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  • Science -Social Studies & Math First Period 2015

    1 | P a g e


    The circulatory system is responsible for circulation. Circulatory system is a delivery system. Red

    blood cells travel in the blood, bringing things to and from your body cells.

    The main organ of the system is heart. The heart is a muscular organ that constantly pumps blood

    throughout the body. A heat beats 70 to 90 times a minute, pumping blood throughout your body.

    Blood vessels called arteries carry blood away from your heart. Blood in an artery brings oxygen

    and food to body cells.

    Arteries: lead to capillaries, the thinnest blood vessels. Here oxygen and food pass into body cells.

    The body cells release wastes, such as carbon dioxide, into the blood. The red color is used to show

    blood with oxygen.

    The capillaries: This is the thinnest kind of blood vessel. Only one red blood cell at a time fit


    The capillaries now lead to the veins. A vein is a blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart.

    The blue color is used to show blood with carbon dioxide.

    How can systems work together?

    The circulatory and respiratory systems work together. Heres how:

    Veins: bring blood into an upper chamber of the heart called an atrium.

    From an atrium, blood flows through a valve to a lower chamber, called a ventricle.

    Blood: is pumped out of the ventricle through an artery.

    Heart to Lungs

    Follow the numbers in the diagram as you read.

    1. Veins bring blood with carbon dioxide to the right side of the heart.

    2. The blood is pumped through an artery to the lungs.

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    3. In the lungs, blood drops off carbon dioxide. Blood takes in oxygen.

    4. Veins bring oxygen-rich blood to the left side of the heart. It is pumped out to the body through a

    main artery, called the aorta.

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    What is blood?

    Blood looks like a red liquid. However, it is made of a liquidand cells.

    Plasma: is a clear liquid. It makes up just over half of your blood. Plasma carries the solid parts of

    the blood. It also carries nutrients from your digested food to all your cells.

    Red blood cells: make up just less than half your blood. Red blood cells carry oxygen to all the cells

    of your body. They pick up carbon dioxide from your cells and bring it to the lungs.

    White blood cells: make up a small amount of your blood. They fight germs that enter the body.

    Platelets: are small pieces of cells. They clump together to form a scab or clot when you cut yourself.

    How do vessels and valves work?

    Blood vessels form an unbroken path for blood.

    Arteries: are thick-walled vessels leading away from the heart.

    Veins, which lead blood back to the heart, are thinner-walled. They are still thick enough to keep

    materials from passing through.

    Capillaries: connect arteries to veins. They have thin walls. So nutrients can pass through the walls.

    So can oxygen and carbon dioxide.

    Many veins have valves. These valves close up as needed to keep blood from backing up in the wrong

    direction. They then open to let blood flow in the correct direction. Valves in the heart do much the

    same. They let blood flow from an atrium to a ventricle. However, they close to keep blood from

    flowing back in the wrong direction.


    The set of whole numbers include the natural numbers and 0. Call this set W, then W = {

    0,1,2,3,4,5,6,......} Reading and writing whole numbers can be explained by using the following

    illustration. Take a close look and carefully study it!

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    Recall that the place value for 2, 4, and 6 are the hundred-thousands, the ten-thousands, and the

    thousands respectively. Again, the position occupied by 2 is the hundred-thousands and putting a 2

    is this position means that there are 2 hundred-thousands or two hundred thousand.In the same

    way, putting a 4 in the ten-thousands position means that there are 4 ten-thousands

    or forty thousands because 4 tens is forty. Finally, putting a 6 in the thousands position means that

    there are 6 thousands or six thousand. Putting it all together, we have:

    (two hundred) thousand + (forty) thousand + (six) thousand = ____________________________

    (two hundred + forty + six)thousand = ____________________________

    (two hundred forty six)thousand = 246 thousand ____________________________

    What gives us the right to just add two hundred, forty, and six?

    Two hundred cars + forty cars + six cars. ____________________________

    Would not you agree that it is equal to two hundred forty six cars?

    The above is the same, except that instead of using cars, we are using thousand. The group name, as

    shown in the illustration, is 'thousands' In general, it is unnecessary to say it three times. When

    reading whole numbers, always read the numeral first, which is 246 and then the group name from

    left to right. Therefore, we read

    (two hundred) thousand + (forty) thousand + (six) thousand as

    ( two hundred forty six) thousand = 246 thousand.

    By the same token, the next group name, which is 'millions' is read five hundred twenty million

    = 520 million

    The whole number can be read as:

    (two hundred thirty four) billion (five hundred twenty) million (two hundred forty six) thousand

    nine hundred seventy eight = ____________________________

    (234 billion (520 million (246) thousand 978

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    Other examples

    355,645 is read three hundred fifty five thousand, six hundred forty five

    16,006,006 is read sixteen millions, six thousand, six

    25,000,000,000 is read twenty five billion

    Adding whole numbers

    Adding whole numbers is what this lesson will teach you. Also there is a

    calculator to help you practice. Adding whole numbers means that we

    are combining numbers to form a total. Each number being added is

    called an addend and the total, which is the answer to the addition

    problem is called sum.

    Adding numbers with 1 digit is pretty straightforward. In general, you

    can do it mentally or use your fingers. Adding zero to a number never changes the number.

    Take a close look at the following addition problems.

    The answer for one of them is wrong. Can you tell which one?

    You got it right! It is the first one. 4 + 6 is not equal to 11. 4 + 6 = 10.

    Now, let us move on to something more interesting, adding numbers with two digits.

    When adding two-digit numbers, add the ones first. Then, add the tens.

    Let us try to add 36 to 17 using expanded notation 36 = 30 + 6 and 17 = 10 + 7

    Adding the ones ( 6 and 7) gives 13 and 13 = 10 + 3

    Adding the tens (30, 10, and 10) gives 50 and 50 + 3 = 53

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    Let us add 58 to 46

    58 = 50 + 8 and 46 = 40 + 6

    Adding the ones (8 and 6 ) gives 14 and 14 = 10 + 4

    Adding the tens (50, 40, and ,10) gives 100 and 100 +

    4 = 104We can accomplish the same by arranging

    the numbers in vertical columns as shown below.

    In the above, we add the ones column first. Then, we

    carry over the tens to the tens column. The 1 that we carry over has a place value of 10. However,

    there is no need to write 10 because as we saw before in place value putting a 1 here in the tens place

    means that there is 1 ten.

    Subtracting whole numbers

    Subtracting whole numbers is the inverse operation of adding whole numbers.

    Instead of adding two numbers to get a sum, you are removing one number from another to get a

    difference First, look at the following simple simple subtraction problems

    The first is 8 4 = 4. Thinking about money,

    you have 8 dollars and you spend 4, you are

    left with 4

    Subtractions with one digit are usually fairly easy. Things start getting complicated when you have

    more than one digit and you cannot remove the number at the bottom from the number on top

    such as when doing 85 8. Study the following example carefully because the concept of borrowing

    a ten is illustrated here

    Since you could not remove 8 from 5, you borrowed a ten from 8 tens and add that to 5 to make it

    15. You can also write the problem without the tens and the ones to make it look simpler as

    illustrated below

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    Another example:

    Once again, study the following example carefully. If you understand it

    and the one before, you should be well on your way to mastering


    Step #1

    Borrow a 10 from 2 tens. The problem becomes

    Step #2

    Borrow 1 hundred from 4 hundreds. 1 hundred = 10 tens. Then add 10 tens to 1 ten to make it 11 tens

    Step #3

    Borrow 1 thousand from 5 thousands. 1 thousand = 10 hundreds. Then add 10 hundreds to 3

    hundreds to make it 13 hundreds. Then, just subtract now since all numbers at the bottom are

    smaller than the number on top.

    Multiplying whole numbers

    Multiplying whole numbers starts with a solid knowledge of

    a multiplication table. I may never say this enough! The more you know

    your multiplication table, the easier it is going to be for you to perform


    When numbers are multiplied, each number is called a factor. The result of multiplying numbers is

    called a product. The easiest multiplication we can perform is the one with one digit because all we

    need is a good remembrance of a multiplication table. Look at the following multiplication

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    problems. You can get your answer right off a multiplication table. Note that 0 6 = 0. In fact,

    any number times 0 = 0.

    Multiplying a two-digits number by a one-digit

    may be a little bit more fun.

    The following is a multiplication of two-digit by

    a one digit (46 7)

    Study this example carefully!

    Notice that when the product of the ones is greater than

    9, you must rename the tens and ones. In our example

    above, 42 ones were renamed 4 tens and 2 ones. Then,

    the 4 tens are added to the 28 tens in the tens column to get 32 tens.

    It can be time-consuming to write the tens and the ones when doing multiplication. You can also do

    the following:

    There is even a

    shorter way to

    multiply with


    Generally, that is how we perform


    Study also the next example:

    Sometimes, you multiply by a factor that contains

    two or more digits.

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    For example, multiply 46 by 37. Look at the way it is done

    below and notice that you already performed the

    multiplication for 46 7 and 46 3

    Why did we put a 0 beneath the 2? Because there is no

    value for the ones place( value smaller than 9. Multiplying

    3 by 6 gave us 18 and 18 is bigger than 9.

    Dividing whole numbers

    Dividing whole numbers is the opposite of multiplying whole numbers.

    It is the process by which we try to find out how many times a number

    (divisor) is contained in another number (dividend). The answer in the

    division problem is called a quotient. In the division problem below( 63

    7) , 7 is contained into 63, 9 times. (9 7 = 63)

    Even and odd numbers

    Even and odd numbers are straightforward concepts. I will start easy, but I will try to challenge the

    topic a little bit.

    Even numbers

    An even number is any number that can be divided by 2.For example, 12 can be divided by 2, so 12 is

    even. We saw in divisibility rules that a number is divisible by 2 if its last digit is 0,2,4,6,or 8.

    Therefore, any number whose last digit is 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 is an even number

    Other examples of even numbers are 58, 44884, 998632, 98, 48, and 10000000

    Formal definition of an even number:

    A number n is even if there exist a number k, such that n = 2k where k is an integer

    This is formal way of saying that if n is divided by 2, we always get a quotient k with no remainder.

    Having no remainder means that n can in fact be divided by 2.

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    Odd numbers:

    An odd number is any number that cannot be divided by 2.For example, 25 cannot be divided by 2,

    so 25 is odd. We saw in divisibility rules that a number is divisible by 2 if its last digit is 0,2,4,6,or 8.

    Therefore, any number whose last digit is not 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 is an odd number

    Other examples of odd numbers are 53, 881, 238637, 99, 45, and 100000023.

    Formal definition of an odd number:

    A number n is odd if there exist a number k, such that n = 2k + 1 where k is an integer

    This is formal way of saying that if n is divided by 2, we always get a quotient k with a remainder of 1

    Having a remainder of 1 means that n cannot in fact be divided by 2.

    Basic operations with even and odd numbers


    even + even = even 4 + 2 = 6

    even + odd = odd 6 + 3 = 9

    odd + odd = even 13 + 13 = 26


    even even = even 2 6 = 12

    even odd = even 8 3 = 24

    odd odd = odd 3 5 = 15


    even even = even 8 4 = 4

    even odd = odd 6 3 = 3

    odd odd = even 13 3 = 10

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    Officially the republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America,

    bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador

    and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican

    Republic and Haiti. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments.

    The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the

    Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest

    and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogot.

    Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the

    secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic

    of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Grenadine

    Confederation(1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of

    Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the 1960s, the country has

    suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s, but since

    2000 has decreased considerably. Colombia is ethnically diverse, its people descending from the

    original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans originally brought to the country as slaves,

    and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East, all contributing to a diverse

    cultural heritage. This has also been influenced by Colombia's varied geography, and the imposing

    landscape of the country has resulted in the development of very strong regional identities. The

    majority of the urban centers are located in the highlands of the Andes Mountains, but Colombian

    territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific

    coastlines. Ecologically, Colombia is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, and is considered

    the most biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power with the third largest

    economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an

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    accessing member to the OECD. Its principal industries include oil, mining, chemicals, health

    related products, food processing, agricultural products, textile and fabrics, garments, forest

    products, machinery, electronics, military products, metal products, home and office material,

    construction equipment and materials, banking, financial services, software, IT services and the

    automotive industry.

    Patriotic symbols:

    1. Flag: The yellow color symbolizes the great natural wealth of Colombia, the blue symbolizes the

    sky and seas, and red, the blood spilled by our heroes.

    2. The coat of arms of the Republic of Colombia: it is divided into three horizontal bands: the upper

    band , on blue field , has in the center a gold Granada red open grained , with stem and leaves of

    gold. On each side of the Granada goes a cornucopia of gold inclined, pouring coins into the

    center of the right side, and proper fruits of the torrid zone of the left side. The name denotes the

    Granada wearing this republic, and cornucopias, the richness of its mines and the fertility of

    their land. The middle band in platinum field, has in the center a Phrygian cap horned into a

    spear as a symbol of freedom, (Platinum, precious metals, our own country). At the lower end is

    the Isthmus of Panama, with its two adjacent seas wavy silver and black ship with its deployed in

    each candle .The condor symbolizing freedom. From its peak hangs a green laurel wreath and a

    flowing ribbon, grabbed the shield and woven into the crown, the statement concerning gold

    with black letters: Freedom and Order.

    3. The national anthem of Colombia: was formalized by Law 33 of 1920. The anthem was written by

    Rafael Nez and music by the Italian composer Oreste Sindici.

    Patriotic icons:

    1. Orchid: is the national flower of Colombia, named as such in 1936 by the Colombian Academy of

    History. Its structure and colors are extraordinarily beautiful.

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    2. The majestic Andean condor: symbolizes the sovereignty and freedom of Colombians. It has been

    called "the eternal bird."

    3. Wax palm: It is a palm of stunning beauty, extraordinary strength and legendary longevity. The

    slenderness of the wax palm, is its height and its unique size.

    4. Colombian emeralds: are the most beautiful and valued the world. The purity, brilliance and

    transparency of these precious stones are the most important features for evaluation.

    5. Coffee: is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and although Colombia is

    considered one of the best producers. Colombian coffee is recognized as the best coffee in the

    world and in several countries as a gastronomic excellence.

    Natural regions of Colombia

    Because of its natural structure, Colombia can be divided into six very distinct natural regions.

    These consist of the Andean Region, covering the three branches of the Andes Mountains found in

    Colombia; the Caribbean Region, covering the area adjacent to the Caribbean Sea; the Pacific

    Region adjacent to the Pacific Ocean; the Orinoquia Region, mainly in the Orinoco river basin along

    the border with Venezuela; the Amazon Region, part of the Amazon rainforest; and finally the

    Insular Region, comprising islands in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

    Andean Region: The Andes mountains form the most populous region of Colombia and contain

    the majority of the country's urban centers. They were also the location of the most significant pre-

    Columbian indigenous settlement.

    Caribbean Region: Is traversed by a number of rivers heading from the Andean highlands to the

    sea, including Colombia's principal river, the Magdalena, which disgorges at the main port of


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    Pacific Region: Is distinguished by its high humidity. Precipitation is among the highest in the

    world, with an average of 4,000 mm per year, some areas that receive as much as 12,000 mm per


    Orinoquia Region: Is rich in oil and suitable for extensive ranching but sparsely populated.

    Amazon Region: Is a region in southern Colombia over the Amazon Basin.

    Insular Region: Is considered by some as a sixth region, comprising those areas outside continental



    About 60% of Colombia's population are mestizos, and some one fifth are of European descent.

    Indigenous peoples, who account for only about 1% of today's population, live on the edge of some

    of the major cities and in remote areas. About 15% of the people are of mixed African and European

    descent. The small (less than 5%) black population is concentrated along the coasts and in the

    Magdalena and Cauca valleys. Spanish is the official language. The population is overwhelmingly

    Roman Catholic. There are universities in all the major cities.


    Colombian Cuisine is very diverse and varies depending on the different regions of Colombia. In

    some areas you will find specialties like roasted ants or guinea pigs while in other areas Colombians

    wouldn't even touch those dishes. Colombia is not a paradise for vegetarians as the Colombian diet

    includes a lot of meat. In the coastal areas you will find a good variety of fish, lobster and seafood

    often prepared with a sauce made out of coconut milk. The offer of fresh fruit is overwhelming and

    many of the varieties you have probably never heard of before. In general breakfast is quite

    important in Colombia and consists of fruit juice, coffee or hot chocolate, fruit, eggs and bread.

    Lunch which is served between 12 and 14pm is the main meal of the day at least in the

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    countryside. A traditional main meal consists of a soup, a main dish, a drink and sometimes a

    dessert which is generally very sweet. The dinner is more like a snack. In the big cities the main meal

    often will be served around 7pm or 8pm.


    Colombian folklore seems to permeate culture here on a deep and perhaps, difficult level to grasp.

    It's function is embedded in the search for meaning and significance in daily life that is often

    portrayed through stories, music, carnivals and festivals, folk legends and proverbs. Although I

    find it difficult, if not impossible, to fully understand Colombian culture, it seems that by paying

    attention to their stories, told through music or oral tradition for example, that you get a glimpse

    into the deeper meaning of the country. I recently met a man at a film festival who seemed to be at

    the heart of Colombian folklore who told stories through the oral tradition. He told them with great

    zeal and drama. I was surprised, expecting him to be calm but on the contrary, it's as though he was

    acting the characters of his stories.

    Touristic places

    Tourism in Colombia is an important sector in the country's economy. Colombia has major

    attractions as a tourist destination, such as Cartagena and its historic surroundings, which are on

    the UNESCO World Heritage List; the insular department of San Andrs, Providencia y Santa

    Catalina; and Santa Marta and the surrounding area. Fairly recently, Bogot, the nation's capital,

    has become Colombia's major tourist destination because of its improved museums and

    entertainment facilities and its major urban renovations, including the rehabilitation of public

    areas, the development of parks, and the creation of an extensive network of cycling routes. With its

    very rich and varied geography, which includes the Amazon and Andean regions, the llanos, the

    Caribbean and Pacific coasts, and the deserts of La Guajira, and its unique biodiversity, Colombia

    also has major potential for ecotourism.