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<ul><li><p>Ubiquitous ComputingSmart Devices, Environmentsand Interactions</p><p>Stefan Poslad</p><p>Queen Mary, University of London, UK</p><p>A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Publication</p></li><li><p>Ubiquitous Computing</p></li><li><p>Ubiquitous ComputingSmart Devices, Environmentsand Interactions</p><p>Stefan Poslad</p><p>Queen Mary, University of London, UK</p><p>A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Publication</p></li><li><p>This edition first published 2009</p><p> 2009 John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd.,</p><p>Registered office</p><p>John Wiley &amp; Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom</p><p>For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for</p><p>permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at</p><p>The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the</p><p>Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.</p><p>All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,</p><p>in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted</p><p>by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.</p><p>Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be</p><p>available in electronic books.</p><p>Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names</p><p>and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of</p><p>their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendormentioned in this book. This</p><p>publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter</p><p>covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If</p><p>professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be</p><p>sought.</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>Poslad, Stefan.</p><p>Ubiquitous computing : smart device, environment, and interactions / Stefan Poslad.</p><p>p. cm.</p><p>Includes index.</p><p>ISBN 978-0-470-03560-3 (cloth)</p><p>1. Ubiquitous computing. 2. Context-aware computing. 3. Human-computer interaction.</p><p>I. Title.</p><p>QA76.5915.P67 2009</p><p>004dc22</p><p>2008052234</p><p>A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.</p><p>ISBN 978-0-470-03560-3 (H/B)</p><p>Set in 9/11pt Times by Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd. Pondicherry, India</p><p>Printed and bound in Great Britain by Antony Rowe, Chippenham, UK</p><p></p></li><li><p>To my family, Ros and Ben here, and to friends and family inthree wonderful parts of the world, South Wales (UK),</p><p>Glandorf and Brisbane.</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>List of Figures xix</p><p>List of Tables xxiii</p><p>Preface xxv</p><p>Acknowledgements xxvii</p><p>1 Ubiquitous Computing: Basics and Vision 1</p><p>1.1 Living in a Digital World 11.1.1 Chapter Overview 2</p><p>1.1.2 Illustrative Ubiquitous Computing Applications Personal Memories Adaptive Transport Scheduled Service Foodstuff Management 5</p><p> Utility Regulation 61.1.3 Holistic Framework for UbiCom: Smart DEI 7</p><p>1.2 Modelling the Key Ubiquitous Computing Properties 8</p><p>1.2.1 Core Properties of UbiCom Systems 91.2.2 Distributed ICT Systems 9</p><p> Networked ICT Devices 10</p><p> Transparency and Openness 101.2.3 Implicit HumanComputer Interaction (iHCI) 11</p><p> The Calm Computer 11</p><p> Implicit Versus Explicit HumanComputer Interaction Embodied Reality versus Virtual, Augmented andMediated Reality 12</p><p>1.2.4 Context-Awareness ThreeMain Types of Environment Context: Physical, User, Virtual 14</p><p> User-Awareness Active Versus Passive Context-Awareness 15</p><p>1.2.5 Autonomy 15</p><p> Reducing Human Interaction Easing System Maintenance Versus Self-Maintaining Systems 16</p></li><li><p>1.2.6 Intelligence 17</p><p>1.2.7 Taxonomy of UbiCom Properties 171.3 Ubiquitous System Environment Interaction 22</p><p>1.3.1 HumanICT Device Interaction (HCI) 241.3.2 ICT Device to Physical World Interaction (CPI) 25</p><p>1.4 Architectural Design for UbiCom Systems: Smart DEI Model 261.4.1 Smart Devices 27</p><p> Weisers ICT Device Forms: Tabs, Pads and Boards 28</p><p> Extended Forms for ICT Devices: Dust, Skin and Clay Mobility Volatile Service Access 29</p><p> Situated and Self-Aware 301.4.2 Smart Environments 30</p><p> Tagging, Sensing and Controlling Environments 311.4.2.2 Embedded Versus Untethered 31</p><p> Device Sizes 321.4.3 Smart Interaction 32</p><p> Basic Interaction 32</p><p> Smart Interaction 331.5 Discussion 34</p><p>1.5.1 Interlinking System Properties, Environments and Designs 34</p><p>1.5.2 Common Myths about Ubiquitous Computing 351.5.3 Organisation of the Smart DEI Approach 37</p><p>Exercises 38</p><p>References 39</p><p>2 Applications and Requirements 41</p><p>2.1 Introduction 412.1.1 Overview 41</p><p>2.2 Example Early UbiCom Research Projects 412.2.1 Smart Devices: CCI 42</p><p> Smart Boards, Pads and Tabs 42</p><p> Active Badge, Bat and Floor 422.2.2 Smart Environments: CPI and CCI 43</p><p> Classroom 2000 432.2.2.2 Smart Space and Meeting Room 43</p><p> Interactive Workspaces and iRoom 442.2.2.4 Cooltown 442.2.2.5 EasyLiving and SPOT 45</p><p> HomeLab and Ambient Intelligence 462.2.3 Smart Devices: CPI 46</p><p> Unimate and MH-1 Robots 46</p><p> Smart Dust and TinyOS 472.2.4 Smart Devices: iHCI and HPI 48</p><p> Calm Computing 48</p><p> Things That Think and Tangible Bits 482.2.4.3 DataTiles 492.2.4.4 Ambient Wood 502.2.4.5 WearComp and WearCam 50</p><p> Cyborg 1.0 and 2.0 522.2.5 Other UbiCom Projects 52</p><p>viii Contents</p></li><li><p>2.3 Everyday Applications in the Virtual, Human and Physical World 53</p><p>2.3.1 Ubiquitous Networks of Devices: CCI 532.3.2 HumanComputer Interaction 54</p><p> Ubiquitous Audio-Video Content Access 542.3.2.2 Ubiquitous Information Access and Ebooks 55</p><p> Universal Local Control of ICT Systems 562.3.2.4 User-Awareness and Personal Spaces 58</p><p>2.3.3 Human-to-Human Interaction (HHI) Applications 58</p><p> Transaction-based M-Commerce and U-Commerce Services 592.3.3.2 Enhancing the Productivity of Mobile Humans 592.3.3.3 Care in the Community 60</p><p>2.3.4 Human-Physical World-Computer Interaction (HPI) and (CPI) 612.3.4.1 Physical Environment Awareness 612.3.4.2 (Physical) Environment Control 612.3.4.3 Smart Utilities 62</p><p> Smart Buildings and Home Automation 622.3.4.5 Smart Living Environments and Smart Furniture 632.3.4.6 Smart Street Furniture 65</p><p> Smart Vehicles, Transport and Travel 652.3.4.8 Pervasive Games and Social Physical Spaces 66</p><p>2.4 Discussion 67</p><p>2.4.1 Achievements from Early Projects and Status Today 672.4.1.1 Smart Devices 672.4.1.2 Smart Physical World Environments 68</p><p> Context-Awareness and Service Discovery 692.4.1.4 Wearable Smart Devices and Implants 69</p><p>Exercises 71References 71</p><p>3 Smart Devices and Services 75</p><p>3.1 Introduction 753.1.1 Chapter Overview 753.1.2 Smart Device and Service Characteristics 75</p><p>3.1.3 Distributed System Viewpoints 773.1.4 Abstraction Versus Virtualisation 78</p><p>3.2 Service Architecture Models 803.2.1 Partitioning and Distribution of Service Components 80</p><p>3.2.2 Multi-tier Client Service Models 813.2.2.1 Distributed Data Storage 823.2.2.2 Distributed Processing 82</p><p> ClientServer Design 833.2.2.4 Proxy-based Service Access 84</p><p>3.2.3 Middleware 85</p><p>3.2.4 Service Oriented Computing (SOC) 863.2.5 Grid Computing 873.2.6 Peer-to-Peer Systems 88</p><p>3.2.7 Device Models 913.3 Service Provision Life-Cycle 91</p><p>3.3.1 Network Discovery 923.3.2 Service Announcement, Discovery, Selection and Configuration 93</p><p>Contents ix</p></li><li><p> Web Service Discovery 95</p><p> Semantic Web and Semantic Resource Discovery 953.3.3 Service Invocation 95</p><p> Distributed Processes 963.3.3.2 Asynchronous (MOM) Versus Synchronous (RPC)</p><p>Communication Models 973.3.3.3 Reliable versus Unreliable Communication 993.3.3.4 Caches, Read-Ahead and Delayed Writes 99</p><p> On-Demand Service Access 1003.3.3.6 Event-Driven Architectures (EDA) 1013.3.3.7 Shared Data Repository 103</p><p> Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) Model 1033.3.3.9 Volatile Service Invocation 104</p><p>3.3.4 Service Composition 1053.3.4.1 Service Interoperability 106</p><p>3.4 Virtual Machines and Operating Systems 1063.4.1 Virtual Machines 1063.4.2 BIOS 107</p><p>3.4.3 Multi-Tasking Operating Systems (MTOS) 1083.4.4 Process Control 1093.4.5 Memory Management 110</p><p>3.4.6 Input and Output 111Exercises 111References 112</p><p>4 Smart Mobiles, Cards and Device Networks 115</p><p>4.1 Introduction 1154.1.1 Chapter Overview 115</p><p>4.2 Smart Mobile Devices, Users, Resources and Code 115</p><p>4.2.1 Mobile Service Design 1164.2.1.1 SMS and Mobile Web Services 1174.2.1.2 Java VM and J2ME 119</p><p> .NET CF 1204.2.2 Mobile Code 1214.2.3 Mobile Devices and Mobile Users 122</p><p>4.3 Operating Systems for Mobile Computers and Communicator Devices 123</p><p>4.3.1 Microkernel Designs 1234.3.2 Mobility Support 1234.3.3 Resource-Constrained Devices 124</p><p>4.3.4 Power Management 1254.3.4.1 Low Power CPUs 1254.3.4.2 Application Support 126</p><p>4.4 Smart Card Devices 1264.4.1 Smart Card OS 1274.4.2 Smart Card Development 128</p><p>4.5 Device Networks 1284.5.1 HAVi, HES and X10 1294.5.2 Device Discovery 1294.5.3 OSGi 131</p><p>Exercises 132References 133</p><p>x Contents</p></li><li><p>5 HumanComputer Interaction 135</p><p>5.1 Introduction 1355.1.1 Chapter Overview 1355.1.2 Explicit HCI: Motivation and Characteristics 1365.1.3 Complexity of Ubiquitous Explicit HCI 136</p><p>5.1.4 Implicit HCI: Motivation and Characteristics 1375.2 User Interfaces and Interaction for Four Widely Used Devices 138</p><p>5.2.1 Diversity of ICT Device Interaction 138</p><p>5.2.2 Personal Computer Interface 1395.2.3 Mobile Hand-Held Device Interfaces 140</p><p> Handling Limited Key Input: Multi-Tap, T9, Fastap, Soft</p><p>keys and Soft Keyboard 1405.2.3.2 Handling Limited Output 141</p><p>5.2.4 Games Console Interfaces and Interaction 1425.2.5 Localised Remote Control: Video Devices 143</p><p>5.3 Hidden UI Via Basic Smart Devices 1435.3.1 Multi-Modal Visual Interfaces 1445.3.2 Gesture Interfaces 145</p><p>5.3.3 Reflective Versus Active Displays 1475.3.4 Combining Input and Output User Interfaces 148</p><p> Touchscreens 149</p><p> Tangible Interfaces 1495.3.4.3 Organic Interfaces 150</p><p>5.3.5 Auditory Interfaces 151</p><p>5.3.6 Natural Language Interfaces 1515.4 Hidden UI Via Wearable and Implanted Devices 152</p><p>5.4.1 Posthuman Technology Model 1525.4.2 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality 152</p><p>5.4.3 Wearable Computer Interaction 1535.4.3.1 Head(s)-Up Display (HUD) 1545.4.3.2 Eyetap 154</p><p> Virtual Retinal Display (VRD) 1545.4.3.4 Clothes as Computers 155</p><p>5.4.4 Computer Implants and Brain Computer Interfaces 155</p><p>5.4.5 Sense-of-Presence and Telepresence 1575.5 Human-Centred Design (HCD) 157</p><p>5.5.1 Human-Centred Design Life-Cycle 158</p><p>5.5.2 Methods to Acquire User Input and to Build Used Models 1595.5.3 Defining the Virtual and Physical Environment Use Context 1605.5.4 Defining the Human Environment Use Context and Requirements 160</p><p> User Characteristics 160</p><p>5.5.5 Interaction Design 1615.5.5.1 Conceptual Models and Mental Models 162</p><p>5.5.6 Evaluation 162</p><p>5.6 User Models: Acquisition and Representation 1635.6.1 Indirect User Input and Modelling 1645.6.2 Direct User Input and Modelling 164</p><p>5.6.3 User Stereotypes 1655.6.4 Modelling Users Planned Tasks and Goals 1655.6.5 Multiple User Tasks and Activity-Based Computing 1665.6.6 Situation Action Versus Planned Action Models 167</p><p>Contents xi</p></li><li><p>5.7 iHCI Design 167</p><p>5.7.1 iHCI Model Characteristics 1675.7.2 User Context-Awareness 1685.7.3 More Intuitive and Customised Interaction 1685.7.4 Personalisation 169</p><p>5.7.5 Affective Computing: Interactions Using Users Emotional Context 1715.7.6 Design Heuristics and Patterns 171</p><p>Exercises 175</p><p>References 175</p><p>6 Tagging, Sensing and Controlling 179</p><p>6.1 Introduction 1796.1.1 Chapter Overview 180</p><p>6.2 Tagging the Physical World 1806.2.1 Life-Cycle for Tagging Physical Objects 1816.2.2 Tags: Types and Characteristics 181</p><p>6.2.3 Physical and Virtual Tag Management 1836.2.4 RFID Tags 183</p><p> Active RFID Tags 185</p><p> Passive RFID Tags 1856.2.5 Personalised and Social Tags 1866.2.6 Micro Versus Macro Tags 187</p><p>6.3 Sensors and Sensor Networks 187</p><p>6.3.1 Overview of Sensor Net Components and Processes 1876.3.2 Sensor Electronics 1896.3.3 Physical Network: Environment, Density and Transmission 191</p><p>6.3.4 Data Network: Addressing and Routing 1926.3.4.1 Sensor Networks Versus Ad Hoc Networks 193</p><p>6.3.5 Data Processing: Distributed Data Storage and Data Queries 193</p><p>6.4 Micro Actuation and Sensing: MEMS 1946.4.1 Fabrication 1956.4.2 Micro-Actuators 195</p><p>6.4.3 Micro-Sensors 1966.4.4 Smart Surfaces, Skin, Paint, Matter and Dust 1976.4.5 Downsizing to Nanotechnology and Quantum Devices 198</p><p>6.5 Embedded Systems and Real-Time Systems 199</p><p>6.5.1 Application-Specific Operating Systems (ASOS) 2006.5.2 Real-Time Operating Systems for Embedded Systems 201</p><p>6.6 Control Systems (for Physical World Tasks) 202</p><p>6.6.1 Programmable Controllers 2026.6.2 Simple PID-Type Controllers 2036.6.3 More Complex Controllers 203</p><p>6.7 Robots 2046.7.1 Robot Manipulators 2056.7.2 Mobile Robots 206</p><p>6.7.3 Biologically Inspired Robots 2066.7.4 Nanobots 2076.7.5 Developing UbiCom Robot Applications 207</p><p>Exercises 209</p><p>References 210</p><p>xii Contents</p></li><li><p>7 Context-Aware Systems 213</p><p>7.1 Introduction 2137.1.1 Chapter Overview 2147.1.2 Context-Aware Applications 214</p><p>7.2 Modelling Context-Aware Systems 216</p><p>7.2.1 Types of Context 2167.2.2 Context Creation and Context Composition 2187.2.3 Context-Aware Adaptation 219</p><p>7.2.4 Environment Modelling 2217.2.5 Context Representation 2217.2.6 A Basic Architecture 222</p><p>7.2.7 Challenges in Context-Awareness 2257.3 Mobility Awareness 227</p><p>7.3.1 Call Routing for Mobile Users 2277.3.2 Mobile Phone Location Determination 227</p><p>7.3.3 Mobile User Awareness as an Example of CompositeContext-Awareness 228</p><p>7.3.4 Tourism Services for Mobile Users 228</p><p>7.4 Spatial Awareness 2297.4.1 Spatial Context Creation 230</p><p> Spatial Acquisition 230</p><p> Location Acquisition 2317.4.2 Location and Other Spatial Abstractions 2337.4.3 User Context Creation and Context-Aware Adaptation 233</p><p> Cartography: Adapting Spatial Viewpoints toDifferent User Contexts 233</p><p> Geocoding: Mapping Location Contexts toUser Contexts 234</p><p>7.4.4 Spatial Context Queries and Management: GIS 2347.5 Temporal Awareness: Coordinating and Scheduling 235</p><p>7.5.1 Clock Synchronization: Temporal Context Creation 235</p><p>7.5.2 Temporal Models and Abstractions 2367.5.3 Temporal Context Management and Adaptation to</p><p>User Contexts 237</p><p>7.6 ICT System Awareness 2387.6.1 Context-Aware Presentation and Interaction at the UI 238</p><p> Acquiring the UI Context 238</p><p> Content Adaptation 2397.6.2 Network-Aware Service Adaptation 240</p><p>Exercises 242References 242</p><p>8 Intelligent Systems (IS) 245</p><p>With Patricia Charlton8.1 Introduction 245</p><p>8.1.1 Chapter Overview 2468.2 Basic Concepts 246</p><p>8.2.1 Types of Intelligent Systems 2468.2.2 Types of Environment for Intelligent Systems 247</p><p>8.2.3 Use of Intelligence in Ubiquitous...</p></li></ul>