Area: PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION
Area: PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION
Focus: Principles and Strategies of Teaching incorporating Instructional PlanningPrepared by: Prof. CELIA M. ILANANPART ONE. CONTENT REVIEW
I. Relevant Terms
a general or fundamental law, doctrine or assumption; a primary source or origin;
rule or code of conduct
refers to the teachers viewpoint toward the process of teaching
refers to the regular ways or orderly procedures employed by the teachers and the principles needed to accomplish the aims of the learning situations
D. Strategy refers to the general design of how the teacher will attack her lesson
refers to the act, style or manner of performance of the teacher in carrying out the procedures or act of teaching
a combination of personality plus the amount of expertise one has in teaching technology(method), subject matter, and pedagogical theoryF. Teaching interacting, tutoring or educating
refers to pedagogy, training, nurturing
involves activities that will enable learners develop holistically (knowledge, values, skills)
II. Functions of Principles
Principles serve as bases of intelligent and profitable practice
Principles should serve not only to stimulate, direct and guide but interpret school practice.
III. Types of Principles
a. Starting Principles involve the nature of the learner and his psychological and physiological endowments that make education possible
b. Guiding Principles refer to the procedure, methods of instruction, techniques of the teacher
c. Ending Principles - refer to the educational aims, goals, objectives, outcomes, purposes or results of the whole educational scheme
IV. Principles of Good / Successful Teaching
A. According to John Dewey
1. Teaching is good when the child is made the center of the educative process.
2. Teaching is good when it is well-planned.
3. Teaching is good when the learner is made conscious of the goals or aims to be accomplished.
4. Teaching is good when it provides learning experiences.
5. Teaching is good when there is provision to meet individual differences.
6. Teaching is good when it utilizes the past experiences of the learner.
7. Teaching is good when the learner is stimulated to think and reason.
8. Teaching is good when it is governed by democratic principles.
9. Teaching is good when the method used is supplemented by another method and instructional devices.
10. Teaching is good when evaluation is made an integral part of the teaching process.
11. Teaching is good when drill or review is made an integral part of teaching and learning.
B. According to Edward Olsen
1. Educate the whole child.
2. Keep the program informal, flexible, and democratic.
3. Capitalize upon present pupil interests.
4. Let motivation be intrinsic.
5. Make learning experiences vivid and direct.
6. Stress problem-solving, the basis of functional learning.
7. Provide for the achievement of lasting pupil satisfactions.
8. Let the curriculum mirror the community.
C. According to Humanistic Teaching
1. Emphatic understanding
2. Respect or non-possessive warmth
D. According to James Mursell1. Context setting materialsLevel I Textbook only
Level II Textbook together with supplemental materials
Level III Non-academic and current materials
Level IV Multi-sensory aids
Level V Demonstration and presentation by experts
Level VI Field experiences2. Focus subject matterLevel I Page assignment
Level II Announced topic together with page or chapter references
Level III Broad concepts
Level IV Specific concepts, problem, skills acquisition3. Socialization social setting
Level I Submission
Level II Contribution
Level III Cooperation and collaboration4. Individualization learners purposes, aptitudes, abilities and experimental procedures
Level I Uniform tasks
Level II Homogeneous grouping
Level III Contract plan
Level IV Individual instruction
Level V Large units with optional related activity
Level VI Individual undertakings5. Sequence ordering of learning tasks
Level I Logical succession of blocks of content
Level II Connecting learning/lesson/course through introductions, reviews
Level III Building learners readiness
Level IV Building from emerging meanings6. Evaluation appraisal
Level I Direct results through testing
Level II Relate to objectives and processes
Level III Total learning process and resultsV. Instructional PlanningA. Nature
Planning is the ability to visualize into the future creating arranging, organizing, and designing events into the mind that may occur in the classroom.
Planning is the way of managing time and events.
Planning for instruction provides and type of road map or guide that assists you in creating a flow of events that has and starting and ending point. Planning for teaching is the ability to make decisions about the how and what of teaching.
Instructional planning is the process of sorting, selecting and balancing and synthesizing information from many sources in order to design instructional experiences that will assist learners in attaining the goals and objectives that will meet their needs.B. Functions
Gives an overview of instruction
Facilitates good management and instruction
Makes learning purposeful
Ties instruction events with community resources
Provides for sequencing and pacing
Provides for a variety of instructional activities
Makes learners success more measurable in terms which assists in re-teaching
Creates an opportunity for a higher-level questioning
Assists in ordering supplies
Guides substitute teachersC. Phases
Gives purpose for learning
Provides sequencing and pacing
Builds teaching repertoire DURING INSTRUCTIONS
Responds to learner needs
Provides for re-teaching
Facilitates higher-level questions AFTER INSTRUCTIONS
Measures student success
Signals time to order supplies
D. Planning Sequence
E. Planning Process
1. Affecting variables
Materials and resources
Time2. Models LONG-TERM PLANNING
involving preparation for a year or semester. It serves the following
adapts the curriculum to fit the teachers knowledge and priorities.
helps the teacher to learn the structure and content of the new curricula
develops a practical schedule for instruction.
establishes purposes. UNIT PLANNING
involves breakdown of the framework into specific units. It has uses:
bridges the gap between long term and day-to-day lesson planning
ties objectives and activities together in a logical, coherent manner providing structure for new material LESSON PLANNING
generates specific plan of action for a specific class period. It deals with the what, why, and how to teach.3. Levels
LEVELGOALS OF PLANNINGSOURCES OF INFORMATIONFORM OF PLAN
1. Yearly Planning Establishing general content Students General outline
2. Term Planning Detailing of content to be covered in next three months Direct contact with students
Time constraints set by school schedule Elaboration of outline
3. Unit Planning Developing a sequence of well-organized learning experiences Materials, length of lessons, set up time, demand, format Lists of sequenced activities
Planning Laying out the
Adjusting schedule for interruptions and special needs Scheduled school interruptions Names and frequency of activities
5. Daily Planning Setting up and
classroom for the
Preparing students for days activities Assessment of class disposition at start of day
Continued interest, involvement and enthusiasm Schedule for day written on the chalkboard and discussed with students
VI. MANAGING INSTRUCTION A. Determining Instructional Objectives Are specific statements of intermediate learning outcomes necessary for acquiring a terminal (specific statements describing what the learner is to do at the end of instruction) performance
Refer to broad statements about the intent of education
Broad guides for translating the needs of society into educational policy
Preparing students for democratic citizenship
Statements that will describe what schools are expected to accomplish
Statements that cut across subjects and grade levels and represent the entire school program
Development of reading skills3. Objectives
Description of what eventually take place in the classroom
Specific skills, tasks and attitudes stated in behavioral terms, which are observable, measurable and attainable
Are guidelines to be taught and learned, standard way of judging o