Sintesis de Periodo Cuarto Grado

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    Read the names of the places and try to memorize them.

    Places around town




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    2. FEELINGS:

    Read and talk about your classmates feelings using VERB TO BE

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    Feeling is the nominalization of the verb to feel. The word was first used in theEnglish language to describe the physical sensation of touch through eitherexperience or perception. The word is also used to describe experiences, other

    than the physical sensation of touch


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    North America is made up of countries. One of these is the United States. Abovethe United States is a country called Canada. Below the United States is a country

    called Mexico.

    To the right on this map (east) of the United States is a body of water called theAtlantic Ocean and to the left (west) is another body of water called the PacificOcean.

    Our Nation: The 50 States

    The United States is made up of 50 states. Most of the states border eachother. There are two states that do not touch the rest of the states. Theseare Alaska and Hawaii.

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    Our Capital: Washington, D.C.

    Every country has a capital. This is where the government makes importantdecisions, such as laws. It is also where the President lives and Congress meets.The Supreme Court judges work here too.

    The capital of the United States is Washington, D.C. It is named after GeorgeWashington, who was the first President of the United States, and ChristopherColumbus, a famous explorer.

    Washington, D.C. is located on the east coast and is surrounded by the states ofMaryland and Virginia on the Potomac River. It is America's first planned city andwas designed by Pierre L'Enfant.

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    Symbols of U.S. Government

    The Flag Bald EagleIndependence


    Liberty Bell

    The NationalAnthem

    The Pledge ofAllegiance

    The Statueof Liberty

    The WhiteHouse


    NAME: Barack Obama

    OCCUPATION:Lawyer,U.S. President,U.S. Representative BIRTH DATE:August 04, 1961(Age: 51)

    EDUCATION: Punahou Academy, Occidental College,Columbia University,Harvard Law School

    PLACE OF BIRTH: Honolulu, Hawaii

    FULL NAME: Barack Hussein Obama, Jr.

    AKA: Barack Obama

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    Mammals living nowhere else include the Hawaiian Monk Seal (EDGE), the RedWolf (ARKive), the Island Fox (ARKive), the Seminole Bat (Smithsonian), theOlympic Marmot (, the Utah Prairie Dog (ARKive), the Hopi Chipmunk

    (Smithsonian), Nelsons Antelope Squirrel (ARKive), and the Giant Kangaroo Rat(ARKive). Representatives of endemic genera include the Pygmy Rabbit(Smithsonian), the Dark Kangaroo Mouse (Smithsonian), the Round-tailed Muskrat(Univ. Florida), the Red Tree Vole (ARKive), the Florida Mouse (flickr), and theGolden Mouse (Smithsonian).Birds unique to the U.S. include the Gunnison Sage-grouse (ARKive), the GreaterPrairie-chicken (ARKive), the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Cornell), McKay'sBunting (Audubon), the Nene (ARKive), and the Hawaiian Hawk (Audubon). Hawaiiis exceptionally rich in endemic genera including the Palila (Native Birds ofHawai'i), the Oahu Amakihi (ARKive), the Akikiki (ARKive), the Maui Alauahio(BirdLife Int'l), the Akepa (BNA Online), the Akohekohe (Wikipedia), the Iiwi(Audubon), the Elepaio (ARKive), and the bird with the world's smallest naturalrange, the Nihoa Finch (BirdLife Int'l). The Kauai O'o (Wikipedia), which becameextinct about 1987, was the last surviving member of an endemic family, theMohoidae.Reptiles restricted to the United States include the American Alligator (ARKive), thePanamint Alligator Lizard (CA Herps), the Blunt-nosed Leopard Lizard (CA Herps),the unisexual Plateau Striped Whiptail (CA Herps), the Island Night Lizard(, the Pigmy Rattlesnake (Univ. Georgia), and the Eastern DiamondbackRattlesnake (FLMNH). Endemic genera include the Alligator Snapping Turtle(ARKive), the Diamondback Terrapin (neoTerrapin), the Florida Sand Skink(ARKive), and the Scarlet Snake (Univ. Georgia). The Florida Worm Lizard( is the sole member of the family Rhineuridae.

    Amphibians exclusive to the U.S. include the Alabama Waterdog (EDGE), theHouston Toad (TPWD), the Southern Cricket Frog (Univ. Georgia), the CaliforniaRed-legged Frog (Sierra Forest Legacy), and the Eastern Spadefoot(AmphibiaWeb). Endemic genera include the Hellbender (, theSouthern Dwarf Siren (EDGE), the Red Salamander (Univ. Georgia), the GeorgiaBlind Salamander (ARKive), the slender salamanders (AmphibiaWeb), the RedHills Salamander (EDGE), and the recently described Patch-nosed Salamander(ARKive). The torrent salamanders (ARKive) and the amphiumas (CaudataCulture) represent endemic amphibian families.

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    Plants are a major group oflife forms and include familiarorganisms such as trees, herbs,bushes,grasses, vines, ferns,mosses, and green algae. About 350,000 species of plants,defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently.

    As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are floweringand15,000 bryophytes. Green plants, sometimes called metaphytes, obtain most of their

    energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis. We are going to meet twoclassifications:

    1. Classes of plants according to their size.

    There are three main types of plants


    The trees are larger plants that exist. They come in many different shapes and sizes, fromsmall fruit trees until sequoias, that the trees are larger, since some of them measuring 84meters high and has more than 3500 years.

    The trees also are different from other plants because they have a single stem, calledtrunk, which is hard and woody.

    A large number of species of trees lose their leaves with the arrival of cold winter. They dothis to protect themselves from the cold and not freeze leaves them with frost. In thespring, it will sprout new leaves by all its branches. I call deciduous trees. By name a fewexamples, have the sheet expires almond, elm and birch.
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    Other species of trees do not lose their leaves during the winter, but that will renewthroughout the year. I call evergreen trees. This is the case of pine, fir, oak or olive.

    The bushes

    They are smaller than plant trees, but larger than herbs. They haveseveral stems that some are woody shrubs. Like the trees, somelose their leaves in winter. There are also adapted to differentclimates. Some may resist frost of winter; others bear large periodsof drought, while others are adapted to live in very warm areas, andso on. There are numerous species of shrubs; some of them areroses, rockrose and aulaga.

    The herbaceous plants

    The herbs are small plants out of the ground a few centimetres. Mostof them have a short life for one or two years. Most soil of theplanet is covered with wild grass. Others are grown to providefood for humans or animals, and some were also caring asornamental plants for their beauty. They are herbaceous plantswheat, poppy or parsley.

    2. Plants without flowers and flowering plants

    Plants without flowers

    Many plants do not produce flowers at any point in their lives. In this group of plants arecalled inBotanyplants cryptogams. His way is to reproduce by spores.

    The best known of the plants that have no flowers are mosses, ferns and algae. It is theSECONDplant began to exist and lived in times that there were still not human beings.They usually live in forests and very humid because they need to have their waterswimming spores to reproduce.

    The mosses are the most primitive land plants and easiest way. They are small plantsthat live in very humid and shady, because not tolerate direct sunlight. They can be foundin the soil, under the shade of rain forests, but always in areas umbra.

    The ferns are also very old plant. For300 million years ferns were much more
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    abundant than now. Some were as large as huge trees and forests were authentic. Hisremains and buriedputrefaction have led, over millions ofyears, coal. Also need to live inareas of high humidity and cool.

    Algae are a group of plants that live in water. Many scientists doubt that belong to theplant kingdom, as no show all the features and functions of the plant. Of the algae comethe rest of the plants. They were the origin of plants because, over millions of years, somespecies on earth leading to other plants as mosses and ferns. Algae grow on the seabedor glued to the rocks and there seas, rivers, lakes and ponds. They have very differentshapes and colours.

    They are quite different to the rest of plants, as they have no root or stem since living inwater, no need for these bodies to absorb. They made photosynthesis, and some of themare microscopic. An example of what we can see algae in the ponds, lakes, rivers andespecially in the sea, where there are many species of colours green, yellow, blue or red.

    Plants with flowers

    Most of the plant reproduces by flowers. In Botany plant these plants are called

    "phanerogams." For them it is not essential that there is water to reproduce, so it can growfor areas that are not wet.

    In flower plant has its reproductive organs. The flowers are formed the fruits and seeds,which are necessary for a plant of this kind is played.

    Some plants produce flowers once or twice each year, such as orange or jasmine, othersproduce flowers only once in his whole life. The pita, for example, is a plant with thorns,

    which grows wild throughout the area around the Mediterranean. Supports the droughtstoring water in its thick leaves. Even 20 or 25 years does not produce flowers and diesafter flowering. The flowering plants are divided into two main groups:
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    The gymnosperms have no fruits to protect the seed. Its flowers are very simple andoften go unnoticed in our view. They are gymnosperms, for example, pine, fir andcypress. It is the oldest seed plants.

    The angiosperm plants are more recent and moreevolved. They have flowers that are often complex

    striking our view. The seeds are covered by a fruit thatprotects them. They are the power supply of humans andmany mammals. There is also collected a large number

    ofraw materials and natural products. The jazmines,roses, wheat and oak are angiospermS.

    How plants get nourishment

    Plants get nourishment in the following way:

    First, the roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Themixture of water and nutrients that flows into the plant is calledraw-sap.

    Plants turn the raw sap into refined sap in the leaves. Refined

    sap is a mixture of water and plant food. Leaves need sunlight toturn raw sap into refined sap. Finally, the refined sap istransported to all parts of the plant.

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    Vegetative reproduction is asexual reproductionother terms that apply are vegetativepropagation or vegetative multiplication.

    Vegetative growth is enlargement of the individual plant; vegetative reproduction is any

    process that results in new plant "individuals" without production of seeds or spores.

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    Classifications of animalsaccording to the food they eat?

    Carnivore - carnivorous creatures are meat-eaters

    Herbivore - herbivorous creatures are plant-eaters

    Insectivore - insectivorous creatures eat insects

    Frugivore - frugivorous creatures are fruit-eaters

    Omnivore - omnivorous creatures eat just about anything

    None of these classifications are exclusive, however. For example, herbivorous

    animals will tend to eat insects and fruit. Carnivores may eat plant parts if it helps

    their digestion.

    Asexual reproduction

    Asexual reproduction is the process by which an organism creates a genetically similar or identical

    copy of itself without a contribution of genetic material from another individual. Bacteriadivide

    asexually via binary fission;viruses take control of host cells to produce more

    viruses; Hydras (invertebrates of theorderHydroidea) and yeasts are able to reproduce

    bybudding. These organisms often do not possess different sexes, and they are capable of

    "splitting" themselves into two or more individuals. On the other hand, some of these species that

    are capable of reproducing asexually, like hydra,yeast(See Mating of yeasts] andjellyfish, may

    also reproduce sexually. For instance, most plants are capable ofvegetative reproduction

    reproduction without seeds or sporesbut can also reproduce sexually. Likewise, bacteria may
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    exchange genetic information by conjugation. Other ways of asexual reproduction

    includeparthenogenesis,fragmentationandspore formation that involves

    only mitosis.Parthenogenesis (from the Greek parthenos, "virgin", + genesis,

    "creation") is the growth and development ofembryoorseedwithoutfertilization by a male.

    Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some species, including lowerplants(where it is

    called apomixis),invertebrates(e.g. water fleas, aphids, some bees and parasitic wasps),andvertebrates (e.g. somereptiles,[1]fish, and, very rarely, birds[2] and sharks[3] ). It is sometimes

    also used to describe reproduction modes in hermaphroditic species which can self-fertilize.

    Sexual reproduction

    Sexual reproduction is a biological process by which organisms create descendants that have a

    combination ofgenetic material contributed from two (usually) different members of the species.

    (Self-fertilization requires only one organism.) Each of two parent organisms contributes half of the

    offspring's genetic makeup by creating haploidgametes. Mostorganisms form two different types of
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    gametes. In these anisogamous species, the two sexes are referred to

    asmale (producing sperm or microspores) and female(producing ovaor megaspores).

    In isogamous species, the gametes are similar or identical in form (isogametes), but may have

    separable properties and then may be given other different names (seeisogamy). For example, in

    the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, there are so-called "plus" and "minus" gametes. A few

    types of organisms, such as ciliates,Paramecium aurelia, have more than two types of "sex",called syngens.[4]

    Mostanimals (including humans) andplantsreproduce sexually. Sexually reproducing organisms

    have different sets of genes for every trait (calledalleles). Offspring inherit one allele for each trait

    from each parent, thereby ensuring that offspring have a combination of the parents' genes. Diploid

    having two copies of every gene within an organism, it is believed that "the masking of deleterious

    alleles favors the evolution of a dominant diploid phase in organisms that alternate between haploid

    and diploid phases" where recombination occurs freely. [5][6]

    Bryophyte reproduces sexually but its commonly seen life forms are all haploid, which

    produce gametes. The zygotesof the gametes develop into sporangium, which produces haploid

    spores. The diploid stage is relatively short compared with that of haploid stage, i.e. haploid

    dominance. The advantage of diploid, e.g. heterosis, only takes place in diploid life stage.

    Bryophyte still maintains the sexual reproduction during its evolution despite the fact that the

    haploid stage does not benefit from heterosis at all. This may be an example that the sexual

    reproduction has a bigger advantage by itself, since it allows gene shuffling

    (hybrid orrecombination between multipleloci) among different members of the species, that

    permits natural selection of the fit over these new hybrids or recombinants that are haploid forms.[7]
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    Angle Measures

    In this section we review measuring angles, and the different types of angles.

    The box below shows the different types of angles you can have.

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    A triangle has three sides and three angles

    The three angles always add to 180

    Equilateral, Isosceles and Scalene

    There are three special names given to triangles that tell how many sides (or angles)

    are equal.

    There can be 3, 2 or no equal sides/angles:
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    Equilateral Triangle

    Three equal sides

    Three equal angles, always


    Isosceles Triangle

    Two equal sides

    Two equal angles

    Scalene Triangle

    No equal sides

    No equal angles

    What Type of Angle?

    Triangles can also have names that tell you what type of angle is inside:

    Acute Triangle

    All angles are less than 90

    Right Triangle

    Has a right angle (90)

    Obtuse Triangle

    Has an angle more than


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    The area is half of the base times height.

    "b" is the distance along the base

    "h" is the height (measured at right angles

    to the base)

    Area = b h

    The formula works for all triangles.

    Note: another way of writing the formula is bh/2

    Example: What is the area of this triangle?

    (Note: 12 is the height, not the length of the left-hand side)

    Height = h = 12

    Base = b = 20

    Area = b h = 20 12 = 120

    The base can be any side, Just be sure the "height" is measured at right angles to

    the "base":

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    PolygonsA polygon is a closedplane figure with three or more sides that are all straight.

    Some examples of polygons are shown below.

    The following figure is not a polygon as it is not a closed figure.
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    A circle is not a polygon as it does not have straight sides.

    Polygons are named according to the number of sides. The names of the most common

    polygons are given below:

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    Regular Polygon

    A regularpolygon's sides are all of the same length and its angles are the samesize.

    For example, a squareis a regular polygon.

    Examples of regular polygons are shown below.


    If a polygon is not a regular polygon, then it is said to be an irregularpolygon.

    For example, the quadrilateral shown below is an irregular polygon.