DEPARTMENT FIELD MANUAL
CORPS AND ARMY
IV AR DEPARTME.NT FIELD MANUAL
his ,anual. together ,7ith FIi 11-21 (whll published); slperse des FJI11.20, Organisations anld Opratliosll inl th Corps, Army, Theatcr of
Opcratlons, ald GCiQ, II oe,elber 1940, inlldillg Cl, 12 JuYIIne 1941.
CORPS AND ARMY
(aDE I' ARTMl ENT * JAV NUARY 1 945
Fur Sale by tle Supcriltelndenlt of Dcu ets, \Vashillgton 25, D. C.
United rStatrs Governrlt Ib'illting Ofice
I Vashilltoll: 1945
WAR DEPARTMIENTWashington 25, D. C., 15 January 1945
FM 11-22. Signal Operations ill thile Corps andArmy. is pulblished for the information and guidanceof all coilcerned.'
[AG; 300.7 (16 IJc 44)]
BIY ORIIR ERF01 TIIE SECREIARY OF WAR:
J. A. ULIO G. C. MARSHALL,lajor Gcncral Chief of Staff
lThe Adjulant Gcncral
AAF(2); AGF(40); ASF(2); T'of Opns(10);Arm & Sv Bld(l); Gen & Sp Sv Sch(10) ; USMA(50) ; A.(25) ; CHQ(25) ; D(5); R(2).
Ti/O & E: 11-15(6); 11-25(6); 11-37(2); 11-39(2): 11465(2): 11-77(2): 11-95(6): 11-107(2); 11-127(2): 11-155T(2).
For explanation of symbols, see FIM 21-6.
IN I. GENERAL .............. ...................
II. CORPS ORGANIZATION AND
III. SIGNAL SECTION, CORPS HEAD-
QUARTERS ...... ......
IV. SIGNAL BATTALION .....................
V. SIGNAL ACTIVITIES IN THE
CORPS .......... ...................
VI. ARMY ............ ....................
VII. SIGNAL SECTION, ARMY HEAD-
VIII. SIGNAL CORPS ORGANIZATIONS
IN THE ARMY .............
IX. SIGNAL ACTIVITIES IN THE ARMY
This manual, together with FM. 11-21 (when published), super-sedes FM 11-20, Organizations and Operations in the Corps,Army, Theater of Operations, and GHQ, 11 November 1940,
including C1, 12 Juhc 1941.
The purpose of this manual is to outline briefly theorganization of the corps and army, the organizationand operation of assigned signal corps units, and theapl)lication of signal corps activities to tactical opera-tions. This manual is based upon Field Service Regu-lations, FM 100-5, 100-10, and 100-15, and assumesan undlerstanding of the fundamental doctrines ofsignal corps activities as set forth in FM 24-5, 24-18,24-20, and 11-5.
The organizations of corps and army headquartershave been covered in general terl'ls only, as have thesignal sections of these two headquarters. Organiza-tion of the signal sections is such as to be adeq(uateundelr most situations. However, for best results allavailable personnel and equipment should be organ-ized hito teams and subsections to meet the needs ofthe situation. The composition of these various teamshas been outlined to provide a guide to such organiza-tion for training and for operation.
3. Equipment, Supplies arid TransportationT/E 21, Table of Clothing and Individual Equip-
menlt serves as a basis for determining the allowancesof- clothing and items of quartermaster individualequipment for all personnel. The issue of trainingequipment is governed by Tables of Allowances, WarDepartment Circulars, and Army Regulations. Organ-izational equipment, supplies, and transportation, insufficient quantities to permit the effective functioningof each unit, are prescribed by Tables of Organizationalnd Equipment, or by Tables of Equipment that are
tnumbered to agree with the unit's T/O. AR 310-60contains a detailed explanation of the foregoing tables.In certain situations, specialized equipment and bulkymaterials may be carried in stock at higher echelondepots in a theater of operations for issue to units asrequired. Equipment and supplies peculiar to eachunit are mentioned to the extent necessary to explainthe operation of that unit, since the successful and ef-fective operation of tactical units in the field dependsto a large extent upon efficient training in the use, care,and maintenance of organizational equipment. Unitcommanders must keep up their full authorized allow-ances of organizational equipment and supplies at alltimes.
4. Command of Attached OrganizationsPortions of any signal corps organization of a
higher unit may be attached to lower units. Such at-tached signal organizations or detachments are underthe supervision of. the signal officer of the unit towhich attached, to the same extent as are the organicsignal troops, except when they are attached for ra-tions and quarters only. In this case supervision isretained by the senior unit.
CORPS ORGANIZATION ANDEMPLOYMENT
The organic elements of the corps consist essentiallyof a headquarters and headquarters company; a signalbattalion; a headquarters and headquarters battery,corps artillery; and a field artillery observation bat-talion. Normally the corps will be composed of twoor more divisions, and may be reinforced by-
a. Field artillery units.b. Antiaircraft artillery units.c. Armored units.d. Tank destroyer units.e. Engineer units.f. Air force units.g. Chemical units.h. Cavalry reconnaissance units.i. Service organizations.
a. The corps is primarily a tactical unit of executionand maneuver organized for flexibility. In operationsof long duration the divisions in the line may be re-lieved by fresh divisions, but the corps usually remainsuntil a decision is reached or the strategical plan ischanged.
b. When it is part of an army, the corps performs
administrative and supply functions for corps troopsonly, unless the army commander delegates such func-tions to it for all of its components and subordinateunits. An exception to this exists in the case of am-munition supply, wherein corps normally handles sub-allocation of credits to divisions under its control.
c. When the corps is operating independently, it isresponsible for the administration and supply of corpstroops, divisions, and all other assigned or attachedunits.
d. With suitable reinforcements, a corps may carryon sustained independent operations, functioning essen-tially as a task force. The composition of a reinforcedcorps is not prescribed, since it depends on the as-signed mission. The general principles of operationand administration governing the operations of anarmy (FM 100-5, 100-10 and 100-15) are applicablealso to a corps, particularly to a reinforced corps op-erating independently.
e. For details of signal activities in the corps seesection V.
SIGNAL SECTION. CORPSHEADQUARTERS
The signal section, corps headquarters, consists ofthe corps signal officer, his executive officer, and a suf-ficient number of commissioned assistants and enlistedclerks and draftsmen to permit the section to functionproperly. The signal section of the headquarters of areinforced corps is increased in strength so that it canperform its prescribed duties for a greater number ofcorps troops and subordinate units.
The principal duty of the signal section, corps head-quarters, during operation, is to formulate a plan forsignal activities, and to insure the fulfillment of thatplan. This duty includes-
a. Advising the corps commander on all signalactivities.
b. Preparing signal operation instructions (SOI)for approval.
c. Preparing standing signal instructions (SSI), ifnecessary, to explain the use of any part of the SOI.
I d. Preparing signal plan, signal annex, paragraph 5of the field order, and other signal orders.
e.- Preparing standing operating procedure (SOP)for corps signal activities in coordination with inter-
ested -eneral and special staff sections, and in con-formity with SOP for signal activities as issued byhigher headquarters concerned.
f. Checking the SOP for signal activities of thevarious corps units and coordinating these with theSOP of higher headquarters.
g. Supervision of signal supply and repair for corpstroops (and for divisions if the corps is operatingseparately or if the army delegates supply functions tothe corps).
h. Maintenance of current status records of signalcommunication facilities in use and available, both mili-tary and civilian.
i. Submission of reports, as required, to the signalsection of higher headquarters concerning the operat-ing condition and composition of the signal communica-tion system in use by the corps.
j. Cooperation with the signal intelligence section ofarmy or the corresponding section of a higher head-quarters, on all matters pertaining to radio intelligence,cryptographic and signal security, and initiation ofnecessary corrective action in case of violations.I k. The procurement of codes and ciphers from the
superior headquarters or other source as directed, andthe accounting for and distribution of them to sub-ordinate units and to corps troops.
I. Supervision and assignment of photographic mis-sions to assigned or attached photographic units (FM11-37).
m. Supervision and coordination of training forcorps signal troops, attached signal troops, and corpscommunication personnel.
9. Signal Section, Headqu