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  • Signal Processing for Future MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communication Systems

    Thesis submitted to Cardiff University in candidature for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

    Li Zhang

    CardiffUNi VS Ri f T V

    P R I F V 5 G O I


    Centre of Digital Signal Processing Cardiff University


  • UMI Number: U585146

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    This thesis is being submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for

    the degree of PhD.

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    This thesis is the result of my own investigation, except where otherwise

    stated. Other sources are acknowledged by giving explicit reference.


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    The combination of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technol

    ogy and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is likely

    to provide the air-interface solution for future broadband wireless sys

    tems. A major challenge for MIMO-OFDM systems is the problem

    of multi-access interference (MAI) induced by the presence of multiple

    users transmitting over the same bandwidth. Novel signal processing

    techniques are therefore required to mitigate MAI and thereby increase

    link performance.

    A background review of space-time block codes (STBCs) to lever

    age diversity gain in MIMO systems is provided together with an in

    troduction to OFDM. The link performance of an OFDM system is

    also shown to be sensitive to time-variation of the channel. Iterative

    minimum mean square error (MMSE) receivers are therefore proposed

    to overcome such time-variation.

    In the context of synchronous uplink transmission, a new two-step

    hard- decision interference cancellation receiver for STBC MIMO-OFDM

    is shown to have robust performance and relatively low complexity. Fur

    ther improvement is obtained through employing error control coding

    methods and iterative algorithms. A soft output multiuser detector

    based on MMSE interference suppression and error correction coding

    at the first stage is shown by frame error rate simulations to provide

  • Abstract iv

    significant performance improvement over the classical linear scheme.

    Finally, building on the uturbo principle , a low-complexity iterative

    interference cancellation and detection scheme is designed to provide a

    good compromise between the exponential computational complexity of

    the soft interference cancellation linear MMSE algorithm and the near

    capacity performance of a scheme which uses iterative turbo processing

    for soft interference suppression in combination with multiuser detec


  • To my parents for their unconditional support

    and my wife Jie Zhuang for her love and encouragement


    I would like to give my great thanks to my supervisor Prof. Jonathon

    A. Chambers, who spent much time consulting with me. Thanks for his

    great enthusiasm and patience with me. W ithout his invaluable support

    and encouragement, this thesis would have not been accomplished. I

    feel lucky to have been inspired by his extraordinary motivation, great

    intuition and hard work. He is an example for my future career and

    has my deepest respect professionally and personally.

    I would also like to thank my second supervisor in Belfast, Northern

    Ireland, Dr. Mathini Sellathurai, who has supervised me during my

    second and third year PhD study. She contributed greatly to every

    paper I have written, and to every progress step I have made. Dr.

    Saeid Sanei, Dr. Sangarapillai Lambotharan and Dr. Zhuo Zhang have

    given much help and many suggestions on not only my research and

    study, but also my life in Cardiff. I would also like to express sincere

    gratitude to them.

    The thanks also go to my dear colleagues in the center of digital

    signal processing (CDSP). It has been my great honour to work with

    them: Andrew Aubrey, Clive Cheong Took, Yonggang Zhang, Cheng

    Shen, Qiang Yu, Yue Zheng, Min Jing, Lay Teen Ong and many others.

    Cardiff has been wonderful for me mainly because of all these friends.

    My wife Jie Zhuang who accompanied me in Cardiff during the last


  • Acknowledgements vii

    two years, is greatly appreciated. I would like to thank for her love and


    Finally, I would like to thank my parents for their unconditional

    patience and support while we have been separated for many years.


    L. Zhang, C. Shen, M. Sellathurai, and J. A. Chambers,Low

    Complexity Sequential Iterative Cancellation Technique for Multi

    user MIMO-OFDM Systems, IEEE Signal Processing Lett., sub

    mitted, Sept. 2008.

    L. Zhang, M. Sellathurai, and J. A. Chambers, A Joint Coded

    Two-Step Multiuser Detection Scheme for MIMO-OFDM Sys

    tem, Proc. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech

    and Signal Processing, 2007 (IC ASSP 2007), Vol. 3, pp. 111-85 -

    111-88, Hawaii, USA, April 2007.

    L. Zhang, M. Sellathurai, and J. A. Chambers, A Two-Step

    Multiuser Detection Scheme for Space-Time Coded MIMO-OFDM

    Systems, Proc. 10th IEEE Singapore International Conference

    on Communication systems, 2006 (ICCS 2006), Singapore, Oct.


    L. Zhang, M. Sellathurai, and J. A. Chambers, A Space-Time

    Coded MIMO-OFDM Multiuser Application With Iterative MMSE-

    Decision Feedback Algorithm, Proc. 8th IEEE International

    Conference on Signal Processing (ICSP2006), Guilin, P.R.China,

    Nov. 2006.


  • Publications ix

    L. Zhang, M. Sellathurai, and J. A. Chambers, An Iterative

    Multiuser Receiver for Space-Time Coded MIMO-OFDM Sys

    tems, Proc. 7th International Conference on Mathematics in

    Signal Processing (IMA2006), pp. 182-184, Cirencester, UK, Dec.


    C. Shen, L. Zhang, and J. A. Chambers, A Two-Step Interfer

    ence Cancellation Technique for a MIMO-OFDM System with

    Four Transmit Antennas, Proc. 2007 15th International Con

    ference on Digital Signal Processing, pp. 351-354, Cardiff, UK,

    July 2007.


    3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project

    AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone System

    AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise

    BER Bit Error Rate

    bps Bits Per Second

    CCM Circulant Channel Matrix

    CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

    CSD Circuit Switched D ata

    DFT Discrete Fourier Transform

    DVB Digital Video Broadcasting

    FFT Fast Fourier Transform

    FER Frame Error Rate

    FFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform

    GPRS General Packet Radio Service

    GSM Global System for Mobile communications

  • List of Acronyms xi

    HDTV High Definition Television

    HIPERLAN High Performance Radio Local Access Network

    HSPA High Speed Packet Access

    i.i.d. Independent and Identically Distributed

    iDEN Integrated Digital Enhanced Network

    I DFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform

    IMT-2000 International Mobile Telecommunications 2000


    IS-95 Interim Standard 95

    ITU International Telecommunication Union

    ITU-R ITU Radiocommunication Sector

    JTACs Japanese Total Access Communications

    LS Least Squares

    LTE Long Term Evolution

    MIMO Multiple-Input M ultiple-Output

    MLE Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    MLSE Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation

    MMS Multimedia Messaging Service

    MMSE Minimum Mean Squared Error

    NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone

  • List of Acronyms Xll

    OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

    OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access

    PDC Personal Digital Cellular

    pdf Probability Density Function

    PHS Personal Handy-phone System

    PSK Phase Shift Keying

    QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

    QoS Quality-of-Service

    RTMI Radio Telefono Mobile Integrato

    SIMO Single-Input M ultiple-Output

    SNR Signal to Noise Ratio

    TACS Total Acce