Shiloh: A Battlefield Guide (This Hallowed Ground: Guides to Civil Wa)

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  • This Hallowed Ground: Guides to Civil War Battlefields

    S E R I E S E D I T O R S

    Brooks D. Simpson

    Arizona State University

    Mark Grimsley

    The Ohio State University

    Steven E. Woodworth

    Texas Christian University

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  • Cartography by Christopher L. Brest

    University of Nebraska Press

    Lincoln and London

    SHILOH

    A BATTLEFIELD GUIDE

    BY MARK GRIMSLEY AND

    STEVEN E. WOODWORTH

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  • 2006 by the Board of Regents of the University

    of Nebraska. All rights reserved. Manufactured in

    the United States of America.

    Text set by G&S Typesetters, Inc., in Linotype Swift,

    designed by Gerard Unger, with Helvetica display.

    Book designed by Richard Eckersley. Book printed

    by Edwards Brothers, Inc.

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

    Grimsley, Mark.

    Shiloh : a battlefield guide / by Mark Grimsley and

    Steven E. Woodworth.

    p. cm. (This hallowed ground : guides to Civil War

    battlefields) Includes bibliographical references.

    isbn-13: 978-0-8032-7100-5 (paperback : alk. paper)

    isbn-10: 0-8032-7100-x (paperback : alkaline paper)

    1. Shiloh, Battle of, Tenn., 1862. 2. Shiloh National

    Military Park (Tenn.) Guidebooks. i. Woodworth,

    Steven E. ii. Title. iii. This hallowed ground.

    e473.54.g75 2006 976.8'04dc22 2005011383

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  • Acknowledgments viii

    Introduction xi

    How to Use This Guide xiii

    The Shiloh Campaign: MarchApril 1862 3

    overview of the first day, april 6, 1862 11

    stop 1 Pittsburg Landing, March 1862 13

    1a Union Commanders Select an Encampment,

    March 17April 5 13

    1b The Confederates Plan an Attack, March 15April 1 15

    stop 2 Shiloh Church, April 45 17

    stop 3 Fraley Field, April 6 20

    3a Powells Reconnaissance, April 6, 3:005:30 a.m. 21

    3b The Confederate Army Advances, April 35 23

    3c Tonight We Will Water Our Horses in the Tennessee River,

    April 6, 5:30 a.m. 24

    stop 4 Peabodys Battle Line, 5:30 8:00 a.m. 27

    stop 5 Peabodys Camp, 8:00 8:30 a.m. 30

    Eastern Route, April 6 32

    east stop 6 Spain Field, 7:3010:00 a.m. 32

    6a Millers Brigade Deploys, 7:30 8:00 a.m. 33

    6b Gladdens Brigade Attacks, 8:309:00 a.m. 35

    6c The Collapse of Millers Defense, 8:309:00 a.m. 37

    6d Chalmers and Jackson Redeploy, 9:0010:00 a.m. 39

    east stop 7 McCullers Field, 10:0011:00 a.m. 41

    east stop 8 Stuarts Defense, 11:0011:30 a.m. 43

    east stop 9 The Peach Orchard, 7:30 a.m.2:30 p.m. 46

    9a Hurlbut to the Rescue, 7:30 8:30 a.m. 47

    9b Hurlbut Deploys, 8:309:30 a.m. 49

    9c The First Attack, 9:0010:00 a.m. 51

    9d The Formation of the Sunken Road Position,

    10:0011:00 a.m. 53

    9e A Few More Charges and the Day Is Ours, 12:302:00 p.m. 56

    Contents

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  • 9f The First Assaults, 2:002:30 p.m. 58

    Hornets Nest Excursion 59

    stop a 31st Indiana Infantry 60

    stop b 12th Michigan Infantry 61

    stop c Hickenloopers Battery 62

    stop d Arkansas State Memorial 63

    stop e Munchs Battery Monument 65

    stop f 7th Iowa Infantry 66

    stop g 2nd Iowa Infantry 67

    east stop 10 The Collapse of the Union Left, 2:00 4:00 p.m. 69

    east stop 11 Johnstons Death, 2:30 p.m. 71

    Western Route, April 6 73

    west stop 6 Rea Field, 6:00 8:00 a.m. 73

    6a Shermans Division Is Attacked, 6:007:00 a.m. 74

    6b The 53rd Ohio Fights and Retreats, 7:00 8:00 a.m. 77

    west stop 7 Shiloh Branch, 6:00 8:00 a.m. 80

    west stop 8 Ridge near Shiloh Church 83

    8a Bucklands Brigade Holds Fast, 8:3010:00 a.m. 84

    8b Shermans Division Fights and Falls Back, 8:0010:00 a.m. 86

    west stop 9 On the Hamburg-Purdy Road, 10:3011:00 a.m. 89

    west stop 10 Review Field, 10:3011:00 a.m. 92

    west stop 11 McClernands Camps 95

    11a The Confederates Advance, 11:0011:30 a.m. 96

    11b The Federals Counterattack, 11:30 a.m.1:00 p.m. 98

    west stop 12 Duncan Field, 10:00 a.m. 4:30 p.m. 101

    west stop 13 Hells Hollow, 4:005:00 p.m. 105

    stop 14 Grants Last Line, 5 :00 6:30 p.m. 108

    Dill Branch Excursion 111

    overview of the second day, april 7, 1862 113

    Eastern Route, April 7 115

    east stop 15 The Line of Departure, 5:00 a.m. 115

    east stop 16 Wicker Field, 5:0010:00 a.m. 117

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  • east stop 17 Bloody Pond, 10:0011:00 a.m. 119

    east stop 18 Davis Wheat Field 122

    18a The Federals Attack, 10:3011:30 a.m. 123

    18b The Confederates Counterattack, 11:30 a.m. 12:00 noon 125

    Western Route, April 7 126

    west stop 15 Lew Wallaces Approach, April 6, 12:00 noon7:15 p.m. 126

    west stop 16 Tilghman Branch, 6:309:00 a.m. 130

    west stop 17 Jones Field, 9:00 a.m.12:00 noon 132

    west stop 18 Sowell Field, 12:00 noon 135

    west stop 19 Water Oaks Pond, 12:00 noon2:00 p.m. 138

    afterword The Corinth Campaign, April 8May 30, 1862 141

    appendix a The Union and Confederate Commands on April 6, 1862 145

    appendix b Orders of Battle 151

    appendix c Organization, Weapons, and Tactics 156

    Sources 167

    For Further Reading 171

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  • Acknowledgments

    The authors would like to extend their

    sincere appreciation to Stacy D. Allen,

    the National Park Service historian at

    Shiloh National Military Park. Stacy

    probably knows more about the battle

    than anyone, living or dead, and his as-

    sistance has greatly improved this

    guide.

    During the summer of 1998, Mark

    Grimsley conducted a staff ride of the

    battlefield with the officer cadre of the

    3/502nd Infantry Battalion, then com-

    manded by Lt. Col. William O. Odom. As

    always in such cases, the learning expe-

    rience was decidedly mutual. Mark

    benefited from it considerably in

    preparing his share of the guide.

    Finally, we have dedicated this book

    to Lt. Col. John F. Guilmartin Jr. (usaf,

    Ret.), who flew rescue helicopters dur-

    ing the Vietnam War, received the Silver

    Star for valor under fire, and received a

    PhD from Princeton (which, to hear him

    tell it, required considerable valor as

    well). A gifted historian, Joe is an even

    more gifted teacher. Steve had the privi-

    lege of studying under Joe at Rice Uni-

    versity. Mark had the same privilege at

    The Ohio State University and currently

    enjoys the pleasure of having Joe as a

    fellow colleague. Joe epitomizes the

    term soldier-scholar. He is also a gen-

    erous friend, a born raconteur, and a

    mean hand with a barbecue.

    The frontispiece of this book is from

    the collection of the Library of Congress

    Prints and Photographs Division. All

    other illustrations first appeared in

    Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, 4 vols.,

    ed. Robert Underwood Johnson and

    Clarence Clough Buel (New York: Cen-

    tury Co., 188788). The volume and

    page number from which each illustra-

    tion was taken appear at the end of

    each caption.

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  • For John F. Guilmartin Jr. Teacher, colleague, and friend

    On the skirmish line, blcw 1:465

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  • On the skirmish line, blcw 3:31

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  • Introduction

    People visit Civil War battlefields to see the ground. This

    guide, like its companion volumes in this series, is designed

    to help them understand what they see. With a little assis-

    tance, they can quickly discern how an almost imperceptible

    ridgeline could offer crucial advantages in terms of observa-

    tion and fields of fire. They can imagine how an ordinary

    patch of undergrowth could disrupt an orderly line of battle.

    They can perceive the significance of minor streams, ravines,

    and other terrain features that in peacetime easily pass un-

    noticed. In short, visitors can extend their appreciation of

    the battlefield well beyond the simple reading of plaques or

    contemplation of statues and monuments.

    Other guides exist, at least for some battlefields. But the

    one in your hands was carefully crafted to fill a niche be-

    tween the cursory overviews of the battle available in bro-

    chures or pamphlets and the detailed treatment of battle ter-

    rain and action offered in (for example) the series of U. S.

    Army War College guides, which were originally devised for

    professional officers. Although outstanding for that purpose,

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  • the War College guides consist primarily of contemporary

    after-action reports, which are often opaquely written, self-

    serving (the tendency of commanders to cover ones rear end

    is hardly a modern development), and require considerable

    self-study to master. By contrast, Shiloh: A Battlefield Guide is

    designed for people who are willing to invest a day exam-

    ining the battlefield but who are not necessarily experts

    though we believe even experts will learn a thing or two. The

    authors describe what happened, tell you why it mattered,

    and whenever possible emphasize the influence of terrain.

    Descriptions and maps convey the appearance of the battle-

    field in 1862, the