Slide 1 © Crown copyright 2008 Communication Language and Literacy Development Letters and Sounds Working on Phase 5

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Slide 1 Crown copyright 2008 Communication Language and Literacy Development Letters and Sounds Working on Phase 5 Slide 2 Slide 2 Crown copyright 2008 Aims To develop subject knowledge of the alphabetic code when working on Phase 5 To develop systematic and cumulative planning of Phase 5 over a week To build continuous assessment for learning into Phase 5 To review new phonic resources using ICT Slide 3 Slide 3 Crown copyright 2008 Agenda Progress check: Phases 3 and 4 Subject knowledge Teaching high-frequency words Direct teaching of phonics Planning exemplification: Phase 5 over a week Application Review new IWB resources Letters and Sounds: Phase 5 Progress check: Phase 5 Slide 4 Slide 4 Crown copyright 2008 Phase 5 Discuss with your elbow partner the Phase 5 teaching issues you have found or are concerned about Slide 5 Slide 5 Crown copyright 2008 Progress check for Phase 3 By the end of Phase 3 children should: give the sound when shown all or most Phase 2 and Phase 3 graphemes; find all or most Phase 2 and Phase 3 graphemes from a display when given the sound; be able to blend and read CVC words; be able to segment and make phonetically plausible attempts at spelling CVC words; be able to read the tricky words; be able to spell the tricky words; write each letter correctly when following a model. Slide 6 Slide 6 Crown copyright 2008 Progress check for Phase 4 By the end of Phase 4 children should: give the sound when shown any Phase 2 and Phase 3 grapheme; find any Phase 2 and Phase 3 grapheme from a display when given the sound; be able to blend and read words containing adjacent consonants; be able to segment and spell words containing adjacent consonants; be able to read tricky words; be able to spell tricky words; write each letter, usually correctly. Slide 7 Slide 7 Crown copyright 2008 Progress Tracking Revised phonics tracking sheet Spans the EYFS and KS1 Information indicates the phases children are currently working on linked to ongoing day-to- day assessment Periodic assessment to judge secure at Phase descriptors help to make judgements to decide at which phase the child is using his or her phonic knowledge and skills independently and consistently (page 22, Revised Practitioner folder) Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 9 Crown copyright 2008 Subject knowledge and systematic teaching and learning of phonics Slide 10 Phonics at a glance phonics is skills of segmentation and blending knowledge of the alphabetic code + Slide 11 Slide 11 Crown copyright 2008 Phonics consists of: identifying sounds in spoken words; recognising the common spellings of each phoneme; blending phonemes into words for reading; segmenting words into phonemes for spelling. Slide 12 Slide 12 Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word. Slide 13 Slide 13 Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Grapheme Letter(s) representing a phoneme. taiigh Slide 14 Phonemes and graphemes phoneme smallest unit of sound in a word grapheme a letter or sequence of letters that represents a phoneme Terminology Slide 15 Slide 15 Crown copyright 2008 Phonemes and graphemes Phonemes are represented by graphemes. A grapheme may consist of one (t), two (ch) or more letters (igh). A phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way: cat, kennel, choir. The same grapheme may represent more than one phoneme: me, met. Slide 16 Letters and phonemes Letters: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Some of the 140 (approx.) letter combinations illustrated within words: cat, look, would, put, peg, bread, cart, fast, pig, wanted, burn, first, term, heard, work, log, want, torn, door, warn, plug, love, haul, law, call, pain, day, gate, station, wooden, circus, sister, sweet, heat, thief, these, down, shout, tried, light, my, shine, mind, coin, boy, road, blow, bone, cold, stairs, bear, hare, moon, blue, grew, tune, fear, beer, here, baby, sun, mouse, city, science, dog, tap, field, photo, van, game, was, hat, where, judge, giant, barge, yes, cook, quick, mix, Chris, zebra, please, is, lamb, then, monkey, comb, thin, nut, knife, gnat, chip, watch, paper, ship, mission, chef, rabbit, wrong, treasure, ring, sink. Phonemes: /b/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /j/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /v/ /w/ /wh/ /qu/ /y/ /z/ /th/ /th/ /ch/ /sh/ /zh/ /ng/ /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /ae/ /ee/ /ie/ /oe/ /ue/ /oo/ /ar/ /ur/ /or/ /au/ /er/ /ow/ /oi/ /air/ /ear/ Slide 17 Slide 17 Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Blending Recognising the phonemes in a written word, for example c-u-p, sh-ee-p, and merging or synthesising them in the order in which they are written to pronounce the word: cup, sheep. Slide 18 Slide 18 Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Oral blending Hearing a series of spoken sounds (phonemes) and merging them together to make a spoken word. No text is used. For example, When a teacher calls out b-u-s or c-r-ay-o-n, the children say bus or crayon. This skill should be taught within Phase 1 before blending and reading printed words. Slide 19 Slide 19 Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Segmenting Identifying the individual sounds in a spoken word (e.g. h-i-m, s-t-or-k) and writing down or manipulating letters for each sound (phoneme) to form the word him. Slide 20 Slide 20 Crown copyright 2008 Blending and Segmentation Blending Merging the individual phonemes together to pronounce a word. To read unfamiliar words a child must recognise (sound out) each grapheme, not each letter, then merge the phonemes together to make a word. Segmentation Hear and say the individual phonemes within words. In order to spell, children need to segment a word into its component phonemes and choose a grapheme to represent each phoneme. Slide 21 Slide 21 Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Digraph Two letters, which make one phoneme. A consonant digraph contains 2 consonants: sh ck th ll A vowel digraph contains at least one vowel: aiee ar oy Slide 22 Slide 22 Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Trigraph Three letters, which make one phoneme. igh dge Slide 23 Slide 23 Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Split digraph A digraph in which the two letters are not adjacent e.g. make. Slide 24 Slide 24 Crown copyright 2008 Enunciation Teaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciation Phonemes should be articulated clearly and precisely Slide 25 ss at the end of a word Double ss appears at the end of a word when: a short vowel is in the middle of a one-syllable word. pusthisyesgas bus Tess less tossJess Rossguess bosshissBessgrass losskissdresslass fussmossmissmessmass uoiea Slide 26 Why has think got a k at the end and not ck or c? k sound is preceded by a consonant, e.g. nk, sk ck is always preceded by a vowel shockclocksickrackpeckkick tickrocklocknecksockduck Slide 27 123 cat bird fish knight These words each have three phonemes (separate sounds). Each of these phonemes is represented by a grapheme. Slide 28 Sound buttons rainbright witch slaughter Slide 29 foilbroom toastslight crayonspeed Slide 30 crayon slighttoast broomfoil Slide 31 Slide 31 Crown copyright 2008 Using a phoneme frame Slide 32 Segmenting greed weed speed deed creed bleed PHONEMESWORD Slide 33 Segmenting deerggreed deewweed deepsspeed deeddeed deerccreed deelbbleed PHONEMESWORD Slide 34 Slide 34 Crown copyright 2008 CVC words - some points to note Slide 35 Words sometimes wrongly identified as CVC bow few saw her Slide 36 Words sometimes wrongly identified as CVC bow few saw her Slide 37 Consonant digraphs ll ss ff zz hill, mess, puff, fizz sh ch th wh ship, chat, thin, whip ng qu ck sing, quick Slide 38 pig chick church car boydown curl wheel thorn for daydear head shirt CVC words clarifying some misunderstandings Slide 39 shirthead dearday forthorn wheelcurl downboy carchurch chickpig Slide 40 head day thorn curl boy church pig shirt dear for wheel down car chick Slide 41 deahhead aydday norththorn lurccurl oybboy church church gippig tirshshirt earddear orffor leewhwheel nowddown arccar ckichchick Slide 42 Examples of CCVC, CVCC, CCCVC and CCVCC b l a ck s t r ea m c c v cc c c v c f ou n d b l a n k c v c c c c v c c Slide 43 Consonant phonemes and their more usual graphemic representations /b/ baby /d/ dog /f/ field, photo /g/ game /h/ hat /j/ judge, giant, barge /k/ cook, sock, Chris /l/ lamb /m/ monkey,comb /n/ nut, knife, gnat /p/ paper /r/ rabbit, wrong /s/ sun, mouse, city, science /t/ tap /v/ van /w/ was /wh/ where /y/ yes /z/ zebra, please, is /th/ then /th/ thin /ch/ chip, watch /sh/ ship, mission, chef /zh/ treasure /ng/ ring Slide 44 Vowel phonemes and a common graphemic representation Slide 45 Some other ways of representing vowel phonemes Slide 46 Grapheme choices glay glai proyn proin strou strow sproat sprowt dryt dright smayn smain groy groi Slide 47 Vowel digraphs followed by a consonant or in a final position Slide 48 Vowel digraphs (cont.) Slide 49 Teaching the split digraph tietime treethese toetone cuecube ?aecave Slide 50 Which of these words contain a split digraph? time made spike have come bride some shine Slide 51 Which of these words contain a split digraph? time made spike have come bride some shine Slide 52 Slide 52 Crown copyright 2008 Activity In small groups make a list of all the words that you can think of that contain the phoneme on your chart and sort the words into their appropriate grapheme Investigate the frequency or infrequency of words and look for any patterns for feedback Slide 53 Slide 53 Crown copyright 2008 Teaching high-frequency words In the past, often regarded as needing to be taught as sight words Research shows when words are recognised at sight, this recognition is most efficient when it is underpinned by GP knowledge Slide 54 Slide 54 Crown copyright 2008 100 common words that recur frequently in much written material Most are decodable End of Phase 2, 26 HF words are decodable; further 12 by the e