Smart Fabrics & Interactive Fabrics

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Another presentation prepared by me.

Text of Smart Fabrics & Interactive Fabrics

  • 1. Smart Fabrics & Interactive Clothing
    Akhil K

2. Definition
Smart textiles are defined as textiles that can sense and react to environmental conditions or stimuli from mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical or magnetic sources.
3. Classifications
Passive Smart Fabrics
Sense environmental conditions or stimulus
Active Smart Fabrics
Actuators and sensors
Central control unit present
Ultra Smart Fabrics
Sense, react and adapt themselves to envt.
Cognition, reasoning and activating capacities
4. Smart materials used
Thermo regulating material
Shape memory materials
Chromic materials
Luminescent materials
Conductive material
Voltaic materials
5. Thermo regulating material

  • Paraffin phase change material

6. Absorbs heat and stores it 7. Change state to retain heat 8. Paraffin enclosed into small plastic spheres with diameters of only a few micrometers to prevent dissolution 9. Provide a thermal balance between the heat generated by the body while engaging in a sport and the heat released into the environment5
10. Shape memory material
Materials stable at two or more temperature states
Different temperature states, they have the potential to assume different shapes
Electro active polymers which can change shape in response to electrical stimuli
Produce substantial change in size or shape and force generation for actuation mechanisms
11. Chromic Materials
Change their colour reversibly according to external environmental conditions
Photochromic: external stimulus is light.
Thermochromic: external stimulus is heat.
Electrochromic: external stimulus is electricity.
Piezorochromic: external stimulus is pressure.
Solvatechromic: external stimulus is liquid or gas.
12. Luminescent Materials
Emits lights according to external environmental conditions
Photoluminescence: external stimulus is light
Electroluminescence: external stimulus is electricity
Chemioluminescence: external stimulus is a chemical reaction
Triboluminescence: external stimulus is friction
13. Conductive materials
Two types of materials, the metals and the polymers
High wicking finishes (ink) with a high metallic content that still retains the comfort
Direct use of conductive yarns
Applications are electromagnetic interface (EMI) shielding and conducting
Thermal conduction allows distribution of heat throughout the entire garment or suit
14. Membranes
Membranes are constituted of polymers and their structure could be made of one or more layers
Used in sportswear for the manufacture of breathable and impermeable clothes
More breathability and extreme water repellence
Lotus effectprovides repellence of the aqueous products and also of the oleic product useful for self cleaning garments
15. Voltaic materials
Storage of energy for electronic parts
Use of solar cells
Research underway to produce and store electricity from body movements and wrist rotation
16. Electronic textiles
Textiles that sensor the body for military or medical uses
Smart shirt by the Professor Sundaresan Jayaraman
The sensory Baby Vest
The life shirt by Vivometrics
Interactive Fabrics
Comfort & Security
The wearable computer
17. Military textiles
Smart shirt by the Professor Sundaresan Jayaraman
Uses optical fibres to detect bullet wounds
Medical sensing devices that are attached to the body plug into the computerised shirt
Helps to determine who needs immediate attention within the first hour of combat
Types of sensors used can be varied depending on the wearer's needs
18. Medical textiles
The sensory Baby Vest
To detect cardiac, pulmonary or other defects in newborn child
The life shirt by Vivometrics
LifeShirt System gathers data during the subject's daily routine, providing pharmaceutical and academic researchers with a continuous "movie" of the subject's health in real-life situations (work, school, exercise, sleep), rather than the "snapshot" generated during a typical clinic visit
19. Interactive Fabrics
Keyboard made in a single layer of fabric using capacitive sensing
Some famous products are the KENPO jacket that possesses an integrated MP3 lectors and the IPods jeans by Levis
A Swedish R&D team has developed a glove that incorporates a phone
20. Comfort and security
Tightens and loosens the garments automatically according to needs
Security tools developed using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags
RFID tags are miniscule microchips - half the size of a grain of sand
Listen for a radio query and respond by transmitting their unique ID code
Automating the garment handling process, including: check-in, sorting, and checkout
integration of GPS in garments for the detection of user position in case of disappearance or kidnapping
21. Wearable computers
Objective is the integration of a complete computer screen, CPU and keyboard in a wearable garment
Universities and research organisations are developing a wearable computer system that is a better powered computer system worn on the user's body (on a belt, backpack or vest)
22. Advantages
Light weight
Integratable with human body
Pierce resistant
Water resistantyet breathable
Tracking/communication systems
Monitoring systems
Usable in security authentication
23. Drawbacks
Needs to be charged
Yet to be commercially recognized
24. Conclusion
Smart textiles were presented as imaginary products and as a non competitive market
Nowadays SFIT are an implanted customer interest and are presented as the future of the textile industry
A lot of scientist are developing new solutions, ideas and concrete products
Some approximations announce a market of 1 billion dollars by 2010 which certainly explains the current passion for these news topics
25. Reference
26. Questions