Smart Grid Implementation and Behavior NERC Smart Grid ...· Smart Grid Implementation and Behavior

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  • Smart Grid Implementation and Behavior

    NERC Smart Grid Workshop

    2/23/2012

    Rick Meekermeeker@caps.fsu.edu

    Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS)

    Florida State University2000 Levy Avenue, Building A, Tallahassee, FL 32310

    http://www.caps.fsu.edu/

    http://www.caps.fsu.edu/

  • 2/28/2012 22/28/2012 2

    Smart Grid Definitions

    NERC SGTF

    DOE SG Roadmap

  • 2/28/2012 32/28/2012 3

    Smart Grid OriginsModern Grid Characteristics1, 2

    Enables active participation by consumers

    Accommodates all generation and storage options

    Enables new products, services and markets

    Provides power quality for the digital economy

    Optimizes asset utilization and operate efficiently

    Anticipates & responds to system disturbances (self-heal)

    Operates resiliently against attack and natural disaster

    Smart Grid Characteristics3

    Enables informed participation by

    customers

    Accommodates all generation and

    storage options

    Enables new products, services, and

    markets

    Provides power quality for the range of

    needs in the 21st century

    Optimizes assets and operates

    efficiently

    Addresses disturbances automated

    prevention, containment, and

    restoration

    Operates resiliently against physical

    and cyber attacks and natural disasters

    1. http://www.netl.doe.gov/moderngrid/ 2005-2008.

    2. Miller J., Pullins, S., Bossart, S., The Modern Grid, presentation to the Wisconsin Public Utility Institute and UW Energy Institute, April 29, 2008.

    3. Smart Grid R&D Multi-Year Program Plan, 2010-2014, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, September 2010.

  • 2/28/2012 42/28/2012 4

    Smart Grid A Definition for the Bulk Power System1

    1. Reliability Considerations from Integration of Smart Grid, Smart Grid Task Force, North American Electric Reliability Corp. (NERC), draft, August 2010.

    The integration and application of real-time monitoring, advanced sensing, communications, analytics, and control, enabling the dynamic flow of both energy and information to accommodate existing and new forms of supply, delivery, and use in a secure, reliable, and efficient electric power system, from generation source to end-user.

  • 2/28/2012 52/28/2012 5

    The Future Grid?

  • 2/28/2012 62/28/2012 6

    The Future Grid?

    Power Electronics (PE)

    DC

    HTS

    DG

    Microgrids / Microenergy / CHP

    Information msmt, data, decision support

    Communications

    Control

  • 2/28/2012 72/28/2012 7

    Modeling and

    Simulation Effort Notional Florida

    system PSS/E load-flow (also in

    MATLAB for 14-bus version)

    Representative dynamic PSS/E model

    Seeking to create notional models for the research community (as done with electric war-ship IPS)

    14 and 154 bus versions developed

    Structured and scripted for model and scenario changes

    Coordinating with FRCC and member utilities

  • 2/28/2012 8

    154 Bus

    Model

    0219

    0813

    0902

    0803

    1201

    1202

    1203

    E 0405

    E 0406 E

    0404

    G 0501

    0502

    0901 1401 G

    G 0504

    0503

    0505

    0506 G

    G

    G

    E

    G

    G

    G

    0507

    0508

    0509

    0519 0903

    0904

    0701

    0702

    0703

    0704

    0705

    0706

    0707

    0708

    0709

    0710

    0711

    0112

    0113

    0114

    0115

    0116

    1402

    G

    G

    0924 0905

    0906

    0907

    0908

    0909

    0910

    G

    G

    G

    G

    G

    1302

    G

    G

    0804

    0805

    0806

    0807

    G

    G

    0809

    0808 0606 G G

    G G

    0916

    0914

    0915

    0912

    0913 0911

    0917

    0218

    1403

    1502

    1304

    0801

    1305

    0802

    0810

    0601

    0602

    0603

    0605

    1503

    G

    G G

    G

    G

    G

    0811

    0812

    1504

    1505

    1511

    G

    1501 1301

    1515

    1506 1507

    1508

    1509

    1510

    1303

    G

    G

    G

    1101

    1102

    1103

    1104

    1105 1106

    0604

    1107

    1110

    1111

    1112

    1113

    1114

    1109

    1108

    G

    G

    1001 1002

    1003

    1004

    1005

    1006 1007

    1008

    1009 0814

    0815

    1404

    G

    G G

    G G G G 0327

    0326 1023

    1024

    1021

    1022

    1020

    1019

    1018 1013

    1017

    1016 1015

    1014

    1012

    1011

    0951 0952

    0953

    1405 1406

    G 0958

    0956

    0957 0954

    0265

    0266

    0959 0955

    0960

    0961 0963

    0962

    1407 1408

    1409

    1410

    G

    Duval

  • 2/28/2012 9

    Models: 154 Bus Base Model

    154 Busses at 500, 230, 138,

    and 115 kV voltage levels

    46 generation plants, with

    multiple units at each plant

    All generation units employ

    round rotor machine models

    (GENROU), steam turbine-

    governor models (TGOV1),

    and simplified excitation

    system models (SEXS)

    Model development

    continuation in cooperation

    with FERC validation plan in

    place and started (early

    stages)

    0 2 4 6 8 10

    59.2

    59.4

    59.6

    59.8

    60

    60.2

    60.4

    60.6

    Time (s)F

    requency (

    Hz)

    Southeast

    Southwest

    Central

    Northeast

    Frequency (Hz)

    0 2 4 6 8 10

    59.2

    59.4

    59.6

    59.8

    60

    60.2

    60.4

    60.6

    Time (s)F

    requency (

    Hz)

    Southeast

    Southwest

    Central

    Northeast

    Frequency (Hz)

  • 2/28/2012 10

    FSU CAPS: Power Systems Simulation

    REAL-TIME RTDS

    Large-scale electromagnetic transient simulator

    EMTP type simulation covers load-flow, harmonic, dynamic, and transient regime

    Real-time simulation, with time steps down to 2500 analog, >200 digital). Can connect in real-time to any electrical node within the simulation.

    MODBUS TCP, DNP 3.0 and IEC 61850 interfaces also available.

    Capability for remote access over VPN link

    Recent upgrade activity:

    2 RISC GPCs in every rack for small time step (1-2 s)

    Backplane upgrades - bus transfer rate improved from 125 to 60 ns

    Increase electrical nodes per rack from 54 to 66

    REAL-TIME Opal RT, recently added

    Other simulation tools in-use at CAPS:

    PSS/E, PSCAD/EMTDC, MATLAB/Simulink, ATP, PSPICE, ANSYS, DSPACE

    14-rack RTDS at CAPS

    Zone 4LoadCenter

    Zone 1Load

    Center

    Zone 2LoadCenter

    Port Propulsion

    MotorDrive InverterCapacitor

    Bank

    DC/DC Converter

    Energy Storage GT

    Main AC Generator 1

    AC Circuit Breaker

    AC/DC Converter

    GT

    Auxilary AC Generator 1

    AC Circuit Breaker

    AC/DC Converter

    DC Disconnect

    DC Disconnect

    MVDC Port Bus

    MVDC Starboard Bus

    Starboard Propulsion

    MotorDrive Inverter

    GT

    Auxilary AC Generator 2

    AC Circuit Breaker

    AC/DC Converter

    GT

    Main AC Generator 2

    AC Circuit Breaker

    AC/DC Converter

    Zone 3LoadCenter

    Zone 5 Deck house

    ATG1

    ATG2 MTG2

    MTG1

    DC/DC Converter

    Radar

    Pulse Charging

    Circuit

    DC/DC

    Conv erter

    Pulsed Load

    Stern Cross-hullDisconnect

    Bow Cross-hullDisconnect

    See separate f igure for details

    ==

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    IEEE 30-bus System

    5 racks, dt=65 s

    6 machines incl. governor & v-regulator

    36 transmission lines

    70 breakers

    Ship zonal integrated power system

  • 2/28/2012 112/28/2012 11

    Dynamic HIL Testing of large PV Inverters

    Highly dynamic testing

    of PV converters is

    possible today!

    LV ride through

    Anti islanding

    Fault current contribution

    Unbalanced voltage condition

    SubstationB1

    T1

    B2

    S10

    B15 4.16kV

    T9.1

    4.16kV AC Bus

    T10.1

    B13

    B14

    DC Bus: 0-1150VDCI max = +/- 2.5 kA

    T9.2

    =

    ~

    ~

    =

    =

    ~

    =

    =

    PV Inverter

    Power Grid Simulation

    PV Array Simulation

    6.3 MVA Variable Voltage Source (VVS)

    Real Time Simulator RTDS

    Real Time Simulator RTDS

    VVS 1 VVS 2

    =

    ~

    4160/480V1.5MVAZ=5.86%

    T5

    466/4160V3.93MVA Z=5.6%

    B11

    AC Bus1: 0-4.16 kVI max = 0.433 kA

    AC Bus2: 0-0.48 kVI max = 1.8 kA

    SubstationB1

    T1

    B2

    S10

    B15 4.16kV

    T9.1

    4.16kV AC Bus

    T10.1

    B13

    B14

    DC Bus: 0-1150VDCI max = +/- 2.5 kA

    T9.2

    =

    ~

    ~

    =

    =

    ~

    =

    =

    PV Inverter

    Power Grid Simulation

    PV Array Simulation

    6.3 MVA Variable Voltage Source (VVS)

    Real Time Simulator RTDS

    Real Time Simulator RTDS

    VVS 1 VVS 2

    =

    ~

    4160/480V1.5MVAZ=5.86%

    T5

    466/4160V3.93MVA Z=5.6%

    B11

    AC Bus1: 0-4.16 kVI max = 0.433 kA

    AC Bus2: 0-