Shiloh: A Battlefield Guide (This Hallowed Ground: Guides to Civil Wa)

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<ul><li><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page i</p></li><li><p>This Hallowed Ground: Guides to Civil War Battlefields</p><p>S E R I E S E D I T O R S</p><p>Brooks D. Simpson</p><p>Arizona State University</p><p>Mark Grimsley</p><p>The Ohio State University</p><p>Steven E. Woodworth</p><p>Texas Christian University</p><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page ii</p></li><li><p>Cartography by Christopher L. Brest</p><p>University of Nebraska Press</p><p>Lincoln and London</p><p>SHILOH</p><p>A BATTLEFIELD GUIDE</p><p>BY MARK GRIMSLEY AND</p><p>STEVEN E. WOODWORTH </p><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page iii</p></li><li><p> 2006 by the Board of Regents of the University</p><p>of Nebraska. All rights reserved. Manufactured in</p><p>the United States of America.</p><p>Text set by G&amp;S Typesetters, Inc., in Linotype Swift,</p><p>designed by Gerard Unger, with Helvetica display.</p><p>Book designed by Richard Eckersley. Book printed</p><p>by Edwards Brothers, Inc.</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data</p><p>Grimsley, Mark.</p><p>Shiloh : a battlefield guide / by Mark Grimsley and</p><p>Steven E. Woodworth.</p><p>p. cm. (This hallowed ground : guides to Civil War</p><p>battlefields) Includes bibliographical references.</p><p>isbn-13: 978-0-8032-7100-5 (paperback : alk. paper)</p><p>isbn-10: 0-8032-7100-x (paperback : alkaline paper)</p><p>1. Shiloh, Battle of, Tenn., 1862. 2. Shiloh National</p><p>Military Park (Tenn.) Guidebooks. i. Woodworth,</p><p>Steven E. ii. Title. iii. This hallowed ground.</p><p>e473.54.g75 2006 976.8'04dc22 2005011383</p><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page iv</p></li><li><p>Acknowledgments viii</p><p>Introduction xi</p><p>How to Use This Guide xiii</p><p>The Shiloh Campaign: MarchApril 1862 3</p><p>overview of the first day, april 6, 1862 11</p><p>stop 1 Pittsburg Landing, March 1862 13</p><p>1a Union Commanders Select an Encampment, </p><p>March 17April 5 13</p><p>1b The Confederates Plan an Attack, March 15April 1 15</p><p>stop 2 Shiloh Church, April 45 17</p><p>stop 3 Fraley Field, April 6 20</p><p>3a Powells Reconnaissance, April 6, 3:005:30 a.m. 21</p><p>3b The Confederate Army Advances, April 35 23</p><p>3c Tonight We Will Water Our Horses in the Tennessee River,</p><p>April 6, 5:30 a.m. 24</p><p>stop 4 Peabodys Battle Line, 5:30 8:00 a.m. 27</p><p>stop 5 Peabodys Camp, 8:00 8:30 a.m. 30</p><p>Eastern Route, April 6 32</p><p>east stop 6 Spain Field, 7:3010:00 a.m. 32</p><p>6a Millers Brigade Deploys, 7:30 8:00 a.m. 33</p><p>6b Gladdens Brigade Attacks, 8:309:00 a.m. 35</p><p>6c The Collapse of Millers Defense, 8:309:00 a.m. 37</p><p>6d Chalmers and Jackson Redeploy, 9:0010:00 a.m. 39</p><p>east stop 7 McCullers Field, 10:0011:00 a.m. 41</p><p>east stop 8 Stuarts Defense, 11:0011:30 a.m. 43</p><p>east stop 9 The Peach Orchard, 7:30 a.m.2:30 p.m. 46</p><p>9a Hurlbut to the Rescue, 7:30 8:30 a.m. 47</p><p>9b Hurlbut Deploys, 8:309:30 a.m. 49</p><p>9c The First Attack, 9:0010:00 a.m. 51</p><p>9d The Formation of the Sunken Road Position, </p><p>10:0011:00 a.m. 53</p><p>9e A Few More Charges and the Day Is Ours, 12:302:00 p.m. 56</p><p>Contents</p><p>00-N3554-FM 12/2/05 10:33 AM Page v</p></li><li><p>9f The First Assaults, 2:002:30 p.m. 58</p><p>Hornets Nest Excursion 59</p><p>stop a 31st Indiana Infantry 60</p><p>stop b 12th Michigan Infantry 61</p><p>stop c Hickenloopers Battery 62</p><p>stop d Arkansas State Memorial 63</p><p>stop e Munchs Battery Monument 65</p><p>stop f 7th Iowa Infantry 66</p><p>stop g 2nd Iowa Infantry 67</p><p>east stop 10 The Collapse of the Union Left, 2:00 4:00 p.m. 69</p><p>east stop 11 Johnstons Death, 2:30 p.m. 71</p><p>Western Route, April 6 73</p><p>west stop 6 Rea Field, 6:00 8:00 a.m. 73</p><p>6a Shermans Division Is Attacked, 6:007:00 a.m. 74</p><p>6b The 53rd Ohio Fights and Retreats, 7:00 8:00 a.m. 77</p><p>west stop 7 Shiloh Branch, 6:00 8:00 a.m. 80</p><p>west stop 8 Ridge near Shiloh Church 83</p><p>8a Bucklands Brigade Holds Fast, 8:3010:00 a.m. 84</p><p>8b Shermans Division Fights and Falls Back, 8:0010:00 a.m. 86</p><p>west stop 9 On the Hamburg-Purdy Road, 10:3011:00 a.m. 89</p><p>west stop 10 Review Field, 10:3011:00 a.m. 92</p><p>west stop 11 McClernands Camps 95</p><p>11a The Confederates Advance, 11:0011:30 a.m. 96</p><p>11b The Federals Counterattack, 11:30 a.m.1:00 p.m. 98</p><p>west stop 12 Duncan Field, 10:00 a.m. 4:30 p.m. 101</p><p>west stop 13 Hells Hollow, 4:005:00 p.m. 105</p><p>stop 14 Grants Last Line, 5 :00 6:30 p.m. 108</p><p>Dill Branch Excursion 111</p><p>overview of the second day, april 7, 1862 113</p><p>Eastern Route, April 7 115</p><p>east stop 15 The Line of Departure, 5:00 a.m. 115</p><p>east stop 16 Wicker Field, 5:0010:00 a.m. 117</p><p>00-N3554-FM 12/2/05 10:33 AM Page vi</p></li><li><p>east stop 17 Bloody Pond, 10:0011:00 a.m. 119</p><p>east stop 18 Davis Wheat Field 122</p><p>18a The Federals Attack, 10:3011:30 a.m. 123</p><p>18b The Confederates Counterattack, 11:30 a.m. 12:00 noon 125</p><p>Western Route, April 7 126</p><p>west stop 15 Lew Wallaces Approach, April 6, 12:00 noon7:15 p.m. 126</p><p>west stop 16 Tilghman Branch, 6:309:00 a.m. 130</p><p>west stop 17 Jones Field, 9:00 a.m.12:00 noon 132</p><p>west stop 18 Sowell Field, 12:00 noon 135</p><p>west stop 19 Water Oaks Pond, 12:00 noon2:00 p.m. 138</p><p>afterword The Corinth Campaign, April 8May 30, 1862 141</p><p>appendix a The Union and Confederate Commands on April 6, 1862 145</p><p>appendix b Orders of Battle 151</p><p>appendix c Organization, Weapons, and Tactics 156</p><p>Sources 167</p><p>For Further Reading 171</p><p>00-N3554-FM 12/2/05 10:33 AM Page vii</p></li><li><p>Acknowledgments</p><p>The authors would like to extend their</p><p>sincere appreciation to Stacy D. Allen,</p><p>the National Park Service historian at</p><p>Shiloh National Military Park. Stacy</p><p>probably knows more about the battle</p><p>than anyone, living or dead, and his as-</p><p>sistance has greatly improved this</p><p>guide.</p><p>During the summer of 1998, Mark</p><p>Grimsley conducted a staff ride of the</p><p>battlefield with the officer cadre of the</p><p>3/502nd Infantry Battalion, then com-</p><p>manded by Lt. Col. William O. Odom. As</p><p>always in such cases, the learning expe-</p><p>rience was decidedly mutual. Mark</p><p>benefited from it considerably in</p><p>preparing his share of the guide.</p><p>Finally, we have dedicated this book</p><p>to Lt. Col. John F. Guilmartin Jr. (usaf,</p><p>Ret.), who flew rescue helicopters dur-</p><p>ing the Vietnam War, received the Silver</p><p>Star for valor under fire, and received a</p><p>PhD from Princeton (which, to hear him</p><p>tell it, required considerable valor as</p><p>well). A gifted historian, Joe is an even</p><p>more gifted teacher. Steve had the privi-</p><p>lege of studying under Joe at Rice Uni-</p><p>versity. Mark had the same privilege at</p><p>The Ohio State University and currently</p><p>enjoys the pleasure of having Joe as a</p><p>fellow colleague. Joe epitomizes the</p><p>term soldier-scholar. He is also a gen-</p><p>erous friend, a born raconteur, and a</p><p>mean hand with a barbecue.</p><p>The frontispiece of this book is from</p><p>the collection of the Library of Congress</p><p>Prints and Photographs Division. All</p><p>other illustrations first appeared in</p><p>Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, 4 vols.,</p><p>ed. Robert Underwood Johnson and</p><p>Clarence Clough Buel (New York: Cen-</p><p>tury Co., 188788). The volume and</p><p>page number from which each illustra-</p><p>tion was taken appear at the end of</p><p>each caption.</p><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page viii</p></li><li><p>For John F. Guilmartin Jr. Teacher, colleague, and friend</p><p>On the skirmish line, blcw 1:465</p><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page ix</p></li><li><p>On the skirmish line, blcw 3:31</p><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page x</p></li><li><p>Introduction</p><p>People visit Civil War battlefields to see the ground. This</p><p>guide, like its companion volumes in this series, is designed</p><p>to help them understand what they see. With a little assis-</p><p>tance, they can quickly discern how an almost imperceptible</p><p>ridgeline could offer crucial advantages in terms of observa-</p><p>tion and fields of fire. They can imagine how an ordinary</p><p>patch of undergrowth could disrupt an orderly line of battle.</p><p>They can perceive the significance of minor streams, ravines,</p><p>and other terrain features that in peacetime easily pass un-</p><p>noticed. In short, visitors can extend their appreciation of</p><p>the battlefield well beyond the simple reading of plaques or</p><p>contemplation of statues and monuments.</p><p>Other guides exist, at least for some battlefields. But the</p><p>one in your hands was carefully crafted to fill a niche be-</p><p>tween the cursory overviews of the battle available in bro-</p><p>chures or pamphlets and the detailed treatment of battle ter-</p><p>rain and action offered in (for example) the series of U. S.</p><p>Army War College guides, which were originally devised for</p><p>professional officers. Although outstanding for that purpose,</p><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page xi</p></li><li><p>the War College guides consist primarily of contemporary </p><p>after-action reports, which are often opaquely written, self-</p><p>serving (the tendency of commanders to cover ones rear end</p><p>is hardly a modern development), and require considerable</p><p>self-study to master. By contrast, Shiloh: A Battlefield Guide is</p><p>designed for people who are willing to invest a day exam-</p><p>ining the battlefield but who are not necessarily experts</p><p>though we believe even experts will learn a thing or two. The</p><p>authors describe what happened, tell you why it mattered,</p><p>and whenever possible emphasize the influence of terrain.</p><p>Descriptions and maps convey the appearance of the battle-</p><p>field in 1862, the position of the contending forces, and the</p><p>action in various areas on the field. Although the guide is not</p><p>an exhaustive treatment of the entire engagement, it ex-</p><p>plores the major (and some of the not-so-major) fighting that</p><p>made up the battle of Shiloh.</p><p>Finally, while users might benefit from perusing the guide</p><p>before visiting the battlefield, such preparation is not essen-</p><p>tial. One can simply pick up the guide, drive out to the battle-</p><p>field, and begin touring immediately.</p><p>The main tour can be completed in approximately six</p><p>hours. Also included are two walking excursions, including</p><p>one to the so-called Hornets Nest, or Sunken Road. Short</p><p>summaries of the campaign and of each days operations help</p><p>establish context. At the end of the guide, there is an abbre-</p><p>viated order of battle listing the units present on the field, a</p><p>glossary of terms, a discussion of tactics and weaponry, and</p><p>a bibliography for further reading.</p><p>xii Introduction</p><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page xii</p></li><li><p>How to Use This Guide</p><p>This book is divided into 29 main stops. These proceed from</p><p>one part of the battlefield to another in chronological order.</p><p>That is, the tour follows the battle as it progressed, from the</p><p>morning of April 6 through the afternoon of April 7. Most</p><p>stops require about 10 to 15 minutes to complete. A few, such</p><p>as the Peach Orchard, take a bit longer. Only a few stops re-</p><p>quire users to walk more than 50 yards from their car.</p><p>Some of the main stops are divided into two or more sub-</p><p>stops. Substops seldom ask you to do much additional walk-</p><p>ing. They are simply designed to develop the action at each</p><p>point in a clear, organized fashion, and there are as many</p><p>substops as required to do the job. In the guidebook, each</p><p>substop has a section of text married to a map. This tech-</p><p>nique enables you to visualize the troop dispositions and</p><p>movements at each stop without having to flip around the</p><p>guide looking for maps.</p><p>The stops and substops follow a standard format: Direc-</p><p>tions, Orientation, What Happened, Analysis, and/or Vignette.</p><p>The Directions tell you how to get from one stop to the</p><p>next (and sometimes from one substop to another). They not</p><p>only give you driving instructions but also ask you, once you</p><p>have reached a given stop, to walk to a precise spot on the</p><p>battlefield. When driving, keep an eye on your odometer;</p><p>many distances are given to the nearest tenth of a mile. Im-</p><p>portant note: The directions often suggest points of interest</p><p>en route from one stop to another. We have found that it</p><p>works best to give the directions to a given stop first and then</p><p>mention the points of interest. These are always introduced</p><p>by the italicized words en route.</p><p>Orientation. Once youve reached a stop, this section de-</p><p>scribes the terrain around you so that you can quickly pick</p><p>out the key terrain and get your bearings.</p><p>What Happened. This is the heart of each stop. It explains</p><p>the action succinctly without becoming simplistic, and when-</p><p>ever possible it also explains how the terrain affected the</p><p>fighting.</p><p>Many stops have a section called Analysis, which explains</p><p>why a particular decision was made, why a given attack met</p><p>with success or failure, and so on. The purpose is to give you</p><p>additional insight into the battle.</p><p>Others have a section called Vignette, whose purpose is </p><p>to enhance your emotional understanding of the battle by </p><p>offering a short eyewitness account or a particularly vivid </p><p>anecdote.</p><p>Although the basic tour can be completed in about six</p><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page xiii</p></li><li><p>hours, you can also take Excursions to places of special in-</p><p>terest. These sections use the same format as the basic stops.</p><p>A few conventions are used in the guidebook to keep con-</p><p>fusion to a minimum. We have tried not to burden the text</p><p>with a proliferation of names and unit designations. They are</p><p>used as sparingly as a solid understanding of the battle per-</p><p>mits. Names of Confederate leaders and field units are in ital-</p><p>ics. The full name and rank of each individual is usually</p><p>given only the first time he is mentioned; the Order of Battle</p><p>in the back of the book can remind you of precise ranks when</p><p>needed.</p><p>Directions are particularly important in a guidebook, but</p><p>we know that they can often be confusing. We have therefore</p><p>tried to make them as foolproof as possible. At each stop </p><p>you are asked to face a specific, easily identifiable landmark.</p><p>From that point you may be asked to look to your left or</p><p>right. To make this as precise as possible, we may sometimes</p><p>ask you to look to your left front, left, left rear, or such, ac-</p><p>cording to the system shown below:</p><p>straight ahead</p><p>left front right front</p><p>left right</p><p>left rear right rear</p><p>behind/directly to the rear</p><p>Often, after the relative directions (left, right, etc.), we add</p><p>the compass directions (north, south, etc.) in parentheses.</p><p>The maps can also help you get your bearings.</p><p>The many War Department tablets are also excellent tools</p><p>for understanding the battlefield. Those outlined in blue rep-</p><p>resent units belonging to Grants army (identified for the</p><p>sake of convenience as the Army of the Tennessee, though it</p><p>did not officially acquire that name until after the battle);</p><p>those in red correspond to units belonging to the Confeder-</p><p>ate army (dubbed the Army of the Mississippi); those in yel-</p><p>low indicate units belonging to Buells army (the Army of the</p><p>Ohio). Square tablets designate positions occupied during</p><p>the first days battle. Oval tablets identify positions occupied</p><p>on the second day.</p><p>Monuments commemorate many Union regiments (and a</p><p>few Confederate ones), each placed at a key point where a</p><p>unit fought, usually its main line of defense. The monument</p><p>itself usually occupies the center of the position. The direc-</p><p>tions routinely use War Department tablets, National Park</p><p>Service interpretive markers, and monuments to help you</p><p>orient yourself.</p><p>xiv How to Use This Guide</p><p>00-N3554-FM 11/10/05 5:22 AM Page xiv</p></li><li><p>Although this guidebook is intended primarily for use </p><p>on the battlefield, it also contains information helpful for</p><p>further study of the battle. A campaign introduction at the</p><p>beginning of the book describes the action that preceded Shi-</p><p>loh; a similar section at the end tells what happened after-</p><p>ward. The stops for each day are preceded by overviews that</p><p>outline the days main developments.</p><p>One final note: Each guide...</p></li></ul>

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