SLRC - Principles & Strategies of Teaching (2010)

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Principles & Strategies of Teaching (2010)

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<p>Area: PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION</p> <p>Area: PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION</p> <p>Focus: Principles and Strategies of Teaching incorporating Instructional PlanningPrepared by: Prof. CELIA M. ILANANPART ONE. CONTENT REVIEW </p> <p>I. Relevant Terms</p> <p>A. Principle </p> <p> a general or fundamental law, doctrine or assumption; a primary source or origin; </p> <p>rule or code of conduct</p> <p>B. Approach</p> <p> refers to the teachers viewpoint toward the process of teaching</p> <p>C. Method</p> <p> refers to the regular ways or orderly procedures employed by the teachers and the principles needed to accomplish the aims of the learning situations</p> <p> D. Strategy refers to the general design of how the teacher will attack her lesson</p> <p> E. Technique </p> <p> refers to the act, style or manner of performance of the teacher in carrying out the procedures or act of teaching</p> <p> a combination of personality plus the amount of expertise one has in teaching technology(method), subject matter, and pedagogical theoryF. Teaching interacting, tutoring or educating</p> <p> refers to pedagogy, training, nurturing</p> <p> involves activities that will enable learners develop holistically (knowledge, values, skills)</p> <p>II. Functions of Principles</p> <p> Principles serve as bases of intelligent and profitable practice</p> <p> Principles should serve not only to stimulate, direct and guide but interpret school practice.</p> <p> III. Types of Principles</p> <p>a. Starting Principles involve the nature of the learner and his psychological and physiological endowments that make education possible</p> <p>b. Guiding Principles refer to the procedure, methods of instruction, techniques of the teacher </p> <p>c. Ending Principles - refer to the educational aims, goals, objectives, outcomes, purposes or results of the whole educational scheme</p> <p>IV. Principles of Good / Successful Teaching </p> <p>A. According to John Dewey</p> <p>1. Teaching is good when the child is made the center of the educative process.</p> <p>2. Teaching is good when it is well-planned.</p> <p> 3. Teaching is good when the learner is made conscious of the goals or aims to be accomplished.</p> <p>4. Teaching is good when it provides learning experiences.</p> <p>5. Teaching is good when there is provision to meet individual differences.</p> <p>6. Teaching is good when it utilizes the past experiences of the learner.</p> <p>7. Teaching is good when the learner is stimulated to think and reason.</p> <p>8. Teaching is good when it is governed by democratic principles.</p> <p>9. Teaching is good when the method used is supplemented by another method and instructional devices.</p> <p>10. Teaching is good when evaluation is made an integral part of the teaching process.</p> <p>11. Teaching is good when drill or review is made an integral part of teaching and learning.</p> <p>B. According to Edward Olsen</p> <p>1. Educate the whole child.</p> <p>2. Keep the program informal, flexible, and democratic.</p> <p>3. Capitalize upon present pupil interests.</p> <p>4. Let motivation be intrinsic.</p> <p>5. Make learning experiences vivid and direct.</p> <p>6. Stress problem-solving, the basis of functional learning.</p> <p>7. Provide for the achievement of lasting pupil satisfactions.</p> <p>8. Let the curriculum mirror the community.</p> <p>C. According to Humanistic Teaching </p> <p>1. Emphatic understanding</p> <p>2. Respect or non-possessive warmth</p> <p>3. Genuineness</p> <p>D. According to James Mursell1. Context setting materialsLevel I Textbook only</p> <p>Level II Textbook together with supplemental materials</p> <p>Level III Non-academic and current materials</p> <p>Level IV Multi-sensory aids</p> <p>Level V Demonstration and presentation by experts</p> <p>Level VI Field experiences2. Focus subject matterLevel I Page assignment</p> <p>Level II Announced topic together with page or chapter references</p> <p>Level III Broad concepts</p> <p>Level IV Specific concepts, problem, skills acquisition3. Socialization social setting</p> <p>Level I Submission</p> <p>Level II Contribution</p> <p>Level III Cooperation and collaboration4. Individualization learners purposes, aptitudes, abilities and experimental procedures</p> <p>Level I Uniform tasks</p> <p>Level II Homogeneous grouping</p> <p>Level III Contract plan</p> <p>Level IV Individual instruction</p> <p>Level V Large units with optional related activity</p> <p>Level VI Individual undertakings5. Sequence ordering of learning tasks</p> <p>Level I Logical succession of blocks of content</p> <p>Level II Connecting learning/lesson/course through introductions, reviews</p> <p>Level III Building learners readiness</p> <p>Level IV Building from emerging meanings6. Evaluation appraisal</p> <p>Level I Direct results through testing</p> <p>Level II Relate to objectives and processes</p> <p>Level III Total learning process and resultsV. Instructional PlanningA. Nature</p> <p> Planning is the ability to visualize into the future creating arranging, organizing, and designing events into the mind that may occur in the classroom.</p> <p> Planning is the way of managing time and events.</p> <p> Planning for instruction provides and type of road map or guide that assists you in creating a flow of events that has and starting and ending point. Planning for teaching is the ability to make decisions about the how and what of teaching.</p> <p> Instructional planning is the process of sorting, selecting and balancing and synthesizing information from many sources in order to design instructional experiences that will assist learners in attaining the goals and objectives that will meet their needs.B. Functions</p> <p> Gives an overview of instruction</p> <p> Facilitates good management and instruction</p> <p> Makes learning purposeful</p> <p> Ties instruction events with community resources</p> <p> Provides for sequencing and pacing</p> <p> Economizes time</p> <p> Provides for a variety of instructional activities</p> <p> Makes learners success more measurable in terms which assists in re-teaching</p> <p> Creates an opportunity for a higher-level questioning</p> <p> Assists in ordering supplies</p> <p> Guides substitute teachersC. Phases</p> <p> BEFORE INSTRUCTIONS</p> <p> Preplanning</p> <p> Gives purpose for learning</p> <p> Provides overview</p> <p> Active planning</p> <p> Provides sequencing and pacing</p> <p> Builds teaching repertoire DURING INSTRUCTIONS</p> <p> On-going planning</p> <p> Responds to learner needs </p> <p> Provides for re-teaching</p> <p> Facilitates higher-level questions AFTER INSTRUCTIONS</p> <p> Post planning</p> <p> Measures student success</p> <p> Provides documentation</p> <p> Signals time to order supplies</p> <p>D. Planning Sequence</p> <p>E. Planning Process</p> <p>1. Affecting variables </p> <p> Teachers</p> <p> Students</p> <p> Content</p> <p> Learning context</p> <p> Materials and resources</p> <p> Time2. Models LONG-TERM PLANNING</p> <p> involving preparation for a year or semester. It serves the following </p> <p>purposes:</p> <p> adapts the curriculum to fit the teachers knowledge and priorities.</p> <p> helps the teacher to learn the structure and content of the new curricula</p> <p> develops a practical schedule for instruction.</p> <p> establishes purposes. UNIT PLANNING </p> <p> involves breakdown of the framework into specific units. It has uses:</p> <p> bridges the gap between long term and day-to-day lesson planning</p> <p> ties objectives and activities together in a logical, coherent manner providing structure for new material LESSON PLANNING</p> <p> generates specific plan of action for a specific class period. It deals with the what, why, and how to teach.3. Levels</p> <p>LEVELGOALS OF PLANNINGSOURCES OF INFORMATIONFORM OF PLAN</p> <p>1. Yearly Planning Establishing general content Students General outline</p> <p>2. Term Planning Detailing of content to be covered in next three months Direct contact with students</p> <p> Time constraints set by school schedule Elaboration of outline </p> <p>3. Unit Planning Developing a sequence of well-organized learning experiences Materials, length of lessons, set up time, demand, format Lists of sequenced activities</p> <p>4. Weekly </p> <p> Planning Laying out the </p> <p> weeks activities </p> <p> Adjusting schedule for interruptions and special needs Scheduled school interruptions Names and frequency of activities</p> <p>5. Daily Planning Setting up and </p> <p> arranging </p> <p> classroom for the </p> <p> next day</p> <p> Preparing students for days activities Assessment of class disposition at start of day</p> <p> Continued interest, involvement and enthusiasm Schedule for day written on the chalkboard and discussed with students</p> <p>VI. MANAGING INSTRUCTION A. Determining Instructional Objectives Are specific statements of intermediate learning outcomes necessary for acquiring a terminal (specific statements describing what the learner is to do at the end of instruction) performance</p> <p>1. Aims </p> <p> Refer to broad statements about the intent of education</p> <p> Broad guides for translating the needs of society into educational policy</p> <p> Preparing students for democratic citizenship</p> <p>2. Goals</p> <p> Statements that will describe what schools are expected to accomplish</p> <p> Statements that cut across subjects and grade levels and represent the entire school program</p> <p> Development of reading skills3. Objectives</p> <p> Description of what eventually take place in the classroom</p> <p> Specific skills, tasks and attitudes stated in behavioral terms, which are observable, measurable and attainable</p> <p> Are guidelines to be taught and learned, standard way of judging objectives achieved on a certain level or not</p> <p> Guide teachers in making decision on what to cover, to emphasize, what content to select and what learning experiences to express so that the kind of activities and methods to be used should cope and jibe in making teaching and learning effective</p> <p> Taxonomy of Objectives</p> <p>TAXONOMY / CLASSIFICATIONEXAMPLES OF INFINITIVESSAMPLE OBJECTIVE</p> <p>A. Cognitive - Benjamin Bloom</p> <p>1. Knowledge recalling </p> <p> previously learned </p> <p> materialTo define, to recall, to identifyTo identify the capital of France</p> <p>2. Comprehension restating previously learned material into ones own wordsTo translate, to interpret, to estimate, to transform, to explain, to differentiateTo interpret a table showing the population density of the world</p> <p>3. Application using the knowledge into a new situation or problemTo use, to classify, to organizeTo predict the probable effect of a change in temperature on a chemical</p> <p>4. Analysis breaking the knowledge into parts and making relationship among ideasTo categorize, to contrast, to deduce, to compare To deduce facts from a hypothesis</p> <p>5. Synthesis producing wholes from the parts or producing a new wholeTo write, to plan, to produceTo produce an original piece of art</p> <p>6. Evaluation judging the value of knowledge or the material learnedTo judge, to assess, to appraiseTo recognize fallacies in an argument</p> <p>B. Affective - David Krathwohl</p> <p>1. Receiving willingness to be aware and pay attention to stimulus or phenomenonTo choose, to hold, to point to, to describeTo listen to others with respect.</p> <p>2. Responding reacting to an event through participationTo comply, to follow, to practice, to volunteerTo participate in class discussions.</p> <p>3. Valuing evaluating beliefs in the form of acceptance, preference, commitmentTo initiate, to invite, to shareTo show sensitivity towards individual and cultural differences.</p> <p>4. Organization </p> <p> organizing the values in relation to each otherTo alter, to combine, to organizeTo create a life plan in harmony with abilities, interests, and beliefs.</p> <p>5. Characterization acts in accordance with the accepted value and becomes part of the </p> <p> personalityTo act, to display, to perform, to practiceTo cooperate in group activities.</p> <p>C. Psychomotor - Anita Harrow</p> <p>1. Reflex movements To stretch, to straightenTo contract a muscle</p> <p>2. Fundamental </p> <p> movementsTo crawl, to creep, to walkTo run a 100-yard dash</p> <p>3. Perceptual abilitiesTo catch, to write, to balanceTo distinguish distant and close sounds</p> <p>4. Physical abilitiesTo endure, to improve, to move, to start, to touchTo do five sit-ups</p> <p>5. Skilled movementsTo type, to file, to paintTo dance the basic steps of waltz</p> <p>6. Non-discursive </p> <p> communicationTo gesture, to perform skillfully, to stand, to sitTo act a part in a play</p> <p>B. Determining Methods1. Factors to Consider in Choosing a Method</p> <p>a. Objectives- the aims or expected outcomes of the lesson</p> <p>b. Subject matter- refers to the substance of teaching</p> <p>c. Learners- considers ( nature, problems, needs and interests) as the center of the educational process</p> <p>d. Materials &amp; technology- tools and devices for the lesson</p> <p>e. Time allotment- refers to the amount of time available for the lesson</p> <p>f. Teacher- The skills and preferences influence the appropriateness of teaching methods to be used. S/He must have a clear understanding of the principles and techniques involved. S/He should be familiar with the lesson. Effective teacher adapts his/her teaching methods to his/her students.</p> <p>g. School Environment Also refers to the community and society at large</p> <p>2. Principles for determining method</p> <p>a. The method must utilize the theory of self-activity.</p> <p>b. The method must utilize the laws of learning.</p> <p>c. The method must aid the learner in defining his own purposes by setting the situation for the emergence of a desirable purpose.</p> <p>d. The method must start from what is known already to the students.</p> <p>e. The method must be based on the accepted, well-integrated educational theory and practice which is designed to unify the work of teaching and learning.</p> <p>f. The method must provide the learners with numerous and diverse learning experiences or activities.</p> <p>g. The method must challenge and encourage the learner to further activities which involve the process of differentiation and integration.</p> <p>h. The method must provide opportunity for the learner to ask and answer questions.</p> <p>i. The method to be used must be supplemented by other methods.</p> <p>3. Types of teaching methods / strategies</p> <p>ELEMENTSTRADITIONALPROGRESSIVE</p> <p>1. ObjectivesSubject-centeredChild-centered</p> <p>2. TeacherDominates the activitiesActs as guidance counselor</p> <p>3. CurriculumFixed curriculum activitiesFlexible curriculum</p> <p>4. DisciplineEnforces strict disciplineDiscipline is preventive</p> <p>5. MethodsTime-testedEmerging</p> <p>a. Traditional/Time-tested methods of teaching - These are the methods that have stood the test of time and still are being used at present. Inductive method- This would help pupils discover important rules or truth for themselves through careful observations of specific cases or examples leading to generalizations. The steps are: preparation, presentation, comparison and abstraction, generalization, and application.</p> <p> Deductive method- This is the reverse of inductive method. This method begins with a rule that is applied to specific cases for the purpose of testing the rule. The steps are: statement of the problem, generalization, inference and verification.</p> <p> Type Study method- This is closely akin to inductive method except that only one case is studied. The steps are:...</p>

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