart Grids And Micro Grids - MTU

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  • SmartGridsandMicroSmartGridsandMicrogridsgrids

    Whataretheyreally?Whataretheyreally?

    byBruceA.Mork,Ph.D.,P.E.

    WayneW.Weaver,Ph.D.,P.E.DepartmentofElectrical&ComputerEngineering

    PresentedattheMinnesotaPowerSystemsConferenceBrooklynCenter,MNNovember35,2009

    MichiganTech

  • QuickOverviewofEEPower Sixfaculty,35gradstudents,60UGs Respondingtoworkforceneeds:

    14onlinecourses:EE3010 EE6210 OnlineMSEE(~40enrolled) Onlinecertificate,advancedcertificate(~25enrolled) DOETransportationelectrificationprogram

    Stateoftheartlabs Relaying PowerElectronics MotorDrives

    Power&EnergyResearchCenter Multidisciplinary,industrypartners

  • Motivationforthispresentation Steadilyincreasingmediabuzz,littlesubstantive

    information.

    Onlyasmallsubsetofpossibilitiesarebeingdiscussed.Smartmeter smartgrid.

    Littlepracticalsenseforwhatispossible: a)now,andb)intheforeseeablefuture,and Whatarethetechnologyandfinancialbottlenecks?

    Sincethispresentationwasscheduled, IEEEPESGeneralMeetinginCalgary Moreusefulinforecentlypublished Mipsycon,MondaySeminar,ThursdayTutorials

    Howdoyou defineSmartGrid?

    Wikipedia:deliverselectricityfromsupplierstoconsumersusingdigitaltechnologytocontrolappliancesatconsumer'shomestosaveenergy,reducecostandincreasereliabilityandtransparency.

    GreenEnergyAct(Canada):Anicknameforaneverwideningpaletteofutilityapplicationsthatenhanceandautomatethemonitoringandcontrolofelectricaldistribution.

    DOE: TheSmartGridtransformsthecurrentgridtoonethatfunctionsmorecooperatively,responsivelyandorganically.

  • EngineersDefinition Thatdepends Basically:embeddedprocessors+sensors+datasharing,communications&distributedcontrol.Generation4orG4.

    Policymakers&media:smartmetersandenergymarketing.

    Transmission/operations:wideareamonitoring&control&protection,specialswitchingops.

    Distribution:automation,reliability,timeofdaymetering,integrationofDR,renewables.

    ComponentsofaSmartGrid Hardware

    Sensors,Embeddedprocessors Integrationwithotherhardware

    BasicSoftware SCADA,Energymanagement Vectorprocessors

    Communications Slow(existingSCADAorEMS,moreorless) Highspeed,highbandwidth(needtodevelop)

  • TransmissionApplications Phasor measurementunits(PMUs)andsynchrophasors.

    Gridintegrationofrenewables, Advancedmetering,operations WideArea:WAM,WAC,WAMPAC

    Emergencycontrol VoltageStability:DynamicVAr control,avoidingvoltagecollapse

    AngleStability:Loadshedding,Intelligentsystemseparation

    Systemrestoration:remotetielineclosing.

  • EmergencyControl(figurefromKundur)

    DistributionApplications

    AMI Applicationofsmartmeters Realtimepricing Demandsidemanagement Distributionautomation

    Automatichighspeedtransfer,reconfiguration DR(DistributedResources),DG(DistGen) CES(CommunityEnergyStorage) Optimizingefficiency,reliability,carbonfootprint

  • OnCustomerSideofMeter

    LoadManagement(coordinatedw/utility) Integrationofenergyresourcesasmicrogrid

    InterconnectionwithUtility InterruptibleLoads(waterheater,heat,AC) Electricorhybridelectricvehicle Generation:solar,wind,microhydro Energystorage:battery Optimalcontrolaccordingtogoalofcustomer

    Requirements,ConcernsCommunicationsbandwidthforfastwideareaapplications

    Timedelays,GPStimetagging Interoperability Informationoverload,databasesharingCybersecurity Informationsecurity,privacyComplexity,reliabilityoftechnologyapplicationsthemselves.

  • References1. U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,TheSmartGrid:AnIntroduction.

    http://www.oe.energy.gov/SmartGridIntroduction.htm

    2. IECTC57:IEC61850architectureforsubstationautomation,IEC61970/61968 theCommonInformationModelCIM.

    3. IEEEC37.118 synchrophasors

    4. IEEEP2030DraftGuideforSmartGridInteroperabilityofEnergy TechnologyandInformationTechnologyOperationwiththeElectricPowerSystem,andEndUseApplicationsandLoads.http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc21/2030/2030_index.html

    5. IEEEPower&EnergyMagazine,Sept/Oct2009,SmartGrid:WhatisitReally

    6. IEEEPotentialsMagazine,Sep/Oct2009,CascadingPowerGridFailures

    7. ASEEPrism,Oct2009,UntanglingtheGrid.

    Observations Itsearlyoninanewseriesoftechnologies.Vendorscompetingformarketshare,newstandardsaredeveloping.

    Trytotakeaholisticviewofthesystemandinteraction/interoperability Generation Transmission Distribution Customerside:microgrid,greenbuildings

  • OnCustomerSideofMeter

    LoadManagement(coordinatedw/utility) Integrationofenergyresourcesasmicrogrid

    InterconnectionwithUtility InterruptibleLoads(waterheater,heat,AC) Electricorhybridelectricvehicle Generation:solar,wind,microhydro Energystorage:battery Optimalcontrolaccordingtogoalofcustomer

    WhatisaMicroGrid? Small,independentpowersystem Increasedreliabilitywithdistributedgeneration IncreaseefficiencywithreducedtransmissionlengthandCHP

    Easierintegrationofalternativeenergysources PROBLEM:Control

    Damping/Stability Islanding Loadsharing EnergyManagement

  • ComponentsofaMicrogrid

    Defining MultipleDistributedGenerationPoints ControlSystem/EnergyManagement

    Additional UtilityInterconnectionSwitch PointofCommonCoupling(PCC)

    EnergyStorage

    Microgrid Application

    Communities/Neighborhoods Corporate/AcademicCampuses Buildings Militarybasecamps NavalSystems

  • CommunityMicrogrid Structure

    PCC

    CorporateBuilding/CampusMicrogrids

    PCC

    HVAC

    CHP

  • HomeMicrogrids

    Smart-Appliances

    Energy Storage

    Solar

    PHEV

    PCC

    DCHomeMicrogrid

    Smart-Appliances Energy

    StorageSolar

    PHEV

    PCC

  • MajorMicrogrid TestSites N.America

    CERTS/AEP DolanOH(100kVA) NorthernPowerSystems WaitsfieldVT(500kVA)

    BCHydro BostonBarBC(10MVA) Asia

    ShimizuCorp TokyoJapan(500kVA) SendaiJapan(1MVA)

    Europe Kythnos IslandGreece(15kVA) DEMOTEC KasselGermany

    StandardsforMicrogrid AtPCC IEEE1547: StandardsforInterconnectingDistributedResourceswithElectricPowerSystems

    UL1741:Inverters,ConvertersandControllersforuseinIndependentPowerSystems

    Harmonics AntiIslanding

  • AntiIslanding UL1741TestLoadCircuitatPCC ResonantRLCload Techniquesincludephase/frequencydrift

    TechnicalHurdles:ControlandCommunications

    Gridconnection Syncandreconnect PowerExport

    CentralizedControlSystem Globaloptimization Singlepointoffailure

    Distributedcontrol Modularity/flexibility Localoptimization

  • Communication/ControlStructureReciprocating

    GeneratorUtility

    User

    Users Pluggin Hybrid

    Wind

    BiomassSuper

    Capacitors

    Batteries

    Fuel Cell

    Electrolyser

    H2Storage

    Communication

    PCC

    Droop:TraditionalParallelingMethod

    1 2

    1 2

    L

    L

    P P PQ Q Q+ =+ =

  • Microgrid Study

    PCC

    DroopinaMicrogrid

  • AdvanceDistributedControl Everyelement ofpowersystemhasmultiple

    objectives/commitments PointofLoadConverter:Serviceloadpower,maintainstability EnergySources:Supplypower,maintainstability Distribution:Routeenergymostefficiently,maintainstability

    Systemevents/faultscandestabilize. Actiontakenbyoneelements influenceallother

    components.

    GameTheoreticMethod:Determineoptimallocaltrajectorygivenanticipatedtrajectoriesofallothercomponents.

    GameTheoreticApproachtoEnergyManament

    Convertcomponentsintoequivalentimpedances. Theindividualdynamicsare

    Individualsinteractthroughthesystem Theneachcomponentwillhaveanobjective

    Foranequilibrium(Nashequilibrium)( , ) ( , , )i i i iJ u u f t u dt = Y,I,V

    * * *( , ) ( , )i i i i i iJ u u J u u

    ( )2ii in out i

    i

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    rr u

    = =

    =

    &

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    I = YV

  • Examplesystemwith2Players2 7

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    9 38y27 y79 y89 y39

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    y69

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    V3

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    GameBasedEnergyManagement ObjectiveFunctions

    Loads Sources Storage

    GameRules Teams Stakelberg (leader/follower)

    Win gamebymaintainingstable,efficientsystem

  • Summary

    Microgrid isabroaddefinitionofasmallpowersystem

    Benefitsincludereliability,efficiency,renewables

    Challenges: Control Communications UtilityinterfaceatPCC

  • SolutiontoGame

    0 0.5 1 1.5 20

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    Solution isanequilibriumpoint(Nash)wereeachplayer

    CERTSMicrogrid

    Eto, Joseph, Robert Lasseter, Ben Schenkman, John Stevens, Harry Volkommer, Dave Klapp, EdLinton, Hector Hurtado, Jean Roy, Nancy Jo Lewis. Consortium for Electric ReliabilityTechnology Solutions (CERTS). 2008. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed. California EnergyCommission, Public Interest Energy Research Program. CEC-500-2008-XXX.

  • MathematicalCouplingofMicrogrid Elements

    1 1 1 1 1 1( , , , )x f x v i u=&

    2 2 2 2 2 2( , , , )x f x v i u=&( , , , )i i i i i ix f x v i u=&