Sintesis Protein - English

  • View
    221

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Sintesis Protein - English

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    1/11

    PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Presented by

    GROUP 7

    Mulqiyati Zikra (8)

    Luluan Thahura H (4) Marlina (34)

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    2/11

    DEFINITION

    Protein is a macromolecule composed by various

    amino acids. Meanwhile, enzymes are proteins that

    have the ability as a catalyst for biochemical

    reactions in the process of cellular metabolism.Based on the results of Beadle and Tatums (1941)

    experiment, genes controlling the metabolic

    processes or the lives of individuals through the

    process of enzyme control. Thus, changes in genestructure can cause changes in protein structure at

    amino acid level, which in turn will cause changes

    in metabolic processes

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    3/11

    Protein is not synthesizeddirectly by genes, but through

    the process of transcriptionand translation (the gene is afunctional, is a DNA structure).Transcription is the process of

    DNA replication to form theRNA-d. Meanwhile, thetranslation is the process oftranslating genetic informationcontained in RNA-d into thepolypeptide amino acid runs. Intranscription, DNA is used as amodel for protein synthesis.

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    4/11

    1. TRANSCRIPTION

    Transcription is the process of transfer of genetic

    information from DNA segments (genes) into RNA

    molecules which are guided by a katalisatornya

    transcriptase enzyme. Pieces of base sequence on RNA-d isdetermined by the base of runs contained in one segment

    of DNA, and each of these bases will be searched

    ribonukleotidanya counterparts, then bundled into the RNA

    chain-d. Readings by the beginning of the earliest signs

    transcriptase (promoter) to mark the end (terminator). Only

    the segment flanked by two signs that will be transcribed.

    Gene is a gene controlling the protein so that there should

    be at the link between the promoter and terminator.

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    5/11

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    6/11

    2. TRANSLATION

    After the process of transcription in the nucleus ofcells is completed, then the RNA-d out from the coreto be printed in the preparation of a series of modelamino acids in the translational process. Genetic

    information carried by RNA-d contained in the baseruns, they contain. Each type of combination of threeadjacent bases that contain the genetic code (codon)specific, which can be translated into one type ofamino acid. In one chain of RNA-d, only certain parts

    of a mold pattern in protein synthesis, namelysegment flanked by initial codon (AUG) and the finalcodon (UAA, UAG, UGA)

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    7/11

    After RNA-d to the ribosome, RNA-t begintransporting amino acids into the complex

    translation (ribosomes), also read codes (codons)

    RNA-d. Furthermore, the amino acids brought by

    the RNA-t assembled into polypeptides. The abilityof RNA-t perform these tasks, due to the anti-codon

    loop and the ability of a compound with an amino

    acid called aminoacyl-t RNA. The process of

    translating a series of RNA codons-d into thepolypeptide amino acid sequence called a

    translation.

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    8/11

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    9/11

    STAGES OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    1. Conduct DNA transcription (print dRNA) to bring the code - thecode-forming proteins, based on the sequence of nitrogenous bases2. mRNA to escape from the DNA and carry the code - the geneticcode (codon) exit from the nucleus to the ribosomes in thecytoplasm. This mRNA acts as a template (matrix). In this ribosomes

    attached to mRNA ribosomal RNA (rRNA)3. tRNA in the cytoplasm came with amino acids in accordance withthe code - the code that was brought by the mRNA. tRNA is attached(coupled) with the mRNA in accordance with pasngan - nitrogen basepairs (with a triple from nitrogenous bases of tRNA).4. acids - amino acids that are brought by the tRNA will be holding

    each other and form a series of polypeptide chains to form proteinsthat are expected in the ribosome. Proteins that form this is anenzyme that regulates cellular metabolism.

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    10/11

    GENETIC CODE

    The genetic code is the code carried by

    messenger RNA (mRNA) to be submitted to the

    transfer RNA (tRNA). The genetic code is a

    sequence of three nitrogenous bases that

    make up a so-called codon tripet (kodogen)

  • 8/8/2019 Sintesis Protein - English

    11/11

    DELIVERY MECHANISM OFGENETIC

    CODE

    Each code (one codon) is comprised of three nitrogenbases located in the mRNA sequence. Codon - codon onthe mRNA must be translated by the tRNA, to learnwhich amino acids should he brought

    Example: if the codon on the mRNA read urasi-uracil-uracil (UUU), the tRNA must deliver the amino acidphenylalanine.The genetic code is universal to all organisms, meaningthat an organism's genetic code can be translated by

    other organisms and form the same amino acid.Example: AAA codon in human cells and in bacterialcells will generate Lysine